10 CFR Appendix K to Part 110, Illustrative List of Equipment and Components Under NRC Export Licensing Authority for Use in a Plant for the Production of Heavy Water, Deuterium and Deuterium Compounds

Appendix K to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Equipment and Components Under NRC Export Licensing Authority for Use in a Plant for the Production of Heavy Water, Deuterium and Deuterium Compounds
Note:

Heavy water can be produced by a variety of processes. However, two processes have proven to be commercially viable: The water-hydrogen sulphide exchange process (GS process) and the ammonia-hydrogen exchange process.

A. The GS process is based upon the exchange of hydrogen and deuterium between water and hydrogen sulphide within a series of towers which are operated with the top section cold and the bottom section hot. Water flows down the towers while the hydrogen sulphide gas circulates from the bottom to the top of the towers. A series of perforated trays are used to promote mixing between the gas and the water. Deuterium migrates to the water at low temperatures and to the hydrogen sulphide at high temperatures. Gas or water, enriched in deuterium, is removed from the first stage towers at the junction of the hot and cold sections and the process is repeated in subsequent stage towers. The product of the last stage, water enriched up to 30 percent in deuterium, is sent to a distillation unit to produce reactor grade heavy water; i.e., 99.75 percent deuterium oxide.

B. The ammonia-hydrogen exchange process can extract deuterium from synthesis gas through contact with liquid ammonia in the presence of a catalyst. The synthesis gas is fed into exchange towers and then to an ammonia converter. Inside the towers the gas flows from the bottom to the top while the liquid ammonia flows from the top to the bottom. The deuterium is stripped from the hydrogen in the synthesis gas and concentrated in the ammonia. The ammonia then flows into an ammonia cracker at the bottom of the tower while the gas flows into an ammonia converter at the top. Further enrichment takes place in subsequent stages and reactor-grade heavy water is produced through final distillation. The synthesis gas feed can be provided by an ammonia plant that can be constructed in association with a heavy water ammonia-hydrogen exchange plant. The ammonia-hydrogen exchange process can also use ordinary water as a feed source of deuterium.

C.1. Much of the key equipment for heavy water production plants using either the GS process or the ammonia-hydrogen exchange process are common to several segments of the chemical and petroleum industries; particularly in small plants using the GS process. However, few items are available “off-the-shelf.” Both processes require the handling of large quantities of flammable, corrosive, and toxic fluids at elevated pressures. Therefore, in establishing the design and operating standards for plants and equipment using these processes, careful attention to materials selection and specifications is required to ensure long service life with high safety and reliability factors. The choice is primarily a function of economics and need. Most equipment, therefore, is prepared to customer requirements.

In both processes, equipment which individually is not especially designed or prepared for heavy water production can be assembled into especially designed or prepared systems for producing heavy water. Examples of such systems are the catalyst production system used in the ammonia-hydrogen exchange process and the water distillation systems used for the final concentration of heavy water to reactor-grade in either process.

C.2. Equipment especially designed or prepared for the production of heavy water utilizing either the water-hydrogen sulphide exchange process or the ammonia-hydrogen exchange process:

(i) Water-hydrogen Sulphide Exchange Towers.

Exchange towers with diameters of 1.5 m or greater and capable of operating at pressures greater than or equal to 2 MPa (300 psi) especially designed or prepared for heavy water production utilizing the water-hydrogen sulphide exchange process.

(ii) Blowers and Compressors.

Single stage, low head (i.e., 0.2 MPa or 30 psi) centrifugal blowers or compressors for hydrogen-sulphide gas circulation (i.e., gas containing more than 70 percent H2S). The blowers or compressors have a throughput capacity greater than or equal to 56 m 3/second (120,000 standard cubic feet per minute) while operating at pressures greater than or equal to 1.8 MPa (260 psi) suction and have seals designed for wet H2S service.

(iii) Ammonia-Hydrogen Exchange Towers.

Ammonia-hydrogen exchange towers greater than or equal to 35 m (114.3 ft) in height with diameters of 1.5 m (4.9 ft) to 2.5 m (8.2 ft) capable of operating at pressures greater than 15 MPa (2225 psi). The towers have at least one flanged, axial opening of the same diameter as the cylindrical part through which the tower internals can be inserted or withdrawn.

(iv) Tower Internals and Stage Pumps Used in the Ammonia-hydrogen Exchange Process.

Tower internals include especially designed stage contactors which promote intimate gas/liquid contact. Stage pumps include especially designed submersible pumps for circulation of liquid ammonia within a contacting stage internal to the stage towers.

(v) Ammonia Crackers Utilizing the Ammonia-hydrogen Exchange Process.

Ammonia crackers with operating pressures greater than or equal to 3 MPa (450 psi) especially designed or prepared for heavy water production utilizing the ammonia-hydrogen exchange process.

(vi) Ammonia Synthesis Converters or Synthesis Units.

Ammonia synthesis converters or synthesis units especially designed or prepared for heavy water production utilizing the ammonia-hydrogen exchange process.

These converters or units take synthesis gas (nitrogen and hydrogen) from an ammonia/hydrogen high-pressure exchange column (or columns), and the synthesized ammonia is returned to the exchange column (or columns).

(vii) Infrared Absorption Analyzers.

Infrared absorption analyzers capable of “on-line” hydrogen/deuterium ratio analysis where deuterium concentrations are equal to or greater than 90 percent.

(viii) Catalytic Burners Used in the Ammonia-hydrogen Exchange Process.

Catalytic burners for the conversion of enriched deuterium gas into heavy water especially designed or prepared for heavy water production utilizing the ammonia-hydrogen exchange process.

(ix) Complete Heavy Water Upgrade Systems or Columns.

Complete heavy water upgrade systems or columns especially designed or prepared for the upgrade of heavy water to reactor-grade deuterium concentration. These systems, which usually employ water distillation to separate heavy water from light water, are especially designed or prepared to produce reactor-grade heavy water (i.e., typically 99.75 percent deuterium oxide) from heavy water feedstock of lesser concentration.

D. Any other components especially designed or prepared for use in a plant for the production of heavy water, deuterium, and deuterium compounds or in any of the components described in this appendix.

[ 79 FR 39298, July 10, 2014]

This is a list of United States Code sections, Statutes at Large, Public Laws, and Presidential Documents, which provide rulemaking authority for this CFR Part.

This list is taken from the Parallel Table of Authorities and Rules provided by GPO [Government Printing Office].

It is not guaranteed to be accurate or up-to-date, though we do refresh the database weekly. More limitations on accuracy are described at the GPO site.


United States Code
U.S. Code: Title 5 - GOVERNMENT ORGANIZATION AND EMPLOYEES
U.S. Code: Title 22 - FOREIGN RELATIONS AND INTERCOURSE
U.S. Code: Title 42 - THE PUBLIC HEALTH AND WELFARE

§ 2071 - Determination of other material as special nuclear material; Presidential assent; effective date

§ 2073 - Domestic distribution of special nuclear material

§ 2074 - Foreign distribution of special nuclear material

§ 2077 - Unauthorized dealings in special nuclear material

§ 2092 - License requirements for transfers

§ 2093 - Domestic distribution of source material

§ 2094 - Foreign distribution of source material

§ 2095 - Reports

§ 2111 - Domestic distribution

§ 2112 - Foreign distribution of byproduct material

§ 2133 - Commercial licenses

§ 2134 - Medical, industrial, and commercial licenses

§ 2139 - Component and other parts of facilities

§ 2139a - Regulations implementing requirements relating to licensing for components and other parts of facilities

§ 2141 - Licensing by Nuclear Regulatory Commission of distribution of special nuclear material, source material, and byproduct material by Department of Energy

§ 2151 - Effect of international arrangements

§ 2152 - Policies contained in international arrangements

§ 2153 - Cooperation with other nations

§ 2153a - Approval for enrichment after export of source or special nuclear material; export of major critical components of enrichment facilities

§ 2153b - Export policies relating to peaceful nuclear activities and international nuclear trade

§ 2153c - Renegotiation of agreements for cooperation

§ 2153d - Authority to continue agreements for cooperation entered into prior to March 10, 1978

§ 2153e - Protection of environment

§ 2153e-1

§ 2153f - Savings clause; Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act of 1978

§ 2154 - International atomic pool

§ 2155 - Export licensing procedures

§ 2155a - Regulations establishing Commission procedures covering grant, suspension, revocation, or amendment of nuclear export licenses or exemptions

§ 2156 - Criteria governing United States nuclear exports

§ 2156a - Regulations establishing levels of physical security to protect facilities and material

§ 2157 - Additional export criterion and procedures

§ 2158 - Conduct resulting in termination of nuclear exports

§ 2159 - Congressional review procedures

§ 2160 - Subsequent arrangements

§ 2160a - Review of Nuclear Proliferation Assessment Statements

§ 2160b - Authority to suspend nuclear cooperation with nations which have not ratified the Convention on the Physical Security of Nuclear Material

§ 2160c - Consultation with Department of Defense concerning certain exports and subsequent arrangements

§ 2160d - Further restrictions on exports

§ 2201 - General duties of Commission

§ 2231 - Applicability of administrative procedure provisions; definitions

§ 2232 - License applications

§ 2233 - Terms of licenses

§ 2234 - Inalienability of licenses

§ 2236 - Revocation of licenses

§ 2237 - Modification of license

§ 2239 - Hearings and judicial review

§ 2243 - Licensing of uranium enrichment facilities

§ 2273 - Violation of sections

§ 2282 - Civil penalties

§ 5841 - Establishment and transfers

U.S. Code: Title 44 - PUBLIC PRINTING AND DOCUMENTS
Statutes at Large

Title 10 published on 10-May-2017 03:48

The following are ALL rules, proposed rules, and notices (chronologically) published in the Federal Register relating to 10 CFR Part 110 after this date.

  • 2015-12-01; vol. 80 # 230 - Tuesday, December 1, 2015
    1. 80 FR 74974 - Miscellaneous Corrections
      GPO FDSys XML | Text
      NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION
      Final rule.
      This rule is effective December 31, 2015.
      10 CFR Parts 1, 2, 4, 7, 9, 11, 15, 19, 20, 21, 25, 26, 30, 32, 37, 40, 50, 51, 52, 55, 60, 61, 62, 63, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 76, 81, 95, 100, 110, 140, 150, 170, and 171