12 CFR § 217.202 - Definitions.
(b) For the purposes of this subpart, the following terms are defined as follows:
Backtesting means the comparison of a Board-regulated institution's internal estimates with actual outcomes during a sample period not used in model development. For purposes of this subpart, backtesting is one form of out-of-sample testing.
Commodity position means a position for which price risk arises from changes in the price of a commodity.
Corporate debt position means a debt position that is an exposure to a company that is not a sovereign entity, the Bank for International Settlements, the European Central Bank, the European Commission, the International Monetary Fund, the European Stability Mechanism, the European Financial Stability Facility, a multilateral development bank, a depository institution, a foreign bank, a credit union, a public sector entity, a GSE, or a securitization.
Correlation trading position means:
(1) A securitization position for which all or substantially all of the value of the underlying exposures is based on the credit quality of a single company for which a two-way market exists, or on commonly traded indices based on such exposures for which a two-way market exists on the indices; or
(3) A correlation trading position does not include:
(i) A resecuritization position;
(iii) A securitization position for which the underlying assets or reference exposures are retail exposures, residential mortgage exposures, or commercial mortgage exposures.
Covered position means the following positions:
(1) A trading asset or trading liability (whether on- or off-balance sheet), 32 as reported on Schedule RC-D of the Call Report or Schedule HC-D of the FR Y-9C (any savings and loan holding companies that does not file the FR Y-9C should follow the instructions to the FR Y-9C), that meets the following conditions:
32 Securities subject to repurchase and lending agreements are included as if they are still owned by the lender.
(2) A foreign exchange or commodity position, regardless of whether the position is a trading asset or trading liability (excluding any structural foreign currency positions that the Board-regulated institution chooses to exclude with prior supervisory approval); and
(3) Notwithstanding paragraphs (1) and (2) of this definition, a covered position does not include:
(i) An intangible asset, including any servicing asset;
(iii) Any position that, in form or substance, acts as a liquidity facility that provides support to asset-backed commercial paper;
(vi) Any equity position that is not publicly traded, other than a derivative that references a publicly traded equity and other than a position in an investment company as defined in and registered with the SEC under the Investment Company Act of 1940 (15 U.S.C. 80a-1 et seq.), provided that all the underlying equities held by the investment company are publicly traded;
(vii) Any equity position that is not publicly traded, other than a derivative that references a publicly traded equity and other than a position in an entity not domiciled in the United States (or a political subdivision thereof) that is supervised and regulated in a manner similar to entities described in paragraph (3)(vi) of this definition;
(viii) Any position a Board-regulated institution holds with the intent to securitize; or
(ix) Any direct real estate holding.
Debt position means a covered position that is not a securitization position or a correlation trading position and that has a value that reacts primarily to changes in interest rates or credit spreads.
Event risk means the risk of loss on equity or hybrid equity positions as a result of a financial event, such as the announcement or occurrence of a company merger, acquisition, spin-off, or dissolution.
Foreign exchange position means a position for which price risk arises from changes in foreign exchange rates.
General market risk means the risk of loss that could result from broad market movements, such as changes in the general level of interest rates, credit spreads, equity prices, foreign exchange rates, or commodity prices.
Hedge means a position or positions that offset all, or substantially all, of one or more material risk factors of another position.
Idiosyncratic risk means the risk of loss in the value of a position that arises from changes in risk factors unique to that position.
Incremental risk means the default risk and credit migration risk of a position. Default risk means the risk of loss on a position that could result from the failure of an obligor to make timely payments of principal or interest on its debt obligation, and the risk of loss that could result from bankruptcy, insolvency, or similar proceeding. Credit migration risk means the price risk that arises from significant changes in the underlying credit quality of the position.
Market risk means the risk of loss on a position that could result from movements in market prices.
Resecuritization position means a covered position that is:
(1) An on- or off-balance sheet exposure to a resecuritization; or
(2) An exposure that directly or indirectly references a resecuritization exposure in paragraph (1) of this definition.
Securitization means a transaction in which:
(1) All or a portion of the credit risk of one or more underlying exposures is transferred to one or more third parties;
(2) The credit risk associated with the underlying exposures has been separated into at least two tranches that reflect different levels of seniority;
(4) All or substantially all of the underlying exposures are financial exposures (such as loans, commitments, credit derivatives, guarantees, receivables, asset-backed securities, mortgage-backed securities, other debt securities, or equity securities);
(8) The Board may determine that a transaction in which the underlying exposures are owned by an investment firm that exercises substantially unfettered control over the size and composition of its assets, liabilities, and off-balance sheet exposures is not a securitization based on the transaction's leverage, risk profile, or economic substance;
(9) The Board may deem an exposure to a transaction that meets the definition of a securitization, notwithstanding paragraph (5), (6), or (7) of this definition, to be a securitization based on the transaction's leverage, risk profile, or economic substance; and
(10) The transaction is not:
(i) An investment fund;
(iii) An employee benefit plan as defined in paragraphs (3) and (32) of section 3 of ERISA, a “governmental plan” (as defined in 29 U.S.C. 1002(32)) that complies with the tax deferral qualification requirements provided in the Internal Revenue Code, or any similar employee benefit plan established under the laws of a foreign jurisdiction; or
Securitization position means a covered position that is:
(1) An on-balance sheet or off-balance sheet credit exposure (including credit-enhancing representations and warranties) that arises from a securitization (including a resecuritization); or
(2) An exposure that directly or indirectly references a securitization exposure described in paragraph (1) of this definition.
Sovereign debt position means a direct exposure to a sovereign entity.
Structural position in a foreign currency means a position that is not a trading position and that is:
(1) Subordinated debt, equity, or minority interest in a consolidated subsidiary that is denominated in a foreign currency;
(2) Capital assigned to foreign branches that is denominated in a foreign currency;
(3) A position related to an unconsolidated subsidiary or another item that is denominated in a foreign currency and that is deducted from the Board-regulated institution's tier 1 or tier 2 capital; or
Trading position means a position that is held by the Board-regulated institution for the purpose of short-term resale or with the intent of benefiting from actual or expected short-term price movements, or to lock in arbitrage profits.
Two-way market means a market where there are independent bona fide offers to buy and sell so that a price reasonably related to the last sales price or current bona fide competitive bid and offer quotations can be determined within one day and settled at that price within a relatively short time frame conforming to trade custom.
Value-at-Risk (VaR) means the estimate of the maximum amount that the value of one or more positions could decline due to market price or rate movements during a fixed holding period within a stated confidence interval.
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