12 CFR 229.21 - Civil liability.
(a) Civil liability. A bank that fails to comply with any requirement imposed under subpart B, and in connection therewith, subpart A, of this part or any provision of state law that supersedes any provision of subpart B, and in connection therewith, subpart A, with respect to any person is liable to that person in an amount equal to the sum of -
(1) Any actual damage sustained by that person as a result of the failure;
(2) Such additional amount as the court may allow, except that -
(i) In the case of an individual action, liability under this paragraph shall not be less than $100 nor greater than $1,000; and
(ii) In the case of a class action -
(A) No minimum recovery shall be applicable to each member of the class; and
(B) The total recovery under this paragraph in any class action or series of class actions arising out of the same failure to comply by the same depositary bank shall not be more than the lesser of $500,000 or 1 percent of the net worth of the bank involved; and
(3) In the case of a successful action to enforce the foregoing liability, the costs of the action, together with a reasonable attorney's fee as determined by the court.
(b) Class action awards. In determining the amount of any award in any class action, the court shall consider, among other relevant factors -
(1) The amount of any damages awarded;
(2) The frequency and persistence of failures of compliance;
(3) The resources of the bank;
(4) The number of persons adversely affected; and
(5) The extent to which the failure of compliance was intentional.
(c) Bona fide errors -
(1) General rule. A bank is not liable in any action brought under this section for a violation of this subpart if the bank demonstrates by a preponderance of the evidence that the violation was not intentional and resulted from a bona fide error, notwithstanding the maintenance of procedures reasonably adapted to avoid any such error.
(2) Examples. Examples of a bona fide error include clerical, calculation, computer malfunction and programming, and printing errors, except that an error of legal judgment with respect to the bank's obligation under this subpart is not a bona fide error.
(d) Jurisdiction. Any action under this section may be brought in any United States district court or in any other court of competent jurisdiction, and shall be brought within one year after the date of the occurrence of the violation involved.
(e) Reliance on Board rulings. No provision of this subpart imposing any liability shall apply to any act done or omitted in good faith in conformity with any rule, regulation, or interpretation thereof by the Board, regardless of whether such rule, regulation, or interpretation is amended, rescinded, or determined by judicial or other authority to be invalid for any reason after the act or omission has occurred.
(f) Exclusions. This section does not apply to claims that arise under subpart C of this part or to actions for wrongful dishonor.
(g) Record retention.
(1) A bank shall retain evidence of compliance with the requirements imposed by this subpart for not less than two years. Records may be stored by use of microfiche, microfilm, magnetic tape, or other methods capable of accurately retaining and reproducing information.
(2) If a bank has actual notice that it is being investigated, or is subject to an enforcement proceeding by an agency charged with monitoring that bank's compliance with the EFA Act and this subpart, or has been served with notice of an action filed under this section, it shall retain the records pertaining to the action or proceeding pending final disposition of the matter, unless an earlier time is allowed by order of the agency or court.