12 CFR § 330.5 - Recognition of deposit ownership and fiduciary relationships.
(a) Recognition of deposit ownership -
(1) Evidence of deposit ownership. Except as indicated in this paragraph (a)(1) or as provided in § 330.3(j), in determining the amount of insurance available to each depositor, the FDIC shall presume that deposited funds are actually owned in the manner indicated on the deposit account records of the insured depository institution. If the FDIC, in its sole discretion, determines that the deposit account records of the insured depository institution are clear and unambiguous, those records shall be considered binding on the depositor, and the FDIC shall consider no other records on the manner in which the funds are owned. If the deposit account records are ambiguous or unclear on the manner in which the funds are owned, then the FDIC may, in its sole discretion, consider evidence other than the deposit account records of the insured depository institution for the purpose of establishing the manner in which the funds are owned. Despite the general requirements of this paragraph (a)(1), if the FDIC has reason to believe that the insured depository institution's deposit account records misrepresent the actual ownership of deposited funds and such misrepresentation would increase deposit insurance coverage, the FDIC may consider all available evidence and pay claims for insured deposits on the basis of the actual rather than the misrepresented ownership.
(2) Recognition of deposit ownership in custodial accounts. In the case of custodial deposits, the interest of each beneficial owner may be determined on a fractional or percentage basis. This may be accomplished in any manner which indicates that where the funds of an owner are commingled with other funds held in a custodial capacity and a portion thereof is placed on deposit in one or more insured depository institutions without allocation, the owner's insured interest in the deposit in any one insured depository institution would represent, at any given time, the same fractional share as his or her share of the total commingled funds.
(b) Fiduciary relationships -
(1) Recognition. The FDIC will recognize a claim for insurance coverage based on a fiduciary relationship only if the relationship is expressly disclosed, by way of specific references, in the “deposit account records” (as defined in § 330.1(e)) of the insured depository institution. Such relationships include, but are not limited to, relationships involving a trustee, agent, nominee, guardian, executor or custodian pursuant to which funds are deposited. The express indication that the account is held in a fiduciary capacity will not be necessary, however, in instances where the FDIC determines, in its sole discretion, that the titling of the deposit account and the underlying deposit account records sufficiently indicate the existence of a fiduciary relationship. This exception may apply, for example, where the deposit account title or records indicate that the account is held by an escrow agent, title company or a company whose business is to hold deposits and securities for others.
(2) Details of fiduciary relationships. If the deposit account records of an insured depository institution disclose the existence of a relationship which might provide a basis for additional insurance (including the exception provided for in paragraph (b)(1) of this section), the details of the relationship and the interests of other parties in the account must be ascertainable either from the deposit account records of the insured depository institution or from records maintained, in good faith and in the regular course of business, by the depositor or by some person or entity that has undertaken to maintain such records for the depositor.
(3) Multi-tiered fiduciary relationships. In deposit accounts where there are multiple levels of fiduciary relationships, there are two methods of satisfying paragraphs (b)(1) and (b)(2) of this section to obtain insurance coverage for the interests of the true beneficial owners of a deposit account.
(i) One method is to:
(A) Expressly indicate, on the deposit account records of the insured depository institution, the existence of each and every level of fiduciary relationships; and
(B) Disclose, at each level, the name(s) and interest(s) of the person(s) on whose behalf the party at that level is acting.
(ii) An alternative method is to:
(A) Expressly indicate, on the deposit account records of the insured depository institution, that there are multiple levels of fiduciary relationships;
(B) Disclose the existence of additional levels of fiduciary relationships in records, maintained in good faith and in the regular course of business, by parties at subsequent levels; and
(C) Disclose, at each of the levels, the name(s) and interest(s) of the person(s) on whose behalf the party at that level is acting. No person or entity in the chain of parties will be permitted to claim that they are acting in a fiduciary capacity for others unless the possible existence of such a relationship is revealed at some previous level in the chain.
(4) Exceptions -
(i) Deposits evidenced by negotiable instruments. If any deposit obligation of an insured depository institution is evidenced by a negotiable certificate of deposit, negotiable draft, negotiable cashier's or officer's check, negotiable certified check, negotiable traveler's check, letter of credit or other negotiable instrument, the FDIC will recognize the owner of such deposit obligation for all purposes of claim for insured deposits to the same extent as if his or her name and interest were disclosed on the records of the insured depository institution; provided, that the instrument was in fact negotiated to such owner prior to the date of default of the insured depository institution. The owner must provide affirmative proof of such negotiation, in a form satisfactory to the FDIC, to substantiate his or her claim. Receipt of a negotiable instrument directly from the insured depository institution in default shall, in no event, be considered a negotiation of said instrument for purposes of this provision.
(ii) Deposit obligations for payment of items forwarded for collection by depository institution acting as agent. Where an insured depository institution in default has become obligated for the payment of items forwarded for collection by a depository institution acting solely as agent, the FDIC will recognize the holders of such items for all purposes of claim for insured deposits to the same extent as if their name(s) and interest(s) were disclosed as depositors on the deposit account records of the insured depository institution, when such claim for insured deposits, if otherwise payable, has been established by the execution and delivery of prescribed forms. The FDIC will recognize such depository institution forwarding such items for the holders thereof as agent for such holders for the purpose of making an assignment to the FDIC of their rights against the insured depository institution in default and for the purpose of receiving payment on their behalf.