14 CFR 171.261 - Localizer performance requirements.
This section prescribes the performance requirements for localizer equipment components of the ISMLS.
(a) The localizer antenna system must:
(1) Be located on the extension of the centerline of the runway at the stop end;
(2) Be adjusted so that the course line be on a vertical plane containing the centerline of the runway served;
(3) Have the minimum height necessary to comply with the coverage requirements prescribed in paragraph (j) of this section;
(4) Be located at a distance from the stop end of the runway that is consistent with safe obstruction clearance practices;
(5) Not obscure any light of the approach landing system; and
(6) Be installed on frangible mounts or beyond the 1000′ light bar.
(b) On runways where limited terrain prevents the localizer antennae from being positioned on the runway centerline extended, and the cost of the land fill or a tall tower antenna support is prohibitive, the localizer antenna array may be offset, including a collocated ground station, so that the course intercepts the centerline at a point determined by the amount of the angular offset and the glide path angle. If other than a runway centerline localizer is used, the criteria in subpart C of part 97 of this chapter is applicable.
(c) At locations where two separate ISMLS facilities serve opposite ends of of a single runway, an interlock must ensure that only the facility serving the approach direction being used will radiate.
(d) The radiation from the localizer antenna system must produce a composite field pattern which is pulse duration modulated, the time average equivalent to amplitude modulation by a 90 Hz and 150 Hz tone. The localizer station must transmit angular guidance information over a C-band microwave carrier on narrow, scanned antenna beams that are encoded to produce a modulation in space which, after averaging over several beam scans, is equivalent to the modulation used for conventional ILS as specified in subpart C of this part. The radiation field pattern must produce a course sector with one tone predominating on one side of the course and with the other tone predominating on the opposite side. When an observer faces the localizer from the approach end of the runway, the depth of modulation of the radio frequency carrier due to the 150 Hz tone must predominate on his right hand and that due to the 90 Hz tone must predominate on his left hand.
(e) All horizontal angles employed in specifying the localizer field patterns must originate from the center of the localizer antenna system which provides the signals used in the front course sector.
(f) The ISMLS course sector angle must be adjustable between 3 degrees and 9 degrees. The applicable course sector angle will be established and approved on an individual basis.
(g) The ISMLS localizer must operate in the band 5000 MHz to 5030 MHz. The frequency tolerance may not exceed ±0.0001 percent.
(h) The emission from the localizer must be vertically polarized. The horizontally polarized component of the radiation of the course line may not exceed that which corresponds to a DDM error of 0.016 when an aircraft is positioned on the course line and is in a roll attitude of 20 degrees from the horizontal.
(i) The localizer must provide signals sufficient to allow satisfactory operation of a typical aircraft installation within the localizer and glide path coverage sectors. The localizer coverage sector must extend from the center of the localizer antenna system to distances of 18 nautical miles minimum within ±10 degrees from the front course line, and 10 nautical miles minimum between ±10 degrees and ±35 degrees from the front course line. The ISMLS localizer signals must be receivable at the distances specified up from a surface extending outward from the localizer antenna and within a sector in the elevation plane from 0.300 to 1.750 of the established glide path angle (θ).
(j) Except as provided in paragraph (k) of this section, in all parts of the coverage volume specified in paragraph (i) of this section, the peak field strength may not be less than −87 dBW/m 2, and must permit satisfactory operational usage of ISMLS localizer facilities.
(k) The minimum peak field strength on the ISMLS glide path and within the localizer course sector from a distance of 10 nautical miles to a height of 100 feet (30 meters) above the horizontal plane containing the threshold, may not be less than 87 dBW/m 2.
(l) Above 16 degrees, the ISMLS localizer signals must be reduced to as low a value as practicable.
(m) Bends in the course line may not have amplitudes which exceed the following:
(95 pct. probability)
|Outer limit of coverage to:|
|ISMLS point “A”||0.031.|
|ISMLS point “A” to ISMLS point “B”||0.031 at ISMLS point “A” decreasing at linear rate to 0.015 at ISMLS point “B”.|
|ISMLS point “B” to ISMLS point “C”||0.015.|
(o) The radio frequency carrier must meet the following requirements:
(1) The nominal depth of modulation of the radio frequency carrier due to each of the 90 Hz and 150 Hz tones must be 20 percent along the course line.
(2) The depth of modulation of the radio frequency carrier due to each of the 90 Hz and 150 Hz tones must be between 18 and 22 percent.
(3) The frequency tolerance of the 90 Hz and 150 Hz modulated tones must be within ±25 percent.
(4) Total harmonic content of the 90 Hz tone may not exceed 10 percent.
(5) Total harmonic content of the 150 Hz tone may not exceed 10 percent. However, a 300 Hz tone may be transmitted for identification purposes.
(6) At every half cycle of the combined 90 Hz and 150 Hz wave form, the modulation tones must be phase-locked so that within the half course sector, the demodulated 90 Hz and 150 Hz wave forms pass through zero in the same direction within 20 degrees with phase relative to the 150 Hz component. However, the phase need not be measured within the half course sector.
(q) The nominal displacement sensitivity within the half course sector at the ISMLS reference datum, must be 0.00145 DDM/meter (0.00044DDM/foot). However, where the specified nominal displacement sensitivity cannot be met, the displacement sensitivity must be adjusted as near as possible to that value.
(r) The lateral displacement sensitivity must be adjusted and maintained within 17 percent of the nominal value. Nominal sector width at the ISMLS reference datum is 210 meters (700 feet).
(s) The increase of DDM must be substantially linear with respect to angular displacement from the front course line where DDM is zero, up to angle on either side of the front course line where the DDM is 0.180. From that angle to ±10 degrees, the DDM may not be less than 0.180. From ±10 degrees to ±35 degrees, the DDM may not be less than 0.155.
(t) The localizer must provide for the simultaneous transmission of an identification signal which meets the following:
(1) It must be specific to the runway and approach direction, on the same radio frequency carrier, as used for the localizer function.
(2) Transmission of the identification signal may not interfere in any way with the basic localizer function.
(3) The signal must be produced by pulse duration modulation of the radio frequency carrier resulting in a detected audio tone in the airborne VHF receiver of 1020 Hz ±50Hz.
(4) The depth of modulation must be between the limits of 10 and 12 percent.
(5) The emissions carrying the identification signal must be vertically polarized.
(6) The identification signal must employ the International Morse Code and consist of three letters. It must be preceded by the International Morse Code signal of the letter “M” followed by a short pause where it is necessary to distinguish the ISMLS facility from other navigational facilities in the immediate area. At airports where both an ISMLS and an ILS are in operation, each facility must have a different identification call sign.
(7) The signal must be transmitted at a speed corresponding to approximately seven words per minute, and must be repeated at approximately equal intervals, not less than six times per minute, during which time the localizer is available for operational use. When the localizer is not available for transmission, the identification signal must be suppressed.