14 CFR 25.561 - General.
(a) The airplane, although it may be damaged in emergency landing conditions on land or water, must be designed as prescribed in this section to protect each occupant under those conditions.
(b) The structure must be designed to give each occupant every reasonable chance of escaping serious injury in a minor crash landing when -
(1) Proper use is made of seats, belts, and all other safety design provisions;
(2) The wheels are retracted (where applicable); and
(3) The occupant experiences the following ultimate inertia forces acting separately relative to the surrounding structure:
(i) Upward, 3.0g
(ii) Forward, 9.0g
(iii) Sideward, 3.0g on the airframe; and 4.0g on the seats and their attachments.
(iv) Downward, 6.0g
(v) Rearward, 1.5g
(c) For equipment, cargo in the passenger compartments and any other large masses, the following apply:
(1) Except as provided in paragraph (c)(2) of this section, these items must be positioned so that if they break loose they will be unlikely to:
(i) Cause direct injury to occupants;
(ii) Penetrate fuel tanks or lines or cause fire or explosion hazard by damage to adjacent systems; or
(iii) Nullify any of the escape facilities provided for use after an emergency landing.
(2) When such positioning is not practical (e.g. fuselage mounted engines or auxiliary power units) each such item of mass shall be restrained under all loads up to those specified in paragraph (b)(3) of this section. The local attachments for these items should be designed to withstand 1.33 times the specified loads if these items are subject to severe wear and tear through frequent removal (e.g. quick change interior items).
(d) Seats and items of mass (and their supporting structure) must not deform under any loads up to those specified in paragraph (b)(3) of this section in any manner that would impede subsequent rapid evacuation of occupants.
- 14 CFR 121.310 — Additional Emergency Equipment.
- 14 CFR 91.523 — Carry-On Baggage.
- 14 CFR 121.285 — Carriage of Cargo in Passenger Compartments.
- 14 CFR 135.178 — Additional Emergency Equipment.
- 14 CFR 25.812 — Emergency Lighting.
- 14 CFR 25.785 — Seats, Berths, Safety Belts, and Harnesses.
- 14 CFR 25.813 — Emergency Exit Access.
- 14 CFR 25.963 — Fuel Tanks: General.
- 14 CFR 25.789 — Retention of Items of Mass in Passenger and Crew Compartments and Galleys.
- 14 CFR 25.810 — Emergency Egress Assist Means and Escape Routes.
- 14 CFR 25.1421 — Megaphones.
- 14 CFR 25.787 — Stowage Compartments.