14 CFR 25.621 - Casting factors.

§ 25.621 Casting factors.
(a) General. The factors, tests, and inspections specified in paragraphs (b) through (d) of this section must be applied in addition to those necessary to establish foundry quality control. The inspections must meet approved specifications. Paragraphs (c) and (d) of this section apply to any structural castings except castings that are pressure tested as parts of hydraulic or other fluid systems and do not support structural loads.
(b) Bearing stresses and surfaces. The casting factors specified in paragraphs (c) and (d) of this section—
(1) Need not exceed 1.25 with respect to bearing stresses regardless of the method of inspection used; and
(2) Need not be used with respect to the bearing surfaces of a part whose bearing factor is larger than the applicable casting factor.
(c) Critical castings. For each casting whose failure would preclude continued safe flight and landing of the airplane or result in serious injury to occupants, the following apply:
(1) Each critical casting must—
(i) Have a casting factor of not less than 1.25; and
(ii) Receive 100 percent inspection by visual, radiographic, and magnetic particle or penetrant inspection methods or approved equivalent nondestructive inspection methods.
(2) For each critical casting with a casting factor less than 1.50, three sample castings must be static tested and shown to meet—
(i) The strength requirements of § 25.305 at an ultimate load corresponding to a casting factor of 1.25; and
(ii) The deformation requirements of § 25.305 at a load of 1.15 times the limit load.
(3) Examples of these castings are structural attachment fittings, parts of flight control systems, control surface hinges and balance weight attachments, seat, berth, safety belt, and fuel and oil tank supports and attachments, and cabin pressure valves.
(d) Noncritical castings. For each casting other than those specified in paragraph (c) of this section, the following apply:
(1) Except as provided in paragraphs (d)(2) and (3) of this section, the casting factors and corresponding inspections must meet the following table:
Casting factor Inspection
2.0 or more 100 percent visual.
Less than 2.0 but more than 1.5 100 percent visual, and magnetic particle or penetrant or equivalent nondestructive inspection methods.
1.25 through 1.50 100 percent visual, magnetic particle or penetrant, and radiographic, or approved equivalent nondestructive inspection methods.
(2) The percentage of castings inspected by nonvisual methods may be reduced below that specified in paragraph (d)(1) of this section when an approved quality control procedure is established.
(3) For castings procured to a specification that guarantees the mechanical properties of the material in the casting and provides for demonstration of these properties by test of coupons cut from the castings on a sampling basis—
(i) A casting factor of 1.0 may be used; and
(ii) The castings must be inspected as provided in paragraph (d)(1) of this section for casting factors of “1.25 through 1.50” and tested under paragraph (c)(2) of this section.
Beta! The text on the eCFR tab represents the unofficial eCFR text at ecfr.gov.
§ 25.621 Casting factors.

(a) General. For castings used in structural applications, the factors, tests, and inspections specified in paragraphs (b) through (d) of this section must be applied in addition to those necessary to establish foundry quality control. The inspections must meet approved specifications. Paragraphs (c) and (d) of this section apply to any structural castings, except castings that are pressure tested as parts of hydraulic or other fluid systems and do not support structural loads.

(b) Bearing stresses and surfaces. The casting factors specified in paragraphs (c) and (d) of this section -

(1) Need not exceed 1.25 with respect to bearing stresses regardless of the method of inspection used; and

(2) Need not be used with respect to the bearing surfaces of a part whose bearing factor is larger than the applicable casting factor.

(c) Critical castings. Each casting whose failure could preclude continued safe flight and landing of the airplane or could result in serious injury to occupants is a critical casting. Each critical casting must have a factor associated with it for showing compliance with strength and deformation requirements of § 25.305, and must comply with the following criteria associated with that factor:

(1) A casting factor of 1.0 or greater may be used, provided that -

(i) It is demonstrated, in the form of process qualification, proof of product, and process monitoring that, for each casting design and part number, the castings produced by each foundry and process combination have coefficients of variation of the material properties that are equivalent to those of wrought alloy products of similar composition. Process monitoring must include testing of coupons cut from the prolongations of each casting (or each set of castings, if produced from a single pour into a single mold in a runner system) and, on a sampling basis, coupons cut from critical areas of production castings. The acceptance criteria for the process monitoring inspections and tests must be established and included in the process specifications to ensure the properties of the production castings are controlled to within levels used in design.

(ii) Each casting receives:

(A) Inspection of 100 percent of its surface, using visual inspection and liquid penetrant or equivalent inspection methods; and

(B) Inspection of structurally significant internal areas and areas where defects are likely to occur, using radiographic or equivalent inspection methods.

(iii) One casting undergoes a static test and is shown to meet the strength and deformation requirements of § 25.305(a) and (b).

(2) A casting factor of 1.25 or greater may be used, provided that -

(i) Each casting receives:

(A) Inspection of 100 percent of its surface, using visual inspection and liquid penetrant or equivalent inspection methods; and

(B) Inspection of structurally significant internal areas and areas where defects are likely to occur, using radiographic or equivalent inspection methods.

(ii) Three castings undergo static tests and are shown to meet:

(A) The strength requirements of § 25.305(b) at an ultimate load corresponding to a casting factor of 1.25; and

(B) The deformation requirements of § 25.305(a) at a load of 1.15 times the limit load.

(3) A casting factor of 1.50 or greater may be used, provided that -

(i) Each casting receives:

(A) Inspection of 100 percent of its surface, using visual inspection and liquid penetrant or equivalent inspection methods; and

(B) Inspection of structurally significant internal areas and areas where defects are likely to occur, using radiographic or equivalent inspection methods.

(ii) One casting undergoes a static test and is shown to meet:

(A) The strength requirements of § 25.305(b) at an ultimate load corresponding to a casting factor of 1.50; and

(B) The deformation requirements of § 25.305(a) at a load of 1.15 times the limit load.

(d) Non-critical castings. For each casting other than critical castings, as specified in paragraph (c) of this section, the following apply:

(1) A casting factor of 1.0 or greater may be used, provided that the requirements of (c)(1) of this section are met, or all of the following conditions are met:

(i) Castings are manufactured to approved specifications that specify the minimum mechanical properties of the material in the casting and provides for demonstration of these properties by testing of coupons cut from the castings on a sampling basis.

(ii) Each casting receives:

(A) Inspection of 100 percent of its surface, using visual inspection and liquid penetrant or equivalent inspection methods; and

(B) Inspection of structurally significant internal areas and areas where defects are likely to occur, using radiographic or equivalent inspection methods.

(iii) Three sample castings undergo static tests and are shown to meet the strength and deformation requirements of § 25.305(a) and (b).

(2) A casting factor of 1.25 or greater may be used, provided that each casting receives:

(i) Inspection of 100 percent of its surface, using visual inspection and liquid penetrant or equivalent inspection methods; and

(ii) Inspection of structurally significant internal areas and areas where defects are likely to occur, using radiographic or equivalent inspection methods.

(3) A casting factor of 1.5 or greater may be used, provided that each casting receives inspection of 100 percent of its surface using visual inspection and liquid penetrant or equivalent inspection methods.

(4) A casting factor of 2.0 or greater may be used, provided that each casting receives inspection of 100 percent of its surface using visual inspection methods.

(5) The number of castings per production batch to be inspected by non-visual methods in accordance with paragraphs (d)(2) and (3) of this section may be reduced when an approved quality control procedure is established.

[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as amended by Amdt. 25-139, 79 FR 59429, Oct. 2, 2014]

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Title 14 published on 2015-01-01

The following are ALL rules, proposed rules, and notices (chronologically) published in the Federal Register relating to 14 CFR Part 25 after this date.

  • 2015-11-20; vol. 80 # 224 - Friday, November 20, 2015
    1. 80 FR 72555 - Special Conditions: Associated Air Center, Boeing Model 747-8 Airplane; Shoulder-Belt Airbags for Side-Facing Seats
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      DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION, Federal Aviation Administration
      Final special conditions; request for comments.
      The effective date of these special conditions is November 20, 2015. We must receive your comments by January 4, 2016.
      14 CFR Part 25