14 CFR 91.1101 - Pilots: Initial, transition, and upgrade ground training.

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§ 91.1101 Pilots: Initial, transition, and upgrade ground training.

Initial, transition, and upgrade ground training for pilots must include instruction in at least the following, as applicable to their duties:

(a) General subjects -

(1) The program manager's flight locating procedures;

(2) Principles and methods for determining weight and balance, and runway limitations for takeoff and landing;

(3) Enough meteorology to ensure a practical knowledge of weather phenomena, including the principles of frontal systems, icing, fog, thunderstorms, windshear and, if appropriate, high altitude weather situations;

(4) Air traffic control systems, procedures, and phraseology;

(5) Navigation and the use of navigational aids, including instrument approach procedures;

(6) Normal and emergency communication procedures;

(7) Visual cues before and during descent below Decision Altitude or MDA; and

(8) Other instructions necessary to ensure the pilot's competence.

(b) For each aircraft type -

(1) A general description;

(2) Performance characteristics;

(3) Engines and propellers;

(4) Major components;

(5) Major aircraft systems (that is, flight controls, electrical, and hydraulic), other systems, as appropriate, principles of normal, abnormal, and emergency operations, appropriate procedures and limitations;

(6) Knowledge and procedures for -

(i) Recognizing and avoiding severe weather situations;

(ii) Escaping from severe weather situations, in case of inadvertent encounters, including low-altitude windshear (except that rotorcraft pilots are not required to be trained in escaping from low-altitude windshear);

(iii) Operating in or near thunderstorms (including best penetration altitudes), turbulent air (including clear air turbulence), inflight icing, hail, and other potentially hazardous meteorological conditions; and

(iv) Operating airplanes during ground icing conditions, (that is, any time conditions are such that frost, ice, or snow may reasonably be expected to adhere to the aircraft), if the program manager expects to authorize takeoffs in ground icing conditions, including:

(A) The use of holdover times when using deicing/anti-icing fluids;

(B) Airplane deicing/anti-icing procedures, including inspection and check procedures and responsibilities;

(C) Communications;

(D) Airplane surface contamination (that is, adherence of frost, ice, or snow) and critical area identification, and knowledge of how contamination adversely affects airplane performance and flight characteristics;

(E) Types and characteristics of deicing/anti-icing fluids, if used by the program manager;

(F) Cold weather preflight inspection procedures;

(G) Techniques for recognizing contamination on the airplane;

(7) Operating limitations;

(8) Fuel consumption and cruise control;

(9) Flight planning;

(10) Each normal and emergency procedure; and

(11) The approved Aircraft Flight Manual or equivalent.

This is a list of United States Code sections, Statutes at Large, Public Laws, and Presidential Documents, which provide rulemaking authority for this CFR Part.

This list is taken from the Parallel Table of Authorities and Rules provided by GPO [Government Printing Office].

It is not guaranteed to be accurate or up-to-date, though we do refresh the database weekly. More limitations on accuracy are described at the GPO site.


United States Code
U.S. Code: Title 49 - TRANSPORTATION

§ 106 - Federal Aviation Administration

§ 1155 - Aviation penalties

§ 40103 - Sovereignty and use of airspace

§ 40113 - Administrative

§ 40120 - Relationship to other laws

§ 44101 - Operation of aircraft

§ 44111 - Modifications in registration and recordation system for aircraft not providing air transportation

§ 44701 - General requirements

§ 44704 - Type certificates, production certificates, airworthiness certificates,,11 So in original. and design and production organization certificates

§ 44709 - Amendments, modifications, suspensions, and revocations of certificates

§ 44711 - Prohibitions and exemption

§ 44712 - Emergency locator transmitters

§ 44715 - Controlling aircraft noise and sonic boom

§ 44716 - Collision avoidance systems

§ 44717 - Aging aircraft

§ 44722 - Aircraft operations in winter conditions

§ 46306 - Registration violations involving aircraft not providing air transportation

§ 46315 - Lighting violations involving transporting controlled substances by aircraft not providing air transportation

§ 46316 - General criminal penalty when specific penalty not provided

§ 46504 - Interference with flight crew members and attendants

§ 46506 - Application of certain criminal laws to acts on aircraft

§ 46507 - False information and threats

§ 47122 - Administrative

§ 47508 - Noise standards for air carriers and foreign air carriers providing foreign air transportation

§ 47528 - Prohibition on operating certain aircraft not complying with stage 3 noise levels

§ 47529 - Nonaddition rule

§ 47530 - Nonapplication of sections 47528(a)–(d) and 47529 to aircraft outside the 48 contiguous States

§ 47531 - Penalties

§ 47534 - Prohibition on operating certain aircraft weighing 75,000 pounds or less not complying with stage 3 noise levels

Statutes at Large

Title 14 published on 2015-01-01

The following are ALL rules, proposed rules, and notices (chronologically) published in the Federal Register relating to 14 CFR Part 91 after this date.

  • 2015-10-27; vol. 80 # 207 - Tuesday, October 27, 2015
    1. 80 FR 65621 - Extension of the Prohibition Against Certain Flights in the Simferopol (UKFV) and Dnipropetrovsk (UKDV) Flight Information Regions (FIRs)
      GPO FDSys XML | Text
      DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION, Federal Aviation Administration
      Final rule.
      This final rule is effective on October 22, 2015.
      14 CFR Part 91