14 CFR Appendix E to Part 91, Airplane Flight Recorder Specifications

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Appendix E to Part 91 - Airplane Flight Recorder Specifications
Parameters Range Installed system 1 minimum accuracy (to recovered data) Sampling interval (per second) Resolution 4 read out
Relative Time (From Recorded on Prior to Takeoff) 8 hr minimum ±0.125% per hour 1 1 sec.
Indicated Airspeed Vso to VD (KIAS) ±5% or ±10 kts., whichever is greater. Resolution 2 kts. below 175 KIAS 1 1% 3
Altitude −1,000 ft. to max cert. alt. of A/C ±100 to ±700 ft. (see Table 1, TSO C51-a) 1 25 to 150 ft.
Magnetic Heading 360° ±5° 1
Vertical Acceleration −3g to 6g ±0.2g in addition to ±0.3g maximum datum 4 (or 1 per second where peaks, ref. to 1g are recorded) 0.03g.
Longitudinal Acceleration ±1.0g ±1.5% max. range excluding datum error of ±5% 2 0.01g.
Pitch Attitude 100% of usable ±2° 1 0.8°
Roll Attitude ±60° or 100% of usable range, whichever is greater ±2° 1 0.8°
Stabilizer Trim Position, or Full Range ±3% unless higher uniquely required 1 1% 3
Pitch Control Position 5
Engine Power, Each Engine: Full Range ±3% unless higher uniquely required 1 1% 3
Fan or N 1 Speed or EPR or Cockpit indications Used for Aircraft Certification OR Maximum Range ±5% 1 1% 3
Prop. speed and Torque (Sample Once/Sec as Close together as Practicable) 1 (prop Speed)
1 (torque)
1% 3
1% 3
Altitude Rate 2 (need depends on altitude resolution) ±8,000 fpm ±10%. Resolution 250 fpm below 12,000 ft. indicated 1 250 fpm. below 12,000
Angle of Attack 2 (need depends on altitude resolution) −20° to 40° or 100% of usable range ±2° 1 0.8% 3
Radio Transmitter Keying (Discrete) On/Off 1
TE Flaps (Discrete or Analog) Each discrete position (U, D, T/O, AAP) OR 1
LE Flaps (Discrete or Analog) Analog 0-100% range ±3% 1 1% 3
Each discrete position (U, D, T/O, AAP) OR 1
Thrust Reverser, Each Engine (Discrete) Analog 0-100% range ±3° 1 1% 3
Stowed or full reverse
Spoiler/Speedbrake (Discrete) Stowed or out 1
Autopilot Engaged (Discrete) Engaged or Disengaged 1

1 When data sources are aircraft instruments (except altimeters) of acceptable quality to fly the aircraft the recording system excluding these sensors (but including all other characteristics of the recording system) shall contribute no more than half of the values in this column.

2 If data from the altitude encoding altimeter (100 ft. resolution) is used, then either one of these parameters should also be recorded. If however, altitude is recorded at a minimum resolution of 25 feet, then these two parameters can be omitted.

3 Per cent of full range.

4 This column applies to aircraft manufactured after October 11, 1991.

5 For Pitch Control Position only, for all aircraft manufactured on or after April 6, 2012, the sampling interval (per second) is 8. Each input must be recorded at this rate. Alternately sampling inputs (interleaving) to meet this sampling interval is prohibited.

[Doc. No. 18334, 54 FR 34327, Aug. 18, 1989, as amended by Amdt. 91-300, 73 FR 12565, Mar. 7, 2008; 73 FR 15280, Mar. 21, 2008; Amdt. 91-313, 75 FR 17046, Apr. 5, 2010; Amdt. 91-329, 78 FR 39971, July 3, 2013]

This is a list of United States Code sections, Statutes at Large, Public Laws, and Presidential Documents, which provide rulemaking authority for this CFR Part.

This list is taken from the Parallel Table of Authorities and Rules provided by GPO [Government Printing Office].

It is not guaranteed to be accurate or up-to-date, though we do refresh the database weekly. More limitations on accuracy are described at the GPO site.


United States Code
U.S. Code: Title 49 - TRANSPORTATION

§ 106 - Federal Aviation Administration

§ 1155 - Aviation penalties

§ 40103 - Sovereignty and use of airspace

§ 40113 - Administrative

§ 40120 - Relationship to other laws

§ 44101 - Operation of aircraft

§ 44111 - Modifications in registration and recordation system for aircraft not providing air transportation

§ 44701 - General requirements

§ 44704 - Type certificates, production certificates, airworthiness certificates,,11 So in original. and design and production organization certificates

§ 44709 - Amendments, modifications, suspensions, and revocations of certificates

§ 44711 - Prohibitions and exemption

§ 44712 - Emergency locator transmitters

§ 44715 - Controlling aircraft noise and sonic boom

§ 44716 - Collision avoidance systems

§ 44717 - Aging aircraft

§ 44722 - Aircraft operations in winter conditions

§ 46306 - Registration violations involving aircraft not providing air transportation

§ 46315 - Lighting violations involving transporting controlled substances by aircraft not providing air transportation

§ 46316 - General criminal penalty when specific penalty not provided

§ 46504 - Interference with flight crew members and attendants

§ 46506 - Application of certain criminal laws to acts on aircraft

§ 46507 - False information and threats

§ 47122 - Administrative

§ 47508 - Noise standards for air carriers and foreign air carriers providing foreign air transportation

§ 47528 - Prohibition on operating certain aircraft not complying with stage 3 noise levels

§ 47529 - Nonaddition rule

§ 47530 - Nonapplication of sections 47528(a)–(d) and 47529 to aircraft outside the 48 contiguous States

§ 47531 - Penalties

§ 47534 - Prohibition on operating certain aircraft weighing 75,000 pounds or less not complying with stage 3 noise levels

Statutes at Large

Title 14 published on 2015-11-17

The following are ALL rules, proposed rules, and notices (chronologically) published in the Federal Register relating to 14 CFR Part 91 after this date.

  • 2017-01-11; vol. 82 # 7 - Wednesday, January 11, 2017
    1. 82 FR 3149 - Alternative Pilot Physical Examination and Education Requirements
      GPO FDSys XML | Text
      DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION, Federal Aviation Administration
      Final rule.
      This rule is effective on May 1, 2017. Docket: Background documents may be read at http://www.regulations.gov at any time. Follow the online instructions for accessing the docket or go to the Docket Operations in Room W12-140 of the West Building Ground Floor at 1200 New Jersey Avenue SE., Washington, DC, between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m., Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays.
      14 CFR Parts 61, 68, and 91

Title 14 published on 2015-11-17.

The following are only the Rules published in the Federal Register after the published date of Title 14.

For a complete list of all Rules, Proposed Rules, and Notices view the Rulemaking tab.

  • 2017-01-11; vol. 82 # 7 - Wednesday, January 11, 2017
    1. 82 FR 3149 - Alternative Pilot Physical Examination and Education Requirements
      GPO FDSys: XML | Text
      DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION, Federal Aviation Administration
      Final rule.
      This rule is effective on May 1, 2017. Docket: Background documents may be read at http://www.regulations.gov at any time. Follow the online instructions for accessing the docket or go to the Docket Operations in Room W12-140 of the West Building Ground Floor at 1200 New Jersey Avenue SE., Washington, DC, between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m., Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays.
      14 CFR Parts 61, 68, and 91