17 CFR § 232.302 - Signatures.

§ 232.302 Signatures.

(a) Required signatures to, or within, any electronic submission (including, without limitation, signatories within the certifications required by §§ 240.13a-14, 240.15d-14, and 270.30a-2 of this chapter) must be in typed form rather than manual format. Signatures in an HTML document that are not required may, but are not required to, be presented in an HTML graphic or image file within the electronic filing, in compliance with the formatting requirements of the EDGAR Filer Manual. When used in connection with an electronic filing, the term “signature” means a computer representation of any symbol or series of symbols comprising a name executed, adopted, or authorized as a signature. Signatures are not required in unofficial PDF copies submitted in accordance with § 232.104.


(1) Each signatory to an electronic filing (including, without limitation, each signatory to the certifications required by §§ 240.13a-14, 240.15d-14 and 270.30a-2 of this chapter) shall manually or electronically sign a signature page or other document authenticating, acknowledging, or otherwise adopting his or her signature that appears in typed form within the electronic filing (“authentication document”). Such authentication document shall be executed before or at the time the electronic filing is made and shall be retained by the filer for a period of five years. An electronically signed authentication document pursuant to this paragraph (b)(1) must meet the requirements set forth in the EDGAR Filer Manual.

(2) Before a signatory may electronically sign an authentication document pursuant to paragraph (b)(1) of this section, such signatory must manually sign a document attesting that, when using electronic signatures for purposes of paragraph (b)(1) of this section, the signatory agrees that the use of such electronic signature constitutes the legal equivalent of such individual's manual signature for purposes of authenticating the signature to any filing for which it is provided. An electronic filer must retain this document for as long as the signatory may use an electronic signature to satisfy the requirements of paragraph (b)(1) of this section and for a minimum period of seven years after the date of the most recent electronically signed authentication document.

(3) Upon request, an electronic filer shall furnish to the Commission or its staff a copy of any or all documents retained pursuant to this section. A manually signed document under paragraph (b)(1) or (2) of this section, including an initial electronic signature authentication document or a manually signed authentication document, may be retained and stored via electronic means.

(c) Where the Commission's rules require a registrant to furnish to a national securities exchange or national securities association paper copies of a document filed with the Commission in electronic format, signatures to such paper copies may be in typed form.

[58 FR 14670, Mar. 18, 1993, as amended at 59 FR 67762, Dec. 30, 1994; 64 FR 27895, May 21, 1999; 65 FR 24800, Apr. 27, 2000; 67 FR 57287, Sept. 9, 2002; 85 FR 78229, Dec. 4, 2020]