17 CFR § 270.2a-5 - Fair value determination and readily available market quotations.
(a) Fair value determination. For purposes of section 2(a)(41) of the Act (15 U.S.C. 80a–2(a)(41)) and § 270.2a–4, determining fair value in good faith with respect to a fund requires:
(1) Assess and manage risks. Periodically assessing any material risks associated with the determination of the fair value of fund investments (“valuation risks”), including material conflicts of interest, and managing those identified valuation risks;
(2) Establish and apply fair value methodologies. Performing each of the following, taking into account the fund's valuation risks:
(i) Selecting and applying in a consistent manner an appropriate methodology or methodologies for determining (and calculating) the fair value of fund investments, provided that a selected methodology may be changed if a different methodology is equally or more representative of the fair value of fund investments, including specifying the key inputs and assumptions specific to each asset class or portfolio holding;
(ii) Periodically reviewing the appropriateness and accuracy of the methodologies selected and making any necessary changes or adjustments thereto; and
(iii) Monitoring for circumstances that may necessitate the use of fair value;
(3) Test fair value methodologies. Testing the appropriateness and accuracy of the fair value methodologies that have been selected, including identifying the testing methods to be used and the minimum frequency with which such testing methods are to be used; and
(4) Evaluate pricing services. Overseeing pricing service providers, if used, including establishing the process for approving, monitoring, and evaluating each pricing service provider and initiating price challenges as appropriate.
(b) Performance of fair value determinations. The board of the fund must determine fair value in good faith for any or all fund investments by carrying out the functions required in paragraph (a) of this section. The board may choose to designate the valuation designee to perform the fair value determination relating to any or all fund investments, which shall carry out all of the functions required in paragraph (a) of this section, subject to the requirements of this paragraph (b).
(1) Oversight and reporting. The board oversees the valuation designee, and the valuation designee reports to the fund's board, in writing, including such information as may be reasonably necessary for the board to evaluate the matters covered in the report, as follows:
(i) Periodic reporting.
(A) At least quarterly:
(1) Any reports or materials requested by the board related to the fair value of designated investments or the valuation designee's process for fair valuing fund investments; and
(2) A summary or description of material fair value matters that occurred in the prior quarter, including:
(i) Any material changes in the assessment and management of valuation risks required under paragraph (a)(1) of this section, including any material changes in conflicts of interest of the valuation designee (and any other service provider);
(ii) Any material changes to, or material deviations from, the fair value methodologies established under paragraph (a)(2) of this section; and
(iii) Any material changes to the valuation designee's process for selecting and overseeing pricing services, as well as any material events related to the valuation designee's oversight of pricing services; and
(B) At least annually, an assessment of the adequacy and effectiveness of the valuation designee's process for determining the fair value of the designated portfolio of investments, including, at a minimum:
(1) A summary of the results of the testing of fair value methodologies required under paragraph (a)(3) of this section; and
(2) An assessment of the adequacy of resources allocated to the process for determining the fair value of designated investments, including any material changes to the roles or functions of the persons responsible for determining fair value under paragraph (b)(2) of this section; and
(ii) Prompt board notification and reporting. The valuation designee notifies the board of the occurrence of matters that materially affect the fair value of the designated portfolio of investments, including a significant deficiency or material weakness in the design or effectiveness of the valuation designee's fair value determination process, or material errors in the calculation of net asset value, (any such matter or error, a “material matter”) within a time period determined by the board (but in no event later than five business days after the valuation designee becomes aware of the material matter), with such timely follow-on reporting as the board may determine appropriate; and
(2) Specify responsibilities. The valuation designee specifies the titles of the persons responsible for determining the fair value of the designated investments, including by specifying the particular functions for which they are responsible, and reasonably segregates fair value determinations from the portfolio management of the fund such that the portfolio manager(s) may not determine, or effectively determine by exerting substantial influence on, the fair values ascribed to portfolio investments.
(c) Readily available market quotations. For purposes of section 2(a)(41) of the Act (15 U.S.C. 80a–2(a)(41)), a market quotation is readily available only when that quotation is a quoted price (unadjusted) in active markets for identical investments that the fund can access at the measurement date, provided that a quotation will not be readily available if it is not reliable.
(d) Unit investment trusts. If the fund is a unit investment trust, and the initial deposit of portfolio securities into the unit investment trust occurs after March 8, 2021, the fund's trustee or depositor must carry out the requirements of paragraph (a) of this section. If the initial deposit of portfolio securities into the unit investment trust occurred before March 8, 2021, and an entity other than the fund's trustee or depositor has been designated to carry out the fair value determination, that entity must carry out the requirements of paragraph (a) of this section.
(e) Definitions. For purposes of this section:
(1) Fund means a registered investment company or business development company.
(2) Fair value means the value of a portfolio investment for which market quotations are not readily available under paragraph (c) of this section.
(3) Board means either the fund's entire board of directors or a designated committee of such board composed of a majority of directors who are not interested persons of the fund.
(4) Valuation designee means the investment adviser, other than a sub-adviser, of a fund or, if the fund does not have an investment adviser, an officer or officers of the fund.