(a)General. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b) or (e) of this section, the following persons shall maintain records and shall render such records for examination and inspection by Customs:
(1) An owner, importer, consignee, importer of record, entry filer, or other person who:
(i) Imports merchandise into the customs territory of the United States, files a drawback claim, or transports or stores merchandise carried or held under bond, or
(ii) Knowingly causes the importation or transportation or storage of merchandise carried or held under bond into or from the customs territory of the United States;
(2) An agent of any person described in paragraph (a)(1) of this section; or
(3) A person whose activities require the filing of a declaration or entry, or both.
(b)Domestic transactions. For purposes of paragraph (a)(1)(ii) of this section, a person who orders merchandise from an importer in a domestic transaction knowingly causes merchandise to be imported only if:
(1) The terms and conditions of the importation are controlled by the person placing the order with the importer (for example, the importer is not an independent contractor but rather is the agent of the person placing the order: Whereas a consumer who purchases an imported automobile from a domestic dealer would not be required to maintain records, a transit authority that prepared detailed specifications from which imported subway cars or busses were manufactured would be required to maintain records); or
(2)Technical data, molds, equipment, other production assistance, material, components, or parts are furnished by the person placing the order with the importer with knowledge that they will be used in the manufacture or production of the imported merchandise.
(c)Recordkeeping required for certain exporters—(1) NAFTA. Any person who exports goods to Canada or Mexico for which a Certificate of Origin was completed and signed pursuant to the North American Free Trade Agreement must also maintain records in accordance with part 181 of this chapter.
(2)Kimberley Process Certification Scheme. Any U.S. person (see definition in § 12.152(b)(5)) who exports from the United States any rough diamonds must retain a copy of the Kimberley Process Certificate accompanying each shipment for a period of at least five years from the date of exportation. See19 CFR 12.152(f)(3). Any U.S. person who exports from the United States any rough diamonds and does not keep records in this time frame may be subject to penalties under 19 U.S.C. 3907.
(d)Recordkeeping required for customs brokers. Each customs broker must also make and maintain records and make such records available in accordance with part 111 of this chapter.
(e)Recordkeeping not required for certain travelers. After having physically cleared the Customs facility, a traveler who made a baggage or oral declaration upon arrival in the United States will not be required to maintain supporting records regarding non-commercial merchandise acquired abroad which falls within the traveler's personal exemptions or which is covered by a flat rate of duty.