20 CFR § 404.1082 - Rentals from real estate; material participation.
(a) In general. Your rentals from real estate and from personal property leased with the real estate (including rentals paid in crop shares) and the deductions attributable to the rentals are excluded in figuring your net earnings from self-employment, unless you receive the rentals in the course of a trade or business as a real estate dealer. If you are an owner or lessee of land, rentals paid in crop shares include income you get under an agreement with another person if the arrangement provides for the following:
(1) The other person will produce agricultural or horticultural commodities on the land.
(2) The commodities produced, or the income from their sale, will be divided between you and the other person.
(3) The amount of your share depends on the amount of the commodities produced.
(b) Real estate dealers.
(3) If you are a real estate dealer, but also hold real estate for investment or speculation in addition to real estate you hold for sale to customers, only the rental income from the real estate held for sale to customers and the deductions attributable to it are included in determining your net earnings from self-employment. The rental income from real estate you hold for investment or speculation and the deductions attributable to it are not counted in figuring your net earnings from self-employment.
(c) Special rule for farm rental income -
(i) The income results from an arrangement between you and another person which provides for the other person to produce agricultural or horticultural commodities on the land that you own or lease and for you to materially participate in the production or the management of the production of the agricultural or horticultural commodities; and
(ii) You actually do materially participate.
(2) Nature of arrangement.
(i) The arrangement between you and the other person may be either oral or written. It must provide that the other person will produce one or more agricultural or horticultural commodities and that you will materially participate in the production or the management of the production of the commodities.
(ii) The term production, refers to the physical work performed and the expenses incurred in producing a commodity. It includes activities like the actual work of planting, cultivating, and harvesting crops, and the furnishing of machinery, implements, seed, and livestock.
(iii) The term management of the production, refers to services performed in making managerial decisions about the production of the crop, such as when to plant, cultivate, dust, spray, or harvest, and includes advising and consulting, making inspections, and making decisions on matters, such as rotation of crops, the type of crops to be grown, the type of livestock to be raised, and the type of machinery and implements to be furnished.
(3) Material participation.
(i) If you show that you periodically advise or consult with the other person, who under the rental arrangement produces the agricultural or horticultural commodities, and also show that you periodically inspect the production activities on the land, you will have presented strong evidence that you are materially participating.
(ii) If you also show that you furnish a large portion of the machinery, tools, and livestock used in the production of the commodities, or that you furnish or advance monies, or assume financial responsibility, for a substantial part of the expense involved in the production of the commodities, you will have established that you are materially participating.
(4) Employees or agents. We consider any farm rental arrangement entered into by your employee or agent and another person to be an arrangement entered into by you. However, we do not consider the services of an employee or agent as your services in determining the extent to which you have participated in the production or management of production of a commodity.
(d) Rental income from living quarters -
(1) No services provided for occupants. Payments you receive for renting living quarters in a private residence, duplex, or multiple-housing unit are generally rental income from real estate. Except in the case of real estate dealers, these payments are excluded in determining net earnings from self-employment, even if the payments are in part attributable to personal property furnished under the lease.
(2) Services provided for occupants.
(i) Payments you receive for renting living quarters where services are also provided to the occupant, as in hotels, boarding houses, or apartment houses furnishing hotel services, or in tourist camps or tourist homes, are included in determining your net earnings from self-employment. Any payments you receive for the use of space in parking lots, warehouses, or storage garages are also included in determining your net earnings from self-employment.
(ii) Generally, we consider services to be provided to the occupant if they are primarily for the occupant's convenience and are other than those usually provided in connection with the rental of rooms or other space for occupancy only. We consider the supplying of maid service to be a service provided to the occupant. However, we do not consider the furnishing of heat and light, the cleaning of public entrances, exits, stairways, and lobbies and the collection of trash, as services provided to the occupant.
(e) Treatment of business income which includes rentals from real estate. If an individual or a partnership is engaged in a trade or business other than real estate, and part of the income is rentals from real estate, only that part of the income which is not rentals and the expenses attributable to that portion are included in determining net earnings from self-employment.
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