20 CFR 498.216 - Witnesses.
(a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, testimony at the hearing will be given orally by witnesses under oath or affirmation.
(b) At the discretion of the ALJ, testimony (other than expert testimony) may be admitted in the form of a written statement. Any such written statement must be provided to all other parties along with the last known address of such witness, in a manner that allows sufficient time for other parties to subpoena such witness for cross-examination at the hearing. Prior written statements of witnesses proposed to testify at the hearing will be exchanged as provided in § 498.208.
(c) The ALJ will exercise reasonable control over the mode and order of witness direct and cross examination and evidence presentation so as to:
(1) Make the examination and presentation effective for the ascertainment of the truth;
(2) Avoid repetition or needless waste of time; and
(3) Protect witnesses from harassment or undue embarrassment.
(d) The ALJ may order witnesses excluded so that they cannot hear the testimony of other witnesses. This does not authorize exclusion of:
(1) A party who is an individual;
(2) In the case of a party that is not an individual, an officer or employee of the party appearing for the entity pro se or designated as the party's representative; or
(3) An individual whose presence is shown by a party to be essential to the presentation of its case, including an individual engaged in assisting the attorney for the Inspector General.