23 CFR § 650.305 - Definitions.
Terms used in this subpart are defined as follows:
American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) Manual. “The Manual for Bridge Evaluation,” First Edition, 2008, published by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (incorporated by reference, see§ 650.317).
Bridge. A structure including supports erected over a depression or an obstruction, such as water, highway, or railway, and having a track or passageway for carrying traffic or other moving loads, and having an opening measured along the center of the roadway of more than 20 feet between undercopings of abutments or spring lines of arches, or extreme ends of openings for multiple boxes; it may also include multiple pipes, where the clear distance between openings is less than half of the smaller contiguous opening.
Bridge inspection experience. Active participation in bridge inspections in accordance with the NBIS, in either a field inspection, supervisory, or management role. A combination of bridge design, bridge maintenance, bridge construction and bridge inspection experience, with the predominant amount in bridge inspection, is acceptable.
Bridge inspection refresher training. The National Highway Institute “Bridge Inspection Refresher Training Course” 1 or other State, local, or federally developed instruction aimed to improve quality of inspections, introduce new techniques, and maintain the consistency of the inspection program.
1 The National Highway Institute training may be found at the following URL: http://www.nhi.fhwa.dot.gov./
Bridge Inspector's Reference Manual (BIRM). A comprehensive FHWA manual on programs, procedures and techniques for inspecting and evaluating a variety of in-service highway bridges. This manual may be purchased from the U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC 20402 and from National Technical Information Service, Springfield, Virginia 22161, and is available at the following URL: http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/bridge/bripub.htm.
Complex bridge. Movable, suspension, cable stayed, and other bridges with unusual characteristics.
Comprehensive bridge inspection training. Training that covers all aspects of bridge inspection and enables inspectors to relate conditions observed on a bridge to established criteria (see the Bridge Inspector's Reference Manual for the recommended material to be covered in a comprehensive training course).
Critical finding. A structural or safety related deficiency that requires immediate follow-up inspection or action.
Damage inspection. This is an unscheduled inspection to assess structural damage resulting from environmental factors or human actions.
Fracture critical member (FCM). A steel member in tension, or with a tension element, whose failure would probably cause a portion of or the entire bridge to collapse.
Hands-on. Inspection within arms length of the component. Inspection uses visual techniques that may be supplemented by nondestructive testing.
Highway. The term “highway” is defined in 23 U.S.C. 101(a)(11).
In-depth inspection. A close-up, inspection of one or more members above or below the water level to identify any deficiencies not readily detectable using routine inspection procedures; hands-on inspection may be necessary at some locations.
Initial inspection. The first inspection of a bridge as it becomes a part of the bridge file to provide all Structure Inventory and Appraisal (SI&A) data and other relevant data and to determine baseline structural conditions.
National Institute for Certification in Engineering Technologies (NICET). The NICET provides nationally applicable voluntary certification programs covering several broad engineering technology fields and a number of specialized subfields. For information on the NICET program certification contact: National Institute for Certification in Engineering Technologies, 1420 King Street, Alexandria, VA 22314-2794.
Operating rating. The maximum permissible live load to which the structure may be subjected for the load configuration used in the rating.
Professional engineer (PE). An individual, who has fulfilled education and experience requirements and passed rigorous exams that, under State licensure laws, permits them to offer engineering services directly to the public. Engineering licensure laws vary from State to State, but, in general, to become a PE an individual must be a graduate of an engineering program accredited by the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology, pass the Fundamentals of Engineering exam, gain four years of experience working under a PE, and pass the Principles of Practice of Engineering exam.
Program manager. The individual in charge of the program, that has been assigned or delegated the duties and responsibilities for bridge inspection, reporting, and inventory. The program manager provides overall leadership and is available to inspection team leaders to provide guidance.
Public road. The term “public road” is defined in 23 U.S.C. 101(a)(27).
Quality assurance (QA). The use of sampling and other measures to assure the adequacy of quality control procedures in order to verify or measure the quality level of the entire bridge inspection and load rating program.
Routine inspection. Regularly scheduled inspection consisting of observations and/or measurements needed to determine the physical and functional condition of the bridge, to identify any changes from initial or previously recorded conditions, and to ensure that the structure continues to satisfy present service requirements.
Routine permit load. A live load, which has a gross weight, axle weight or distance between axles not conforming with State statutes for legally configured vehicles, authorized for unlimited trips over an extended period of time to move alongside other heavy vehicles on a regular basis.
Scour. Erosion of streambed or bank material due to flowing water; often considered as being localized around piers and abutments of bridges.
Special inspection. An inspection scheduled at the discretion of the bridge owner, used to monitor a particular known or suspected deficiency.
State transportation department. The term “State transportation department” is defined in 23 U.S.C. 101(a)(34).
Team leader. Individual in charge of an inspection team responsible for planning, preparing, and performing field inspection of the bridge.
Underwater diver bridge inspection training. Training that covers all aspects of underwater bridge inspection and enables inspectors to relate the conditions of underwater bridge elements to established criteria (see the Bridge Inspector's Reference Manual section on underwater inspection for the recommended material to be covered in an underwater diver bridge inspection training course).
Underwater inspection. Inspection of the underwater portion of a bridge substructure and the surrounding channel, which cannot be inspected visually at low water by wading or probing, generally requiring diving or other appropriate techniques.