23 CFR § 650.305 - Definitions.
The following terms used in this subpart are defined as follows:
AASHTO Manual. The term “AASHTO Manual” means the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) “Manual for Bridge Evaluation”, including Interim Revisions, excluding the 3rd paragraph in Article 6B.7.1, incorporated by reference in § 650.317.
Bridge. A structure including supports erected over a depression or an obstruction, such as water, highway, or railway, and having a track or passageway for carrying traffic or other moving loads, and having an opening measured along the center of the roadway of more than 20 feet between under copings of abutments or spring lines of arches, or extreme ends of openings for multiple boxes; it includes multiple pipes, where the clear distance between openings is less than half of the smaller contiguous opening.
Bridge inspection experience. Active participation in bridge inspections in accordance with the this subpart, in either a field inspection, supervisory, or management role. Some of the experience may come from relevant bridge design, bridge load rating, bridge construction, and bridge maintenance experience provided it develops the skills necessary to properly perform a NBIS bridge inspection.
Bridge inspection refresher training. The National Highway Institute 1 (NHI) “Bridge Inspection Refresher Training Course” or other State, federally, or tribally developed instruction aimed to improve quality of inspections, introduce new techniques, and maintain consistency in the inspection program.
1 The NHI training may be found at the following URL: www.nhi.fhwa.dot.gov/.
Bridge Inspector's Reference Manual or the BIRM. A comprehensive FHWA manual on procedures and techniques for inspecting and evaluating a variety of in-service highway bridges. This manual is available at the following URL: www.fhwa.dot.gov/bridge/nbis.cfm. This manual may be purchased from the Government Publishing Office, Washington, DC 20402 and from National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA 22161.
Complex feature. Bridge component(s) or member(s) with advanced or unique structural members or operational characteristics, construction methods, and/or requiring specific inspection procedures. This includes mechanical and electrical elements of moveable spans and cable-related members of suspension and cable-stayed superstructures.
Comprehensive bridge inspection training. Training that covers all aspects of bridge inspection and enables inspectors to relate conditions observed on a bridge to established criteria (see the BIRM for the recommended material to be covered in a comprehensive training course).
Consequence. A measure of impacts to structural safety and serviceability in a hypothetical scenario where a deterioration mode progresses to the point of requiring immediate action. This may include costs to restore the bridge to safe operating condition or other costs.
Critical finding. A structural or safety related deficiency that requires immediate action to ensure public safety.
Damage inspection. An unscheduled inspection to assess structural damage resulting from environmental factors or human actions.
End-of-course assessment. A comprehensive examination given to students after the completion of the delivery of a training course.
Hands-on inspection. Inspection within arm's length of the member. Inspection uses visual techniques that may be supplemented by nondestructive evaluation techniques.
Highway. The term “highway” is defined in 23 U.S.C. 101.
In-depth inspection. A close-up, detailed inspection of one or more bridge members located above or below water, using visual or nondestructive evaluation techniques as required to identify any deficiencies not readily detectable using routine inspection procedures. Hands-on inspection may be necessary at some locations. In-depth inspections may occur more or less frequently than routine inspections, as outlined in bridge specific inspection procedures.
Initial inspection. The first inspection of a new, replaced, or rehabilitated bridge. This inspection serves to record required bridge inventory data, establish baseline conditions, and establish the intervals for other inspection types.
Inspection date. The date on which the field portion of the bridge inspection is completed.
Inspection due date. The last inspection date plus the current inspection interval.
Internal redundancy. A redundancy that exists within a primary member cross-section without load path redundancy, such that fracture of one component will not propagate through the entire member, is discoverable by the applicable inspection procedures, and will not cause a portion of or the entire bridge to collapse.
Legal load. The maximum load for each vehicle configuration, including the weight of the vehicle and its payload, permitted by law for the State in which the bridge is located.
Legal load rating. The maximum permissible legal load to which the structure may be subjected with the unlimited numbers of passages over the duration of a specified bridge evaluation period. Legal load rating is a term used in Load and Resistance Factor Rating method.
Load path redundancy. A redundancy that exists based on the number of primary load-carrying members between points of support, such that fracture of the cross section at one location of a member will not cause a portion of or the entire bridge to collapse.
Load rating. The analysis to determine the safe vehicular live load carrying capacity of a bridge using bridge plans and supplemented by measurements and other information gathered from an inspection.
Nonredundant Steel Tension Member (NSTM). A primary steel member fully or partially in tension, and without load path redundancy, system redundancy or internal redundancy, whose failure may cause a portion of or the entire bridge to collapse.
Operating rating. The maximum permissible live load to which the structure may be subjected for the load configuration used in the load rating. Allowing unlimited numbers of vehicles to use the bridge at operating level may shorten the life of the bridge. Operating rating is a term used in either the Allowable Stress or Load Factor Rating method.
Procedures. Written documentation of policies, methods, considerations, criteria, and other conditions that direct the actions of personnel so that a desired end result is achieved consistently.
Probability. Extent to which an event is likely to occur during a given interval. This may be based on the frequency of events, such as in the quantitative probability of failure, or on degree of belief or expectation. Degrees of belief about probability can be chosen using qualitative scales, ranks, or categories such as, remote, low, moderate, or high.
Professional engineer (PE). An individual, who has fulfilled education and experience requirements and passed examinations for professional engineering and/or structural engineering license that, under State licensure laws, permits the individual to offer engineering services within areas of expertise directly to the public.
Program manager. The individual in charge of the program, that has been assigned the duties and responsibilities for bridge inspection, reporting, and inventory, and has the overall responsibility to ensure the program conforms with the requirements of this subpart. The program manager provides overall leadership and is available to inspection team leaders to provide guidance.
Public road. The term “public road” is defined in 23 U.S.C. 101.
Quality assurance (QA). The use of sampling and other measures to assure the adequacy of QC procedures in order to verify or measure the quality level of the entire bridge inspection and load rating program.
Routine inspection. Regularly scheduled comprehensive inspection consisting of observations and measurements needed to determine the physical and functional condition of the bridge and identify changes from previously recorded conditions.
Routine permit load. A live load, which has a gross weight, axle weight, or distance between axles not conforming with State statutes for legally configured vehicles, authorized for unlimited trips over an extended period of time to move alongside other heavy vehicles on a regular basis.
Safe load capacity. A live load that can safely utilize a bridge repeatedly over the duration of a specified inspection interval.
Scour. Erosion of streambed or bank material due to flowing water; often considered as being localized around piers and abutments of bridges.
Scour appraisal. A risk-based and data-driven determination of a bridge's vulnerability to scour, resulting from the least stable result of scour that is either observed, or estimated through a scour evaluation or a scour assessment.
Special inspection. An inspection scheduled at the discretion of the bridge owner, used to monitor a particular known or suspected deficiency, or to monitor special details or unusual characteristics of a bridge that does not necessarily have defects.
Special permit load. A live load, which has a gross weight, axle weight, or distance between axles not conforming with State statutes for legally configured vehicles and routine permit loads, typically authorized for single or limited trips.
State transportation department. The term “State transportation department” is defined in 23 U.S.C. 101.
System redundancy. A redundancy that exists in a bridge system without load path redundancy, such that fracture of the cross section at one location of a primary member will not cause a portion of or the entire bridge to collapse.
Underwater bridge inspection diver. The individual performing the inspection of the underwater portion of the bridge.
Underwater Bridge Inspection Manual. A comprehensive FHWA manual on the procedures and techniques for underwater bridge inspection. This manual is available at the following URL: www.fhwa.dot.gov/bridge/nbis.cfm. This manual may be purchased from the Government Publishing Office, Washington, DC 20402 and from National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA 22161.
Underwater bridge inspection training. Training that covers all aspects of underwater bridge inspection to relate the conditions of underwater bridge members to established criteria (see Underwater Bridge Inspection Manual and the BIRM section on underwater inspection for the recommended material to be covered in an underwater bridge inspection training course).
Underwater inspection. Inspection of the underwater portion of a bridge substructure and the surrounding channel, which cannot be inspected visually at low water or by wading or probing, and generally requiring diving or other appropriate techniques.
Unknown Foundations. Foundations of bridges over waterways where complete details are unknown because either the foundation type and depth are unknown, or the foundation type is known, but its depth is unknown, and therefore cannot be appraised for scour vulnerability.
The following state regulations pages link to this page.