23 CFR § 771.109 - Applicability and responsibilities.
(1) The provisions of this part and the CEQ regulations apply to actions where the Administration exercises sufficient control to condition the permit, project, or other approvals. Steps taken by the applicant that do not require Federal approvals, such as preparation of a regional transportation plan, are not subject to this part.
(2) This part does not apply to or alter approvals by the Administration made prior to November 28, 2018.
(3) For FHWA and FTA, environmental documents accepted or prepared after November 28, 2018 must be developed in accordance with this part.
(4) FRA will apply this part to actions initiated after November 28, 2018.
(1) The project sponsor, in cooperation with the Administration, is responsible for implementing those mitigation measures stated as commitments in the environmental documents prepared pursuant to this part unless the Administration approves of their deletion or modification in writing. The FHWA will ensure that this is accomplished as a part of its stewardship and oversight responsibilities. The FRA and FTA will ensure implementation of committed mitigation measures through incorporation by reference in the grant agreement, followed by reviews of designs and construction inspections.
(2) When entering into Federal-aid project agreements pursuant to 23 U.S.C. 106, FHWA must ensure that the State highway agency constructs the project in accordance with and incorporates all committed environmental impact mitigation measures listed in approved environmental review documents.
(c) The following roles and responsibilities apply during the environmental review process:
(1) The lead agencies are responsible for managing the environmental review process and the preparation of the appropriate environmental review documents.
(2) Any State or local governmental entity applicant that is or is expected to be a direct recipient of funds under title 23, U.S. Code or chapter 53 of title 49, U.S. Code for the action, or is or is expected to be a direct recipient of financial assistance for which FRA is responsible (e.g., Subtitle V of Title 49, U.S. Code) must serve as a joint lead agency with the Administration in accordance with 23 U.S.C. 139, and may prepare environmental review documents if the Administration furnishes guidance and independently evaluates the documents.
(3) The Administration may invite other Federal, State, local, or federally recognized Indian Tribal governmental units to serve as joint lead agencies in accordance with the CEQ regulations. If the applicant is serving as a joint lead agency under 23 U.S.C. 139(c)(3), then the Administration and the applicant will decide jointly which other agencies to invite to serve as joint lead agencies.
(4) When the applicant seeks an Administration action other than the approval of funds, the Administration will determine the role of the applicant in accordance with the CEQ regulations and 23 U.S.C. 139.
(5) Regardless of its role under paragraphs (c)(2) through (c)(4) of this section, a public agency that has statewide jurisdiction (for example, a State highway agency or a State department of transportation) or a local unit of government acting through a statewide agency, that meets the requirements of section 102(2)(D) of NEPA, may prepare the EIS and other environmental review documents with the Administration furnishing guidance, participating in the preparation, and independently evaluating the document. All FHWA applicants qualify under this paragraph.
(6) Subject to paragraph (e) of this section, the role of a project sponsor that is a private institution or firm is limited to providing technical studies and commenting on environmental review documents.
(7) A participating agency must provide input during the times specified in the coordination plan under 23 U.S.C. 139(g) and within the agency's special expertise or jurisdiction. Participating agencies provide comments and concurrence on the schedule within the coordination plan.
(d) When entering into Federal-aid project agreements pursuant to 23 U.S.C. 106, the State highway agency must ensure that the project is constructed in accordance with and incorporates all committed environmental impact mitigation measures listed in approved environmental review documents unless the State requests and receives written FHWA approval to modify or delete such mitigation features.
(e) When FRA is the lead Federal agency, the project sponsor is a private entity, and there is no applicant acting as a joint-lead agency, FRA and the project sponsor may agree to use a qualified third-party contractor to prepare an EIS. Under this arrangement, a project sponsor retains a contractor to assist FRA in conducting the environmental review. FRA selects, oversees, and directs the preparation of the EIS and retains ultimate control over the contractor's work. To enter into a third-party contract, FRA, the project sponsor, and the contractor will enter into a memorandum of understanding (MOU) that outlines at a minimum the conditions and procedures to be followed in carrying out the MOU and the responsibilities of the parties to the MOU. FRA may require use of a third-party contractor for preparation of an EA at its discretion.