26 CFR § 1.1400Z2(a)-1 - Deferring tax on capital gains by investing in opportunity zones.

§ 1.1400Z2(a)-1 Deferring tax on capital gains by investing in opportunity zones.

(a) Deferring tax on capital gains -

(1) Overview. Under section 1400Z-2(a) of the Internal Revenue Code (Code) and the section 1400Z-2 regulations (as defined in paragraph (b)(41) of this section), an eligible taxpayer may elect to defer recognition of some or all of one or more eligible gains that otherwise would be recognized by the eligible taxpayer in the taxable year to the extent that the eligible taxpayer timely acquires a qualifying investment in a qualified opportunity fund (QOF) within the meaning of section 1400Z-2(d)(1) and § 1.1400Z2(d)-1. Paragraph (a)(2) of this section describes how a taxpayer elects to defer gain. Paragraph (b) of this section defines terms used in the section 1400Z-2 regulations. Paragraph (c) of this section provides operational rules for applying section 1400Z-2 and the section 1400Z-2 regulations, including special rules regarding the election to defer gain under section 1400Z-2(a) and this section when an eligible taxpayer that is a partnership, S corporation, trust, or decedent's estate recognizes an eligible gain in a taxable year. Paragraph (d) of this section provides the manner in which a deferral election under section 1400Z-2(a) must be made. Paragraph (e) of this section provides the treatment of section 1400Z-2 for purposes of § 1.897-6T. Paragraph (f) of this section provides rules for mixed-funds investments. Paragraph (g) of this section provides dates of applicability. See §§ 1.1502-14Z and 1.1504-3 for special rules applicable to consolidated groups that invest in QOFs.

(2) Procedure for deferring gain. A taxpayer defers gain, in whole or in part, by making an election on its Federal income tax return for the taxable year in which the gain would be included if not deferred. The election must be made in the manner prescribed by the Internal Revenue Service in guidance published in the Internal Revenue Bulletin or in forms and instructions (see §§ 601.601(d)(2) and 601.602 of this chapter).

(b) Definitions. The following definitions apply for purposes of section 1400Z-2 and the section 1400Z-2 regulations:

(1) 30-month substantial improvement period. The term 30-month substantial improvement period means any 30-month period, beginning after the date of acquisition of tangible property, in which additions to the basis of the tangible property in the hands of the QOF or qualified opportunity zone business (see § 1.1400Z2(d)-2(b)(4)) exceed an amount equal to the adjusted basis of such property at the beginning of the 30-month period in the hands of the QOF or qualified opportunity zone business.

(2) 70-percent tangible property standard. The term 70-percent tangible property standard means the requirement in section 1400Z-2(d)(3)(A)(i) that a qualified opportunity zone business must satisfy with respect to qualified opportunity zone business property (see § 1.1400Z2(d)-2) that the qualified opportunity zone business holds, whether the qualified opportunity zone business property is owned by the qualified opportunity zone business or leased by the qualified opportunity zone business from another person.

(3) 70-percent use test. The term 70-percent use test means the test described in § 1.1400Z2(d)-2(d)(4)(ii) that is used to determine if a QOF or qualified opportunity zone business satisfies the requirement in sections 1400Z-2(d)(2)(D)(i)(III) and 1400Z-2(d)(3)(A)(i) that substantially all of the use of tangible property was in a qualified opportunity zone.

(4) 90-percent investment standard. The term 90-percent investment standard means the requirement provided in section 1400Z-2(d)(1) that a QOF must hold at least 90 percent of its assets in qualified opportunity zone property, as defined in section 1400Z-2(d)(2) and § 1.1400Z2(d)-1(c)(1), determined by the average of the percentage of qualified opportunity zone property held by the QOF as measured on the last day of the first six-month period and on the last day of the taxable year of the QOF.

(5) 90-percent qualified opportunity zone property holding period. The term 90-percent qualified opportunity zone property holding period means the minimum portion of a QOF's holding period in stock of a corporation or interests in a partnership, during which the corporation or partnership qualifies as a qualified opportunity zone business in order for the stock or the partnership interests to meet the substantially all requirement under section 1400Z-2(d)(2)(B)(i)(III) to be treated as qualified opportunity zone stock or the substantially all requirement under section 1400Z-2(d)(2)(C)(iii) to be treated as qualified opportunity zone partnership interests, as applicable, held by the QOF.

(6) 90-percent qualified opportunity zone business property holding period. The term 90-percent qualified opportunity zone business property holding period means the minimum portion of a QOF's or qualified opportunity zone business's holding period in tangible property during which the 70-percent use test with respect to the tangible property must be satisfied, in order for the tangible property to meet the requirement under section 1400Z-2(d)(2)(D)(i)(III) to be treated as qualified opportunity zone business property held by the QOF or qualified opportunity zone business.

(7) 180-day period -

(i) In general. Except as otherwise provided elsewhere in this section, the term 180-day period means the 180-day period referred to in section 1400Z-2(a)(1)(A) with respect to any eligible gain meeting the requirements of paragraph (b)(11) of this section that begins on the day on which the gain would be recognized for Federal income tax purposes if the eligible taxpayer did not elect under section 1400Z-2 and the section 1400Z-2 regulations to defer recognition of that gain.

(ii) 180-day period for RIC and REIT capital gain dividends -

(A) General rule. Unless the shareholder of a regulated investment company (RIC) or real estate investment trust (REIT) chooses to apply paragraph (b)(7)(ii)(B) of this section, the 180-day period for a RIC or REIT capital gain dividend begins on the last day of the shareholder's taxable year in which the capital gain dividend would otherwise be recognized by the shareholder.

(B) Elective rule. Notwithstanding the general rule in paragraph (b)(7)(ii)(A) of this section, a shareholder of a RIC or REIT may choose to treat the 180-day period with respect to a capital gain dividend that the shareholder receives from the RIC or REIT as beginning on the date of the dividend distribution; provided, however, that the aggregate amount of the shareholder's eligible gain with respect to capital gain dividends from the RIC or REIT is limited to the aggregate amount of capital gain dividends reported for that shareholder by the RIC for that shareholder's taxable year or designated for that shareholder by the REIT for that shareholder's taxable year.

(C) Undistributed capital gains. If section 852(b)(3)(D) or 857(b)(3)(C) (concerning undistributed capital gains) requires the holder of shares in a RIC or REIT to include an amount in the shareholder's long-term capital gains, the rule in paragraph (b)(7)(ii)(B) of this section does not apply to that amount. The 180-day period with respect to the included undistributed capital gain begins, at the shareholder's election, on either the last day of the RIC or REIT's taxable year or the last day of the shareholder's taxable year in which the amount would otherwise be recognized as long-term capital gains by the shareholder.

(iii) 180-day period for partners, S corporation shareholders, and owners of other passthrough entities. See paragraph (c)(8) and (9) of this section for rules relating to the determination of the 180-day period for partners, S corporation shareholders, or beneficiaries of a trust or decedent's estate in cases in which a partnership, S corporation, trust, or decedent's estate is not an eligible taxpayer with respect to an eligible gain, or does not make a deferral election with respect to an eligible gain.

(iv) Examples. The following examples illustrate the principles of paragraph (b)(7)(i) through (iii) of this section.

(A) Example 1. Regular-way trades of stock. Individual A sells stock at a gain in a regular-way trade on an exchange (that is, in a transaction in which a trade order is placed on the trade date, and settlement of the transaction, including payment and delivery of the stock, occurs a standardized number of days after the trade date). The 180-day period with respect to A's gain on the stock begins on the trade date.

(B) Example 2. Capital gain dividends received by a REIT shareholder. REIT and Shareholder are calendar year taxpayers. REIT distributes a dividend to Shareholder on March 1, Year 1. REIT designates the March 1 dividend as a capital gain dividend before 30 days after the close of Year 1. Shareholder's 180-day period with respect to that capital gain dividend begins on December 31, Year 1. However, Shareholder may choose to begin the 180-day period on March 1, Year 1. If so, an equity interest in a QOF received by Shareholder in exchange for an investment of an amount corresponding to that capital gain dividend may be a qualifying investment to the extent that Shareholder's aggregate elected deferrals of dividends from REIT for Year 1 do not exceed Shareholder's aggregate capital gain dividends from REIT for the taxable year.

(C) Example 3. Multiple capital gain dividends received by a RIC shareholder. RIC is a calendar year taxpayer. RIC distributes a dividend of $100 to Shareholder, a calendar year taxpayer, on March 1, Year 1 and distributes another dividend of $50 to Shareholder on June 1, Year 1. RIC reports both the March 1 and June 1 dividends as capital gain dividends on Shareholder's Form 1099-DIV for Year 1. Shareholder's 180-day period with respect to both capital gain dividends begins on December 31, Year 1. However, Shareholder may choose to begin the 180-day period for the $100 RIC capital gain dividend on March 1, Year 1, and may choose to begin the 180-day period for the $50 RIC capital gain dividend on June 1, Year 1. Thus, if Shareholder makes a single investment of $200 in a QOF in exchange for an eligible interest (as defined in paragraph (b)(12) of this section) on July 1, Year 1, absent any other eligible gain, Shareholder may treat $150 of the eligible interest as a qualifying investment in the QOF (that is, the amount that corresponds to the aggregate amount of the RIC capital gain dividends in Year 1) and $50 of the eligible interest as a non-qualifying investment therein.

(D) Example 4. Additional deferral of previously deferred gains -

(1) Facts. Taxpayer A invested in a QOF and properly elected to defer realized gain. On March 15, 2025, A disposes of its entire investment in the QOF in a transaction that, under sections 1400Z-2(a)(1)(B) and (b), triggers an inclusion of gain in A's gross income. Section 1400Z-2(b) determines the date and amount of the gain included in A's income. That date is March 15, 2025, the date on which A disposed of its entire interest in the QOF. A wants to make a deferral election with respect to A's gain from the disposal of the QOF investment.

(2) Analysis. Under paragraph (b)(7)(i) of this section, the 180-day period for making another investment in a QOF begins on the day on which section 1400Z-2(b) requires the prior gain to be included. As prescribed by section 1400Z-2(b)(1)(A), that is March 15, 2025, the date of the inclusion-triggering disposition. Thus, in order to make a deferral election under section 1400Z-2, A must invest the amount of the inclusion in the original QOF or in another QOF during the 180-day period beginning on March 15, 2025, the date when A disposed of its entire investment in the QOF.

(8) Boot. The term boot means money or other property that section 354 or 355 does not permit to be received without the recognition of gain.

(9) Consolidated group. The term consolidated group has the meaning provided in § 1.1502-1(h).

(10) Deferral election. The term deferral election means an election under section 1400Z-2(a) and the section 1400Z-2 regulations made before January 1, 2027, with respect to an eligible gain.

(11) Eligible gain -

(i) In general. An amount of gain is an eligible gain, and thus is eligible for deferral under section 1400Z-2(a) and the section 1400Z-2 regulations, if the gain -

(A) Is treated as a capital gain for Federal income tax purposes or is a qualified 1231 gain within the meaning of paragraph (b)(11)(iii)(A) of this section, determined by -

(1) Not taking into account any losses unless otherwise specified in the section 1400Z-2 regulations; and

(2) Taking into account any other provision of the Code that requires the character of potential capital gain to be recharacterized or redetermined as ordinary income, as defined in section 64, for purposes of the Code;

(B) Would be recognized for Federal income tax purposes and subject to tax under subtitle A of the Code before January 1, 2027 (subject to Federal income tax), if section 1400Z-2(a)(1) did not apply to defer recognition of the gain; and

(C) Does not arise from a sale or exchange of property with a person that, within the meaning of section 1400Z-2(e)(2), is related to -

(1) The eligible taxpayer that would recognize the gain in the taxable year in which the sale or exchange occurs if section 1400Z-2(a)(1) and the section 1400Z-2 regulations did not apply to defer recognition of the gain; or

(2) Any passthrough entity or other person recognizing and allocating the gain to the eligible taxpayer described in paragraph (b)(11)(i)(C)(1) of this section.

(ii) Portion of eligible gain not already subject to a deferral election. In the case of an eligible taxpayer who has made an election under section 1400Z-2(a) and the section 1400Z-2 regulations regarding some but not all of an eligible gain, the portion of that eligible gain with respect to which no election under section 1400Z-2(a) and the section 1400Z-2 regulations has been made remains an eligible gain for which a deferral election may be made.

(iii) Qualified 1231 gains -

(A) Definition. A section 1231 gain (as defined in section 1231(a)(3)(A)) recognized on the sale or exchange of property defined in section 1231(b) (1231(b) property) is a qualified 1231 gain to the extent that it exceeds any amount with respect to the 1231(b) property that is treated as ordinary income under section 1245 or section 1250.

(B) 180-day period. For the applicable 180-day period with respect to a qualified 1231 gain, see paragraph (b)(7) of this section.

(C) Attributes of included income when deferral ends. For the Federal income tax treatment of the later inclusion of a qualified 1231 gain deferred under section 1400Z-2(a)(1) and the section 1400Z-2 regulations, see paragraph (c)(1) of this section.

(iv) Gain arising from an inclusion event -

(A) In general. Gain that is otherwise required to be included in gross income under § 1.1400Z2(b)-1(e)(1), whether from the disposition of an entire interest in a QOF or a disposition of a partial interest, may be eligible for deferral under section 1400Z-2(a)(1), provided that all of the requirements to elect to defer gain under section 1400Z-2(a)(1)(A) are met. For purposes of determining whether such gain is eligible gain under section 1400Z-2(a)(1)(A) and this paragraph (b)(11)(iv)(A), the eligible taxpayer should treat such inclusion gain as if it was originally realized upon the occurrence of the inclusion event rather than on the sale or exchange that gave rise to the eligible gain to which the inclusion event relates.

(B) 180-day period. The 180-day period for investing gain from an inclusion event begins on the date of the inclusion event.

(C) Holding period. The holding period for a qualifying investment attributable to eligible gain arising from an inclusion event begins on the date that the gain is reinvested in a QOF.

(v) No deferral for gain realized upon the acquisition of an eligible interest. Gain is not eligible for deferral under section 1400Z-2(a)(1) and the section 1400Z-2 regulations if such gain is realized upon the contribution, exchange, or other transfer of property to a QOF in exchange for an eligible interest (see paragraph (c)(6)(ii)(C) of this section) or the transfer of property to an eligible taxpayer in exchange for an eligible interest (see paragraph (c)(6)(iv) of this section).

(vi) Gain from section 1256 contracts and from positions in a straddle -

(A) General rule. Except as otherwise explicitly provided in paragraph (b)(11)(vi)(B), (C), or (D) of this section, eligible gain for a taxable year does not include -

(1) Gain from a section 1256 contract as defined in section 1256(b);

(2) Gain from a position that was part of a straddle as defined in section 1092 (straddle) during the taxable year; or

(3) Gain from a position that was part of a straddle in a previous taxable year if, under section 1092(a)(1)(B), a loss from any position in that straddle is treated as sustained, subject to the limitations of section 1092(a)(1)(A), during the taxable year.

(B) Exception for net gain from certain section 1256 contracts. Paragraph (b)(11)(vi)(A)(1) of this section does not apply to the net gain during the taxable year from section 1256 contracts that were not part of a straddle at any time during the taxable year (qualified section 1256 contracts). For purposes of this paragraph (b)(11)(vi)(B), the net gain during the taxable year from qualified section 1256 contracts is determined by taking into account all capital gains and losses from such contracts for the taxable year that are recognized for Federal income tax purposes, determined without regard to section 1400Z-2(a)(1). The 180-day period with respect to any eligible gain described in this paragraph (b)(11)(vi)(B) begins on the last day of the taxable year, and the character of that gain when it is later included under sections 1400Z-2(a)(1)(B) and 1400Z-2(b) is determined under the general rule in paragraph (c)(1) of this section. If, under section 1256(a)(4), section 1092 does not apply to a straddle, such straddle is not treated as a straddle for purposes of this paragraph (b)(11)(vi)(B).

(C) Exception for net gain from certain identified straddles -

(1) Paragraph (b)(11)(vi)(A) of this section does not apply to the net gain during the taxable year from positions in a straddle if -

(i) During the taxable year, the positions were part of an identified straddle under section 1092(a)(2), part of an identified mixed straddle under § 1.1092(b)-3T (and, as applicable, § 1.1092(b)-6), part of an identified straddle under section 1256(d), or included in a mixed straddle account under § 1.1092(b)-4T;

(ii) All gains and losses with respect to the positions that were part of such straddle or included in such mixed straddle account are recognized by the end of the taxable year (other than gain that would be recognized but for deferral under section 1400Z-2(a)(1));

(iii) None of the positions in such straddle or mixed straddle account were part of a straddle during the taxable year, other than a straddle described in paragraph (b)(11)(vi)(C)(1)(i) and (ii) of this section; and

(iv) None of the positions in such straddle or mixed straddle account were part of a straddle in a previous taxable year if, under section 1092(a)(1)(B), a loss from any position in such straddle is treated as sustained, subject to the limitations of section 1092(a)(1)(A), during the taxable year.

(2) For purposes of paragraph (b)(11)(vi)(C)(1) of this section, net gain during the taxable year from an identified straddle or mixed straddle account described in paragraph (b)(11)(vi)(C)(1)(i) through (iv) of this section is equal to the excess of the capital gains recognized in the taxable year for Federal income tax purposes, determined without regard to section 1400Z-2(a)(1), from all of the positions that were part of that straddle over the sum of the capital losses and net ordinary loss (if any) from all of the positions that were part of that straddle. For purposes of this paragraph (b)(11)(vi)(C)(2), capital gains and losses from an identified straddle or mixed straddle account include capital gains and losses from section 1256 contracts and other positions marked to market either upon termination or on the last business day of the taxable year, as well as annual account net gain from positions in a mixed straddle account covered by § 1.1092(b)-4T. In addition, for purposes of this paragraph (b)(11)(vi)(C)(2), net ordinary loss means the excess of ordinary losses over ordinary gains.

(3) If a straddle is an identified straddle described in section 1092(a)(2), the basis adjustment provisions described in sections 1092(a)(2)(A)(ii) and (iii) must be applied in determining the net gain during the taxable year from positions that were part of that straddle.

(4) The 180-day period with respect to any eligible gain described in paragraph (b)(11)(vi)(C)(2) of this section begins on the earlier of the date when all of the positions that are, or have been, part of the straddle are disposed of (or otherwise terminated) or the last day of the taxable year.

(5) If net gain described in paragraph (b)(11)(vi)(C)(2) of this section is deferred under section 1400Z-2(a)(1), that gain is not treated as unrecognized gain for purposes of section 1092(a)(3)(A)(ii).

(D) Additional exceptions to the general rule. Additional exceptions to the general rule in paragraph (b)(11)(vi)(A) of this section may be prescribed in guidance published in the Internal Revenue Bulletin (see § 601.601(d)(2) of this chapter).

(E) Examples. The following examples illustrate the rules described in paragraph (b)(11)(vi) of this section. All of the examples assume that Taxpayer holds the positions described as capital assets and that Taxpayer holds no offsetting positions other than those described in the examples.

(1) Example 1. Taxpayer owns 100 shares of publicly traded Company X common stock and acquires put options on 100 shares of Company X common stock during the taxable year. Taxpayer does not make any straddle identifications under section 1092. During the taxable year, Taxpayer sells all 100 shares of its Company X common stock and has a $40 capital gain. During the taxable year, Taxpayer also closes out all of its put options on Company X common stock and has a $30 capital loss. That $40 of capital gain is from a position that was part of a straddle during the taxable year because the position in Company X common stock and the position in put options on Company X stock are offsetting positions as defined in section 1092(c). Under paragraph (b)(11)(vi)(A) of this section, none of Taxpayer's $40 of capital gain is eligible gain.

(2) Example 2. Taxpayer's taxable year is the calendar year. Taxpayer owns 100 shares of publicly traded Company Y common stock and has a basis in each share of $10.00. Taxpayer also owns put options on 100 shares of Company Y common stock. Taxpayer makes a valid and timely identification under section 1092(a)(2) of the 100 shares of Company Y common stock and the put options on the 100 shares of Company Y common stock. On January 10, Year 1, Taxpayer closes out all of the put options and has a $30.00 capital loss. On March 10, Year 1, Taxpayer sells 40 shares of the Company Y common stock for $11.00 per share. At the end of Year 1, the fair market value of each of the 60 remaining shares of Company Y common stock held by Taxpayer is $10.50. Under section 1092(a)(2)(A)(ii), when the put options are closed out at a loss of $30.00, the basis of each of Taxpayer's shares of Company Y common stock is increased by $0.30 ($30.00/100). Thus, Taxpayer has a gain of $28.00 ((40 * $11.00)−(40 * $10.30)) on the sale of the 40 shares of Company Y common stock. Paragraph (b)(11)(vi)(A) of this section applies to all of Taxpayer's gain during the taxable year from the straddle. Because Taxpayer has unrecognized gain from the straddle at the end of the taxable year, paragraph (b)(11)(vi)(C) of this section does not shield any of Taxpayer's gain from that result. The $28 of gain is thus not eligible gain. Taxpayer must recognize and include in taxable income for the taxable year the $28.00 capital gain. Under section 1092(a)(2)(A)(iv), Taxpayer may not deduct the $30.00 loss from the put options.

(3) Example 3. The facts are the same as in paragraph (b)(11)(vi)(E)(2) of this section (Example 2), except Taxpayer sells the 100 shares of Company Y common stock on March 10, Year 1, for $11.50 per share. Under section 1092(a)(2)(A)(ii), as in paragraph (b)(11)(vi)(E)(2) of this section (Example 2), when the put options are closed out at a loss of $30.00, the basis of each of Taxpayer's shares of Company Y common stock is increased by $0.30 ($30.00/100). Taxpayer has a gain of $120.00 ((100 * $11.50)−(100 * $10.30)) on the sale of the 100 shares of Company Y common stock. Taxpayer has net gain during the taxable year from the identified straddle of $120.00. Under paragraph (b)(11)(vi)(C) of this section, paragraph (b)(11)(vi)(A) of this section does not apply to prevent the $120.00 net gain from being eligible gain. As in paragraph (b)(11)(vi)(E)(2) of this section (Example 2), under section 1092(a)(2)(A)(iv), Taxpayer may not deduct the $30.00 loss from the put options.

(4) Example 4. Taxpayer's taxable year is the calendar year. Taxpayer owns 100 shares of publicly traded Company Z common stock and has a basis in each share of $10. Taxpayer also owns put options on 100 shares of Company Z common stock. In Year 1, Taxpayer closes out the put options at a $100 loss. At the end of Year 1, the fair market value of each of the shares of Company Z common stock held by Taxpayer is $15 and, under section 1092(a)(3), Taxpayer has $500 of unrecognized gain. Because Taxpayer's unrecognized gain on the Company Z common stock at the end of Year 1 exceeds Taxpayer's loss on the put options, Taxpayer's loss is deferred under section 1092(a)(1). During Year 2, Taxpayer sells 40 shares of Company Z common stock for $14 per share. Taxpayer has a gain of $160 ((40 * $14)−(40 * $10)) on the sale of the 40 shares of Company Z common stock. Under paragraph (b)(11)(vi)(A) of this section, because Taxpayer's Company Z common stock was part of a straddle in a previous taxable year and a loss from a position in that straddle was deferred under section 1092(a) at the end of Year 1, the preceding taxable year, Taxpayer's $160 Year 2 gain on the sale of the Company Z common stock is not eligible gain. At the end of Year 2, the fair market value of each of the 60 remaining shares of Company Z common stock held by Taxpayer is $10 and Taxpayer has no unrecognized gain on its Company Z common stock. Under section 1092(a)(1)(B), Taxpayer's $100 loss from Year 1 is treated as sustained in Year 2. Because Taxpayer has no unrecognized gain on its Company Z common stock at the end of Year 2, Taxpayer may deduct the $100 loss in Year 2. In Year 3, Taxpayer sells the remaining 60 shares of Company Z common stock for $50 per share. Taxpayer has a gain of $2,400 ((60 * $50)−(60 * $10)) on the sale of the 60 shares of Company Z common stock. Because there was no loss from the straddle deferred under section 1092(a) at the end of Year 2, paragraph (b)(11)(vi)(A) of this section does not apply to prevent the $2,400 of Year 3 net gain from being eligible gain.

(5) Example 5. Taxpayer's taxable year is the calendar year. On October 5, Year 1, Taxpayer buys 100 shares of publicly traded Exchange Traded Fund A (ETF A) and acquires offsetting section 1256 contracts on the index that underlies the ETF A shares. Taxpayer makes a valid and timely identification of all 100 ETF A shares and the offsetting section 1256 contracts under § 1.1092(b)-3T. On December 31, Year 1, the fair market value of the ETF A shares has increased by $500, and the fair market value of the section 1256 contracts has decreased by $450. On December 31, Year 1, Taxpayer sells the ETF shares for a $500 gain. In addition, under section 1256(a)(1), the section 1256 contracts are treated as sold for fair market value on December 31, Year 1, for a $450 loss. Pursuant to § 1.1092(b)-3T(b)(4), Taxpayer has a net short term capital gain from the identified mixed straddle of $50 ($500-$450). Under paragraph (b)(11)(vi)(C) of this section, paragraph (b)(11)(vi)(A) of this section does not apply to prevent the $50 of net short term capital gain from being eligible gain.

(vii) [Reserved]

(viii) Eligible installment sale gains -

(A) In general. The term eligible gain includes gains described in this paragraph (b)(11) that would be recognized by an eligible taxpayer under the installment method pursuant to section 453 and with §§ 1.453-1 through 1.453-12 for a taxable year, provided such gain otherwise meets the requirements of this paragraph (b)(11). This includes gains recognized under the installment method under section 453 from an installment sale that occurred before December 22, 2017.

(B) 180-day period for gain from installment sales. For gains reported on the installment method, an eligible taxpayer may treat the date the payment on the installment sale is received or the last day of the taxable year in which the eligible taxpayer would have recognized the gain under the installment method as the beginning of the 180-day period described in paragraph (b)(7) of this section. Thus, if an eligible taxpayer receives one or more payments on an installment sale and treats the date the payment on the installment sale is received as the beginning of the 180-day period, each payment will begin a new 180-day period.

(ix) Additional rules for determining if gain is subject to Federal income tax -

(A) Application of a treaty -

(1) In general. For purposes of paragraph (b)(11)(i)(B) of this section, whether gain would be subject to Federal income tax is determined after application of any treaty exemption provision that an eligible taxpayer elects to apply under any applicable U.S. income tax convention.

(2) Treaty waiver. An eligible taxpayer who is not a United States person within the meaning of section 7701(a)(30) (or an eligible taxpayer who is a United States person within the meaning of section 7701(a)(30) but who is treated as a resident of another country under an applicable U.S. income tax convention) may not make an election to defer gain pursuant to section 1400Z-2(a) after the applicability date of this section (see paragraph (g) of this section) unless such eligible taxpayer irrevocably waives, in accordance with forms and instructions (see § 601.602 of this chapter), any treaty benefits that would exempt such gain from being subject to Federal income tax at the time of inclusion pursuant to an applicable U.S. income tax convention. In the event that such forms and instructions that include such waiver have not yet been published when an election pursuant to paragraph (d)(1) of this section is required to be made, such an eligible taxpayer must attach a written statement, signed under penalties of perjury, to any forms on which an election is made pursuant to paragraph (d)(1) of this section, which states “With respect to gain deferred pursuant to an election under section 1400Z-2(a), the below signed taxpayer irrevocably waives any treaty benefits that would exempt such gain from being subject to Federal income tax at the time of inclusion pursuant to an applicable U.S. income tax convention.” If such an eligible taxpayer chooses to apply the section 1400Z-2 regulations in a consistent manner for all taxable years (see paragraph (g)(2)(i) of this section), the taxpayer must include the signed statement required under this paragraph (b)(11)(ix)(A)(2) with the first annual report described in paragraph (d)(2) of this section that is required to be filed on a date that is after March 13, 2020. An eligible taxpayer not described in the first sentence of this paragraph (b)(11)(ix)(A)(2) will only be required to make the waiver described in this paragraph (b)(11)(ix)(A)(2) if and to the extent required in forms and instructions (see § 601.602 of this chapter).

(3) Non-application to certain entities. This paragraph (b)(11)(ix)(A) does not apply to an entity described in paragraph (b)(11)(ix)(B) of this section.

(B) Gain of a partnership. Subject to § 1.1400Z2(f)-1(c), with respect to a partnership, the requirement in paragraph (b)(11)(i)(B) of this section that a gain be subject to Federal income tax does not apply to an otherwise eligible gain of the partnership, provided the partnership acquires the eligible interest with respect to such gain. See § 1.1400Z2(f)-1(c)(3)(i) and (ii), Examples 1 and 2, for illustrations of the application of § 1.1400Z2(f)-1(c) (providing an anti-abuse rule) to a partnership.

(12) Eligible interest -

(i) In general. For purposes of section 1400Z-2, an eligible interest in a QOF is an equity interest issued by the QOF, including preferred stock or a partnership interest with special allocations. Thus, the term eligible interest excludes any debt instrument including those within the meaning of section 1275(a)(1) and § 1.1275-1(d). An eligible interest includes a pre-existing interest in an entity that becomes a QOF pursuant to § 1.1400Z2(d)-1(a)(1)(iii).

(ii) Use as collateral permitted. Provided that the eligible taxpayer is the owner of the equity interest in the QOF for Federal income tax purposes, status as an eligible interest is not impaired by using the interest as collateral for a loan, whether as part of a purchase-money borrowing or otherwise.

(iii) Deemed contributions not creating mixed-funds investment. See paragraph (f)(2) of this section for rules regarding deemed contributions of money to a partnership pursuant to section 752(a).

(13) Eligible taxpayer. An eligible taxpayer is a person that is required to report the recognition of gains during the taxable year under Federal income tax accounting principles. Thus, for example, eligible taxpayers include individuals; C corporations, including RICs and REITs; organizations subject to tax under section 511; and partnerships, S corporations, trusts, and decedents' estates to the extent permitted by paragraphs (c)(7) through (9) of this section.

(14) Inclusion event. The term inclusion event has the meaning provided in § 1.1400Z2(b)-1(c).

(15) Mixed-funds investment. The term mixed-funds investment means an investment a portion of which is a qualifying investment and a portion of which is a non-qualifying investment.

(16) Non-qualifying investment. The term non-qualifying investment means an investment in a QOF described in section 1400Z-2(e)(1)(A)(ii).

(17) Property -

(i) In general. The term property means money, securities, or any other property.

(ii) Inclusion events regarding QOF corporation distributions. For purposes of § 1.1400Z2(b)-1(c), in the context in which a QOF corporation makes a distribution, the term property does not include stock (or rights to acquire stock) in the QOF corporation that makes the distribution.

(18) QOF. The term QOF means a qualified opportunity fund, as defined in section 1400Z-2(d)(1) and § 1.1400Z2(d)-1.

(19) QOF C corporation. The term QOF C corporation means a QOF corporation other than a QOF S corporation.

(20) QOF corporation. The term QOF corporation means a QOF that is classified as a corporation for Federal income tax purposes.

(21) QOF RIC. The term QOF RIC means a QOF that elects to be taxed as a RIC for Federal income tax purposes. For purposes of section 1400Z-2 and the section 1400Z-2 regulations, a RIC is a regulated investment company within the meaning of section 851.

(22) QOF REIT. The term QOF REIT means a QOF that elects to be taxed as a REIT for Federal income tax purposes. For purposes of section 1400Z-2 and the section 1400Z-2 regulations, a REIT is a real estate investment trust within the meaning of section 856.

(23) QOF owner. The term QOF owner means a QOF shareholder or a QOF partner.

(24) QOF partner. The term QOF partner means a person that directly owns a qualifying investment in a QOF partnership or a person that owns such a qualifying investment through equity interests solely in one or more partnerships.

(25) QOF partnership. The term QOF partnership means a QOF that is classified as a partnership for Federal income tax purposes.

(26) QOF S corporation. The term QOF S corporation means a QOF corporation that has elected under section 1362 to be an S corporation.

(27) QOF shareholder. The term QOF shareholder means a person that directly owns a qualifying investment in a QOF corporation.

(28) QOZ designation notice. The term QOZ designation notice means a notice designating population census tracts as qualified opportunity zones (QOZs) in guidance published in the Internal Revenue Bulletin (see § 601.601(d)(2) of this chapter).

(29) Qualified opportunity zone business. The term qualified opportunity zone business has the meaning provided in section 1400Z-2(d)(3) and § 1.1400Z2(d)-1(d).

(30) Qualified opportunity zone business property. The term qualified opportunity zone business property has the meaning provided in section 1400Z-2(d)(2)(D) and § 1.1400Z2(d)-2.

(31) Qualified opportunity zone partnership interest. The term qualified opportunity zone partnership interest has the meaning provided in section 1400Z-2(d)(2)(C) and § 1.1400Z2(d)-1(c)(3).

(32) Qualified opportunity zone property. The term qualified opportunity zone property has the meaning provided in section 1400Z-2(d)(2)(A) and § 1.1400Z2(d)-1(c)(1).

(33) Qualified opportunity zone stock. The term qualified opportunity zone stock has the meaning provided in section 1400Z-2(d)(2)(B) and § 1.1400Z2(d)-1(c)(2).

(34) Qualifying investment. The term qualifying investment means an eligible interest, or portion thereof, in a QOF to the extent that a deferral election is made and applies with respect to such eligible interest or portion thereof and the IRS has been timely notified of the deferral election. An eligible interest in a QOF ceases to be a qualifying investment of the owner upon, and to the extent of, the occurrence of an inclusion event with regard to that eligible interest, or portion thereof, except as is expressly provided otherwise in § 1.1400Z2(b)-1(c) or other provisions of the section 1400Z-2 regulations.

(35) Qualifying QOF partnership interest. The term qualifying QOF partnership interest means a direct or indirect interest in a QOF partnership that is a qualifying investment.

(36) Qualifying QOF stock. The term qualifying QOF stock means stock in a QOF corporation that is a qualifying investment.

(37) Qualifying section 355 transaction. The term qualifying section 355 transaction means a distribution described in § 1.1400Z2(b)-1(c)(11)(i)(B).

(38) Qualifying section 381 transaction. The term qualifying section 381 transaction means a transaction described in section 381(a)(2), except the following transactions:

(i) An acquisition of assets of a QOF by a QOF shareholder that holds a qualifying investment in the QOF;

(ii) An acquisition of assets of a QOF by a tax-exempt entity as defined in § 1.337(d)-4(c)(2);

(iii) An acquisition of assets of a QOF by an entity operating on a cooperative basis within the meaning of section 1381;

(iv) An acquisition by a QOF of assets of a QOF shareholder that holds a qualifying investment in the QOF;

(v) A reorganization of a QOF in a transaction that qualifies under section 368(a)(1)(G);

(vi) A transaction, immediately after which one QOF owns an investment in another QOF; and

(vii) A triangular reorganization of a QOF within the meaning of § 1.358-6(b)(2)(i), (ii), or (iii).

(39) Related persons. The term related when used with regard to persons and the term related persons means that there is a relationship described in section 267(b) or 707(b)(1), determined by substituting “20 percent” for “50 percent” each place it occurs in such sections. The term unrelated when used with regard to persons means that there is no relationship described in preceding sentence.

(40) Remaining deferred gain. With respect to a qualifying investment, the term remaining deferred gain means the full amount of gain that was deferred under section 1400Z-2(a)(1)(A), reduced by the amount of gain previously included under § 1.1400Z2(b)-1(b). After December 31, 2026, an eligible taxpayer's remaining deferred gain is $0.

(41) Section 1400Z-2 regulations. The term section 1400Z-2 regulations means the regulations in this chapter, which are prescribed in whole or in part under section 1400Z-2.

(c) Operational and special rules -

(1) Attributes of gains included in income under section 1400Z-2(a)(1)(B). If section 1400Z-2(a)(1)(B), section 1400Z-2(b), and the section 1400Z-2 regulations require a taxpayer to include in income some or all of a previously deferred gain, the rules of paragraphs (c)(1)(i) and (ii) of this section apply with respect to such gain.

(i) Deferral year attributes. The gain so included per paragraph (c)(1) of this section has the same attributes in the taxable year of inclusion that the gain would have had if recognition of the gain had not been deferred under section 1400Z-2(a)(1)(A). These attributes include those taken into account by sections 1(h), 1222, 1231(b), 1256, and any other applicable provisions of the Code.

(ii) Inclusion year treatment. The gain so included per paragraph (c)(1) of this section is subject to the same Federal income tax provisions and rates that would apply to any other gains that are realized and recognized at the same time as the included gain and that have the same attributes as the deferred gain. For example, when a deferred qualified 1231 gain, as defined in paragraph (b)(11)(iii) of this section, is required to be included in income, the included section 1231 gain is treated as if it were a section 1231 gain (within the meaning of section 1231(a)(3)(A)) that was recognized on the date of inclusion.

(iii) Rules for associating included gain with deferred gains -

(A) In general. For purposes of paragraphs (c)(1)(i) and (ii) of this section, a taxpayer determines which previously deferred gain is associated with a qualifying investment in accordance with guidance published in the Internal Revenue Bulletin or in forms and instructions (see §§ 601.601(d)(2) and 601.602 of this chapter). The rules of paragraphs (c)(1)(iii)(B) and (C) of this section apply only to the extent a deferred gain is not clearly associated with a particular qualifying investment under this paragraph (c)(1)(iii)(A).

(B) Only one eligible gain associated with a deferral election. If only one eligible gain could have been deferred with respect to a qualifying investment, that deferred gain is associated with that qualifying investment. For example, if an eligible taxpayer makes a deferral election with respect to an investment in a QOF and only one eligible gain of the taxpayer satisfies the 180-day period with respect to the investment in the QOF, that eligible gain is the gain deferred with respect to the qualifying investment for purposes of paragraphs (c)(1)(i) and (ii) of this section.

(C) Multiple eligible gains associated with a deferral election -

(1) In general. If more than one eligible gain may have been deferred with respect to an investment in a QOF for which a deferral election has been made, then for purposes of paragraphs (c)(1)(i) and (ii) of this section, the eligible taxpayer is treated as making the investment in the QOF first with respect to the earliest realized eligible gain, followed by the next earliest eligible gain and any other eligible gains in order of the date of their realization.

(2) Rule for gains realized on the same day. If in the application of paragraph (c)(1)(iii)(C)(1) of this section, two eligible gains are realized on the same day, such gains are allocated to the investment in the QOF proportionately.

(2) Identification of which interest in a QOF corporation has been disposed of -

(i) Need for identification. If a taxpayer holds shares of QOF stock with identical rights (fungible interests), and if the taxpayer disposes of less than all of the fungible interests, it is necessary to identify which interest or interests were disposed of. A taxpayer may effect this identification in accordance with the rules and principles of § 1.1012-1(c). Consistent with § 1.1012-1(c), if a taxpayer does not adequately identify which of the fungible interests are disposed of, the first-in, first-out identification method (FIFO method) applies.

(ii) Consequences of identification. The identification determines -

(A) Whether an investment disposed of is a qualifying investment or a non-qualifying investment; and

(B) In the case of qualifying investments -

(1) The attributes of the gain addressed in paragraph (c)(1) of this section; and

(2) The extent, if any, of an increase under section 1400Z-2(b)(2)(B) in the basis of an investment interest that is disposed of.

(3) Pro-rata method. If, after application of the FIFO method, a taxpayer is treated as having disposed of less than all of the investment interests that the taxpayer acquired on one day, and if the interests acquired on that day vary with respect to the characteristics described in paragraph (c)(2)(ii) of this section, then a proportionate allocation must be made to determine which interests were disposed of (pro-rata method).

(4) Examples. The following examples illustrate the rules of paragraph (c)(1) through (3) of this section.

(i) Example 1. Short-term gain. For 2018, taxpayer B properly made an election under section 1400Z-2 to defer $100 of eligible gain that, if not deferred, would have been recognized as short-term capital gain, as defined in section 1222(1). In 2022, sections 1400Z-2(a)(1)(B) and (b) require taxpayer B to include the gain in gross income. Under paragraph (c)(1) of this section, the gain included in 2022 is short-term capital gain.

(ii) Example 2. Collectibles gain. For 2018, taxpayer C properly made an election under section 1400Z-2 to defer a gain that, if not deferred, would have been collectibles gain as defined in section 1(h)(5). In a later taxable year, section 1400Z-2(a)(1)(B) and (b) requires some or all of that deferred gain to be included in gross income. The gain included is collectibles gain.

(iii) Example 3. Net capital gain from section 1256 contracts. For 2019, taxpayer D had $100 of net capital gain realized from section 1256 contracts that is eligible gain under paragraph (b)(11)(vi)(B) of this section. D timely invested $100 in a QOF and properly made an election under section 1400Z-2 to defer that $100 of gain. In 2023, section 1400Z-2(a)(1)(B) and (b) requires D to include that deferred gain in gross income. Under paragraph (c)(1) of this section, the character of the inclusion is governed by section 1256(a)(3), which requires a 40:60 split between short-term and long-term capital gain. Accordingly, $40 of the inclusion is short-term capital gain and $60 of the inclusion is long-term capital gain.

(iv) Example 4. FIFO method. For 2018, taxpayer E properly made an election under section 1400Z-2 to defer $300 of short-term capital gain. For 2020, E properly made a second election under section 1400Z-2 to defer $200 of long-term capital gain. In both cases, E properly invested in QOF corporation Q the amount of the gain to be deferred, resulting in a total investment in Q of $500. The two investments are fungible interests and the price of the interests was the same at the time of the two investments. E did not purchase any additional interest in Q or sell any of its interest in Q until 2024, when E sold for a gain 60 percent of its interest in Q. E did not adequately identify which investment in QOF Q E sold. Under paragraph (c)(2)(i) of this section, E must apply the FIFO method to identify which investments in Q that E disposed of. 60 percent of E's total investment in Q is $300 (60% × $500), thus under the FIFO method, E sold its entire 2018 initial investment of $300 in Q. Under section 1400Z-2(a)(1)(B) and (b), the sale triggered an inclusion of deferred gain. Because the inclusion has the same character as the gain that had been deferred, the inclusion is short-term capital gain.

(v) Example 5. FIFO method. In 2018, before Corporation R became a QOF, Taxpayer F invested $100 to R in exchange for 100 R common shares. Later in 2018, after R was a QOF, F invested $500 to R in exchange for 400 R common shares and properly elected under section 1400Z-2 to defer $500 of realized short-term capital gain from a separate investment. Even later in 2018, on different days, F realized $300 of short-term capital gain and $700 of long-term capital gain. On a single day that fell during the 180-day period for both of those gains, F invested $1,000 in R in exchange for 800 R common shares and properly elected under section 1400Z-2 to defer the two gains. In 2020, F sold 100 R common shares. F did not adequately identify which investment in R F sold. Under paragraph (c)(2)(i) of this section, F must apply the FIFO method to identify which investments in R F disposed of. As determined by that identification, F sold the initially acquired 100 R common shares, which were not part of a deferral election under section 1400Z-2. R must recognize gain or loss on the sale of its R shares under the generally applicable Federal income tax rules, but the sale does not trigger an inclusion of any deferred gain.

(vi) Example 6. FIFO method. The facts are the same as in paragraph (c)(4)(v) of this section (Example 5), except that, in addition, during 2021 F sold an additional 400 R common shares, and, as with the other sale, F did not adequately identify which investment in QOF R F sold. Under paragraph (c)(2)(i) of this section, F must apply the FIFO method to identify which investments in R were disposed of. As determined by this identification, F sold the 400 common shares which were associated with the deferral of $500 of short-term capital gain. Thus, the deferred gain that must be included upon sale of the 400 R common shares is short-term capital gain.

(vii) Example 7. Pro-rata method. The facts are the same as in examples 5 and 6, except that, in addition, during 2022 F sold an additional 400 R common shares. Under paragraph (c)(2)(i) of this section, F must apply the FIFO method to identify which investments in R were disposed of. In 2022, F is treated as holding only the 800 R common shares purchased on a single day, and the section 1400Z-2 deferral election associated with these shares applies to gain with different characteristics (described in paragraph (c)(2)(ii) of this section). Under paragraph (c)(3) of this section, therefore, R must use the pro-rata method to determine which of the characteristics pertain to the deferred gain required to be included as a result of the sale of the 400 R common shares. Under the pro-rata method, $150 of the inclusion is short-term capital gain ($300 × 400/800) and $350 is long-term capital gain ($700 × 400/800).

(5) Making an investment for purposes of an election under section 1400Z-2(a) -

(i) Transfer of cash or other property to a QOF. A taxpayer makes an investment in a QOF by transferring cash or other property to a QOF in exchange for eligible interests in the QOF, regardless of whether the transfer is one in which the transferor would recognize gain or loss on the property transferred.

(ii) Furnishing services. Rendering services to a QOF is not a transfer of cash or other property to a QOF. Thus, if a taxpayer receives an eligible interest in a QOF for services rendered to the QOF or to a person in which the QOF holds any direct or indirect equity interest, then the interest in the QOF that the taxpayer receives is a non-qualifying investment.

(iii) Acquisition of eligible interest from person other than QOF. An eligible taxpayer may make an investment in a QOF by acquiring an eligible interest in a QOF from a person other than the QOF, provided that all of the requirements of section 1400Z-2(a)(1) and the section 1400Z-2 regulations for making a valid deferral election with respect to that investment are otherwise satisfied with respect to such acquisition. For example, an eligible taxpayer who acquires an eligible interest in a QOF other than from the QOF also must have an eligible gain within the 180-day period prior to the eligible taxpayer's acquisition of the eligible interest in the QOF.

(6) Amount invested for purposes of section 1400Z-2(a)(1)(A) -

(i) In general. In the case of any investments described in this paragraph (c)(6), the amount of a taxpayer's qualifying investment cannot exceed the amount of eligible gain to be deferred under the deferral election. If the amount of an otherwise qualifying investment exceeds the amount of eligible gain to be deferred under the deferral election, the amount of the excess is treated as a non-qualifying investment. See paragraph (c)(6)(iii) of this section for special rules applicable to transfers to QOF partnerships.

(ii) Transfers to a QOF -

(A) Cash. If a taxpayer makes an investment in a QOF by transferring cash to a QOF, the amount of the taxpayer's investment is that amount of cash.

(B) Property other than cash - Nonrecognition transactions. This paragraph (c)(6)(ii)(B) applies if a taxpayer makes an investment in a QOF by transferring property other than cash to a QOF and if, but for the application of section 1400Z-2(b)(2)(B) and the section 1400Z-2 regulations, the taxpayer's basis in the resulting investment in the QOF would be determined, in whole or in part, by reference to the taxpayer's basis in the transferred property. This paragraph (c)(6)(ii)(B) applies separately to each item of property transferred to a QOF.

(1) Amount of qualifying investment. If paragraph (c)(6)(ii)(B) of this section applies, the amount of the taxpayer's qualifying investment is the lesser of the taxpayer's adjusted basis in the eligible interest received in the transaction, without regard to section 1400Z-2(b)(2)(B) and the section 1400Z-2 regulations, or the fair market value of the eligible interest received in the transaction, both determined immediately after the transfer.

(2) Fair market value of the eligible interest received exceeds its adjusted basis. If paragraph (c)(6)(ii)(B) of this section applies, and if the fair market value of the eligible interest received is in excess of the eligible taxpayer's adjusted basis in the eligible interest received, without regard to section 1400Z-2(b)(2)(B) and the section 1400Z-2 regulations, then the eligible taxpayer's investment in a QOF is a mixed-funds investment to which section 1400Z-2(e)(1) applies. In such a case, an amount equal to the adjusted basis of the eligible interest in the hands of the eligible taxpayer is the eligible taxpayer's qualifying investment, and the excess is the eligible taxpayer's non-qualifying investment.

(3) Transfer of built-in loss property and section 362(e)(2). If paragraph (c)(6)(ii)(B) of this section and section 362(e)(2) both apply to a transaction, the eligible taxpayer and the QOF are deemed to have made an election under section 362(e)(2)(C).

(C) Property other than cash - Taxable transactions. This paragraph (c)(6)(ii)(C) applies if an eligible taxpayer makes an investment in a QOF by transferring property other than cash to a QOF and if, without regard to section 1400Z-2(b)(2)(B) and the section 1400Z-2 regulations, the eligible taxpayer's basis in the eligible interest received would not be determined, in whole or in part, by reference to the eligible taxpayer's basis in the transferred property. If this paragraph (c)(6)(ii)(C) applies, the amount of the eligible taxpayer's investment in a QOF is the fair market value of the transferred property, as determined immediately before the transfer. This paragraph (c)(6)(ii)(C) applies separately to each item of property transferred to a QOF.

(D) Basis in a mixed-funds investment. If a taxpayer's investment in a QOF is a mixed-funds investment to which section 1400Z-2(e)(1) applies, the taxpayer's basis in the non-qualifying investment is equal to the taxpayer's basis in all of the eligible interests received, determined without regard to section 1400Z-2(b)(2)(B) and the section 1400Z-2 regulations, and reduced by the basis of the taxpayer's qualifying investment, determined without regard to section 1400Z-2(b)(2)(B) and the section 1400Z-2 regulations.

(iii) Special rules for transfers to QOF partnerships. In the case of an investment in a QOF partnership, the following rules apply:

(A) Amounts not treated as a qualifying investment -

(1) Non-contributions in general. To the extent the transfer of property to a QOF partnership is characterized other than as a contribution, such as characterization as a sale under section 707 and the regulations in this part under section 707 of the Code, the transfer is not treated as being made in exchange for a qualifying investment.

(2) Reductions in investments otherwise treated as contributions. If any transfer of cash or other property to a partnership is not treated as a contribution, in whole or in part, under paragraph (c)(6)(iii)(A)(1) of this section, the part of the transfer to the partnership that is not disregarded is not a qualifying investment to the extent the partnership makes a distribution to the partner and the transfer to the partnership and the distribution would be recharacterized as a disguised sale under section 707 and the regulations in this part under section 707 of the Code if:

(i) Any cash contributed were non-cash property; and

(ii) In the case of a distribution by the partnership to which § 1.707-5(b) (relating to debt-financed distributions) applies, the partner's share of liabilities is zero.

(B) Amount invested in a QOF partnership -

(1) Calculation of amount of qualifying and non-qualifying investments. To the extent paragraph (c)(6)(iii)(A) of this section does not apply, the amount of equity received by an eligible taxpayer in a QOF partnership in exchange for the lesser of the net basis or net value of the property contributed to the QOF partnership by the eligible taxpayer is a qualifying investment. The amount of equity received by an eligible taxpayer in a QOF partnership that is a non-qualifying investment is the excess, if any, of the total equity received by the eligible taxpayer over the amount treated as a qualifying investment.

(2) Net basis. For purposes of paragraph (c)(6)(iii)(B) of this section, net basis is the excess, if any, of -

(i) The adjusted basis of the property contributed to the partnership; over

(ii) The amount of any debt to which the property is subject or that is assumed by the partnership in the transaction.

(3) Net value. For purposes of paragraph (c)(6)(iii)(B) of this section, net value is the excess of -

(i) The gross fair market value of the property contributed to the partnership; over

(ii) The amount of the debt described in paragraph (c)(6)(iii)(B)(2)(ii) of this section.

(4) Basis of qualifying and non-qualifying investments. The initial basis of a qualifying investment, before application of section 1400Z-2(b)(2)(B) and the section 1400Z-2 regulations or any section 752 debt allocation, is the net basis of the property contributed. The basis of a non-qualifying investment, before any section 752 debt allocation, is the remaining net basis. The basis of the qualifying investment is adjusted as provided in section 1400Z-2(b)(2)(B) and the section 1400Z-2 regulations. The bases of qualifying and non-qualifying investments are increased by any debt allocated to those investments under the rules of § 1.1400Z2(b)-1(c)(6)(iv)(B).

(5) Rules applicable to mixed-funds investments. If one portion of an investment in a QOF partnership is a qualifying investment and another portion is a non-qualifying investment, see § 1.1400Z2(b)-1(c)(6)(iv) for the rules that apply.

(iv) Acquisitions from another person. An eligible taxpayer may make an investment in a QOF by acquiring in a sale or exchange to which § 1.1001-1(a) applies an eligible interest in a QOF from a person other than the QOF. The amount of the eligible taxpayer's investment in the QOF with respect to which the eligible taxpayer may make a deferral election is the amount of the cash, or the net fair market value of the other property, as determined immediately before the exchange, that the eligible taxpayer exchanged for the eligible interest in the QOF.

(v) Examples. The following examples illustrate the rules of this paragraph (c)(6).

(A) Example 1. Transfer of built-in gain property with basis less than gain to be deferred -

(1) Facts. Individual B realizes $100 of eligible gain within the meaning of paragraph (b)(11) of this section. B transfers unencumbered property with a fair market value of $100 and an adjusted basis of $60 to QOF Q, a C corporation, in a transaction that is described in section 351(a).

(2) Analysis. Paragraph (c)(6)(ii)(B) of this section applies because B transferred property other than cash to Q and, but for the application of section 1400Z-2(b)(2)(B), B's basis in the eligible interests in Q would be determined, in whole or in part, by reference to B's basis in the transferred property. The fair market value of the eligible interest B received is $100, and, without regard to section 1400Z-2(b)(2)(B), B's basis in the eligible interest received would be $60. Thus, pursuant to paragraph (c)(6)(ii)(B)(2) of this section, B's investment is a mixed-funds investment to which section 1400Z-2(e)(1) applies. Pursuant to paragraphs (c)(6)(ii)(B)(1) and (2) of this section, B's qualifying investment is $60 (the lesser of the taxpayer's adjusted basis in the eligible interest, without regard to section 1400Z-2(b)(2)(B), of $60 and the $100 fair market value of the eligible interest received). Pursuant to section 1400Z-2(b)(2)(B)(i), B's basis in the qualifying investment is $0. Additionally, B's non-qualifying investment is $40 (the excess of the fair market value of the eligible interest received ($100) over the taxpayer's adjusted basis in the eligible interest, without regard to section 1400Z-2(b)(2)(B) ($60)). B's basis in the non-qualifying investment is $0 (B's $60 basis in its investment determined without regard to section 1400Z-2(b)(2)(B), reduced by the $60 of adjusted basis allocated to the investment to which section 1400Z-2(e)(1)(A)(i) applies, determined without regard to section 1400Z-2(b)(2)(B)). See paragraph (c)(6)(ii)(D) of this section. Pursuant to section 362, Q's basis in the transferred property is $60.

(B) Example 2. Transfer of built-in gain property with basis in excess of eligible gain to be deferred. The facts are the same as in paragraph (c)(6)(v)(A)(1) of this section (Example 1), except that B realizes $50 of eligible gain within the meaning of paragraph (b)(11) of this section. Pursuant to paragraph (c)(6)(i) of this section, B's qualifying investment cannot exceed the amount of eligible gain to be deferred (that is, the $50 of eligible gain) under the section 1400Z-2(a) election. Therefore, pursuant to paragraph (c)(6)(ii)(B)(1) of this section, B's qualifying investment is $50 (the lesser of the taxpayer's adjusted basis in the eligible interest received, without regard to section 1400Z-2(b)(2)(B), of $60 and the $100 fair market value of the eligible interest, limited by the amount of eligible gain to be deferred under the section 1400Z-2(a) election). B's qualifying investment has an adjusted basis of $0, as provided in section 1400Z-2(b)(2)(B)(i). Additionally, B's non-qualifying investment is $50 (the excess of the fair market value of the eligible interest received ($100) over the amount ($50) of B's section 1400Z-2(a)(1)(A) investment). B's basis in the non-qualifying investment is $10 (B's $60 basis in its investment determined without regard to section 1400Z-2(b)(2)(B)), reduced by the $50 of adjusted basis allocated to B's qualifying investment, determined without regard to section 1400Z-2(b)(2)(B).

(C) Example 3. Transfers to QOF partnerships -

(1) Facts. A and B each realized $100 of eligible gain and each transfers $100 to a QOF partnership. In a subsequent year, the partnership borrows $120 from an unrelated lender and distributes $120 equally to A and B.

(2) Analysis. If the contributions had been of property other than cash, the contributions and distributions would have been tested under the disguised sale rules of section 707 and the regulations in this part under section 707 of the Code, determining the timing of the distribution and amount of the debt allocated to each partner. Under paragraph (c)(6)(iii)(A)(2) of this section, the cash of $200 ($100 from A and $100 from B) is treated as property that could be sold in a disguised sale transaction and each partner's share of the debt is zero for purposes of determining the amount of the qualifying investment. To the extent there would have been a disguised sale applying the rule of paragraph (c)(6)(iii)(A)(2) of this section, the amount of the qualifying investment would be reduced by the amount of the contribution so recharacterized.

(D) Example 4. Return of capital by QOF partnership -

(1) Facts. A realized $100 of eligible gain and transfers $100 of cash to a QOF partnership. Later in the partner's tax year, the partnership distributes $20 to A in a distribution that is not recharacterized under paragraph (c)(6)(iii)(A)(2) of this section. At the time of the distribution, no allocations of income, gain, loss, or deduction had been made to A, and A's share of the partnership's debt was zero under section 752.

(2) Analysis. Because the contribution and distribution are not recharacterized under paragraph (c)(6)(iii)(A)(2) of this section, the amount of A's qualifying investment is $100 despite the $20 distribution. At the time the $20 distribution is made to A, A's basis in its qualifying investment is zero, and thus the distribution is an inclusion event under § 1.1400Z2(b)-1(c)(6)(iii).

(E) Example 5. Property contributed has built-in gain. The facts are the same as in paragraph (c)(6)(v)(C)(1) of this section (Example 3), except that the property contributed by A had a value of $100 and basis of $20 and the partnership did not borrow money or make a distribution. Under paragraph (c)(6)(iii)(B)(1) of this section, the amount of A's qualifying investment is $20 (the lesser of the net value or the net basis of the property that A contributed), and the excess of the $100 contribution over the $20 qualifying investment is a non-qualifying investment. Under paragraph (c)(6)(iii)(B)(4) of this section, A's basis in the qualifying investment (determined without regard to section 1400Z-2(b)(2)(B) or section 752(a)) is $20. After the application of section 1400Z-2(b)(2)(B) but before the application of section 752(a), A's basis in the qualifying investment is zero. A's basis in the non-qualifying investment is zero without regard to the application of section 752(a).

(F) Example 6. Property contributed has built-in gain and is subject to debt. The facts are the same as in paragraph (c)(6)(v)(E) of this section (Example 5), except that the property contributed by A has a gross value of $130 and is subject to debt of $30. Under paragraph (c)(6)(iii)(B)(1) of this section, the amount of A's qualifying investment is zero, the lesser of the property's $100 net value ($130 minus $30) or $0 net basis ($20 minus $30, but limited to zero). The entire contribution constitutes a non-qualifying investment.

(G) Example 7. Property contributed has built-in loss and is subject to debt. The facts are the same as in paragraph (c)(6)(v)(F) of this section (Example 6), except that the property contributed by A has a basis of $150. Under paragraph (c)(6)(iii)(B)(1) of this section, the amount of A's qualifying investment is $100, the lesser of the property's $100 net value ($130 minus $30) or $120 net basis ($150 minus $30). The non-qualifying investment is $0, the excess of the net value ($100) over the qualifying investment ($100). A's basis in the qualifying investment (determined without regard to section 1400Z-2(b)(2)(B) and section 752(a)) is $120, the net basis. After the application of section 1400Z-2(b)(2)(B), A's basis in the qualifying investment is zero, plus its share of partnership debt under section 752(a).

(7) Eligible gains that a partnership elects to defer. A partnership generally is an eligible taxpayer under paragraph (b)(13) of this section and may elect to defer recognition of some or all of its eligible gains under section 1400Z-2(a)(2) and the section 1400Z-2 regulations.

(i) Partnership deferral election. If a partnership properly makes a deferral election, then -

(A) The partnership defers recognition of the eligible gain under the rules of section 1400Z-2 and the section 1400Z-2 regulations, that is, the partnership does not recognize gain at the time it otherwise would have in the absence of the deferral election; and

(B) The deferred eligible gain is not included in the distributive shares of the partners under section 702 and is not treated as an item described in section 705(a)(1).

(ii) Subsequent recognition. Absent any additional deferral under section 1400Z-2(a)(1)(A) and the section 1400Z-2 regulations, any amount of deferred gain that an electing partnership subsequently must include in income under sections 1400Z-2(a)(1)(B) and (b) and the section 1400Z-2 regulations is recognized by the electing partnership at the time of inclusion, is subject to section 702 and is treated as an item described in section 705(a)(1) in a manner consistent with recognition at that time.

(8) Eligible gains that the partnership does not defer -

(i) Federal income tax treatment of the partnership. If a partnership does not elect to defer some, or all, of its eligible gains, the partnership's treatment of any such amounts is unaffected by the fact that the eligible gains could have been deferred under section 1400Z-2 and the section 1400Z-2 regulations.

(ii) Federal income tax treatment by the partners. If a partnership does not elect to defer some, or all, of the eligible gains -

(A) The gains for which a deferral election are not made are included in the partners' distributive shares under section 702 and are treated as items described in section 705(a)(1);

(B) If a partner's distributive share includes one or more gains that are eligible gains with respect to the partner, the partner may elect under section 1400Z-2(a)(1)(A) and the section 1400Z-2 regulations to defer some or all of such eligible gains; and

(C) A gain in a partner's distributive share is an eligible gain with respect to the partner only if it is an eligible gain with respect to the partnership and it did not arise from a sale or exchange with a person that, within the meaning of section 1400Z-2(e)(2) and the section 1400Z-2 regulations, is related to the partner.

(iii) 180-day period for a partner electing deferral -

(A) General rule. If a partner's distributive share includes a gain that is described in paragraph (c)(8)(ii)(C) of this section (gains that are eligible gains with respect to the partner), the 180-day period with respect to the partner's eligible gains in the partner's distributive share generally begins on the last day of the partnership taxable year in which the partner's distributive share of the partnership's eligible gain is taken into account under section 706(a).

(B) Elective rule. Notwithstanding the general rule in paragraph (c)(8)(iii)(A) of this section, if a partnership does not elect to defer all of its eligible gain, the partner may elect to treat the partner's own 180-day period with respect to the partner's distributive share of that gain as being -

(1) The same as the partnership's 180-day period; or

(2) The 180-day period beginning on the due date for the partnership's tax return, without extensions, for the taxable year in which the partnership realized the gain that is described in paragraph (c)(8)(ii)(C) of this section.

(C) Example. The following example illustrates the principles of this paragraph (c)(8)(iii).

(1) Facts. Four individuals, A, B, C, and D, have equal interests in a partnership, P. P has no other partners, and P's taxable year is the calendar year. On January 17, 2019, P realizes a capital gain of $1000x that P decides not to elect to defer.

(2) Analysis of A's election. A is aware of the capital gain realized by P, and decides to defer its distributive shares of P's eligible gain. A invests $250x in a QOF during February 2020. Under the general rule in paragraph (c)(8)(iii)(A) of this section, this investment is within the 180-day period for A, which began on December 31, 2019, the last day of P's taxable year in which A's share of P's eligible gain is taken into account under section 706(a).

(3) Analysis of B's election. B is also aware of the capital gain realized by P, and decides to defer its distributive shares of P's eligible gain. B decides to make the election provided in paragraph (c)(8)(iii)(B)(1) of this section, and invests $250x in a QOF during February 2019. Under the elective rule in paragraph (c)(8)(iii)(B)(1) of this section, this investment is within the 180-day period for B, which began on January 17, 2019, the same day as P's 180-day period.

(4) Analysis of C's election. On March 15, 2020, P provides all of its partners with their Schedules K-1. Upon learning that its distributive share of income from P included eligible gain, C decides to make a deferral election, and also makes the election provided in paragraph (c)(8)(iii)(B)(2) of this section. It then invests $250x in a QOF during June 2020. Under the elective rule in paragraph (c)(8)(iii)(B)(2) of this section, this investment is within the 180-day period for C, which began on March 15, 2020, the 180-day period beginning on the due date for P's tax return without extensions, for the taxable year in which P realized eligible gain.

(9) Passthrough entities other than partnerships -

(i) S corporations, nongrantor trusts, and estates. If an S corporation, a nongrantor trust, or a decedent's estate realizes an eligible gain, then rules analogous to the rules of paragraphs (c)(7) and (8) of this section apply to that entity and to its shareholders or its beneficiaries, as the case may be, to the extent they receive or are deemed to receive an allocable share of the eligible gain.

(ii) Grantor trusts. If a grantor trust realizes an eligible gain, either the trust or the deemed owner of the trust may make the election to defer recognition of the gain and make the qualifying investment under rules analogous to the rules of paragraphs (c)(7) and (8) of this section (other than the rule in paragraph (c)(8)(iii) of this section regarding the 180-day period), whether or not the gain is distributed to the deemed owner of the trust.

(d) Elections -

(1) Taxable year of deferral election. For a deferral election with respect to any eligible gain to be valid, an eligible taxpayer must make such election in accordance with guidance published in the Internal Revenue Bulletin or in forms and instructions (see §§ 601.601(d)(2) and 601.602 of this chapter), as to the required time, form, and manner in which an eligible taxpayer (including a partner, S corporation shareholder, or beneficiary applying the elective 180-day period provided in paragraphs (c)(8)(iii)(B) and (c)(9) of this section) may make a deferral election.

(2) Annual reporting of qualifying investments. An eligible taxpayer must report any qualifying investment held at any point during the taxable year in accordance with guidance published in the Internal Revenue Bulletin or in forms and instructions (see §§ 601.601(d)(2) and 601.602 of this chapter). A failure to make this report for any given taxable year will result in a rebuttable presumption that the taxpayer has had an inclusion event described in § 1.1400Z2(b)-1(c) during that year. The presumption described in the previous sentence may be rebutted by the taxpayer making the report described in the first sentence of this paragraph (d)(2) or by the taxpayer establishing to the satisfaction of the Commissioner that an inclusion event described in § 1.1400Z2(b)-1(c) did not occur during that taxable year.

(e) Interaction of section 1400Z-2 and § 1.897-6T. Section 1400Z-2 is not a nonrecognition provision, as defined in § 1.897-6T(a)(2), for purposes of § 1.897-6T.

(f) Treatment of mixed-funds investments -

(1) Investments to which no election under section 1400Z-2(a) applies. If a taxpayer invests in a QOF and makes a deferral election with respect to less than all of that investment, the portion of the investment to which the election does not apply is a non-qualifying investment. Similarly, an investment in a QOF with respect to which no deferral election is made is a non-qualifying investment.

(2) Treatment of deemed contributions of money under section 752(a). In the case of a QOF partnership, the deemed contribution of money described in section 752(a) does not create or increase an investment in the QOF described in section 1400Z-2(e)(1)(A)(ii). Thus, any basis increase resulting from a deemed section 752(a) contribution is not taken into account in determining the portion of a partner's investment subject to section 1400Z-2(e)(1)(A)(i) or (ii). See § 1.1400Z2(b)-1(c)(6)(iv)(B) for rules relating to the application of section 752 to a mixed-funds investment.

(3) Treatment of contributions to QOF corporation in which no stock is received. If a taxpayer with a qualifying investment or a non-qualifying investment in a QOF corporation subsequently makes a non-qualifying investment or a qualifying investment, respectively, and if the taxpayer receives no additional QOF stock in exchange for the subsequent investment, the taxpayer has a mixed-funds investment.

(4) Example. The following example illustrates the rules of this paragraph (f):

(i) Facts. Taxpayer A realizes $1 million of eligible gain and on the next day contributes $1 million to a QOF, Partnership P, in exchange for a 50 percent interest in Partnership P. Taxpayer A makes an election under section 1400Z-2(a) with respect to $900,000 of that eligible gain. Under section 1400Z-2(e)(1), 90 percent of A's investment is described in section 1400Z-2(e)(1)(A)(i) (an investment that only includes amounts to which the election under section 1400Z-2(a) applies), and 10 percent is described in section 1400Z-2(e)(1)(A)(ii) (a separate investment consisting of other amounts). Partnership P borrows $8 million. Under § 1.752-3(a), taking into account the terms of the partnership agreement, $4 million of the $8 million liability is allocated to A.

(ii) Analysis. Under section 752(a), A is treated as contributing $4 million to Partnership P. Under paragraph (f) of this section, A's deemed $4 million contribution to Partnership P is ignored for purposes of determining the percentage of A's investment in Partnership P subject to the deferral election under section 1400Z-2(a) or the portion not subject to the deferral election under section 1400Z-2(a). As a result, after A's section 752(a) deemed contribution, $900,000, or 90 percent, of A's investment in Partnership P is described in section 1400Z-2(e)(1)(A)(i) and $100,000, or 10 percent, is described in section 1400Z-2(e)(1)(A)(ii).

(g) Applicability dates-(1) In general. The provisions of this section are applicable for taxable years beginning after March 13, 2020.

(2) Prior periods. With respect to eligible gains that would be recognized (absent the making of a deferral election) during the portion of a taxpayer's first taxable year ending after December 21, 2017, and during taxable years beginning after December 21, 2017, and on or before March 13, 2020, a taxpayer may choose either -

(i) To apply the section 1400Z-2 regulations, if applied in a consistent manner for all such taxable years (reliance by a taxpayer under paragraph (g)(2)(ii) of this section, § 1.1400Z2(b)-1(j)(2)(ii), § 1.1400Z2(d)-1(e)(2)(ii), § 1.1400Z2(d)-2(e)(2)(ii), or § 1.1400Z2(f)-1(d)(2)(ii), is disregarded solely for purposes of the consistency requirement under this paragraph (g)(2)(i)); or

(ii) To rely on the rules in proposed § 1.1400Z2(a)-1 contained in the notice of proposed rulemaking (REG-115420-18) published on October 29, 2018, as amplified by the notice of proposed rulemaking (REG-120186-18) published on May 1, 2019, but only if applied in a consistent manner for all such taxable years.

[T.D. 9889, 85 FR 1954, Jan. 13, 2020; 85 FR 19083, Apr. 6, 2020]