26 CFR § 1.1400Z2(d)-1 - Qualified opportunity funds and qualified opportunity zone businesses.

§ 1.1400Z2(d)-1 Qualified opportunity funds and qualified opportunity zone businesses.

(a) Overview. This section provides rules that an eligible entity (as defined in paragraph (a)(1) of this section) must satisfy to be a qualified opportunity fund (QOF) or a qualified opportunity zone business. Paragraphs (a)(2) through (4) of this section provide rules that eligible entities must follow to be certified as QOFs, as well as rules for the de-certification of QOFs. Paragraph (b) of this section provides rules for determining whether the property held by a QOF satisfies the 90-percent investment standard of section 1400Z-2(d)(1) or the property held by a qualified opportunity zone business satisfies the 70-percent tangible property standard of section 1400Z-2(d)(3)(A)(i). Paragraph (c) of this section provides rules regarding qualified opportunity zone property that a QOF must hold to satisfy the 90-percent investment standard. Paragraph (d) of this section provides rules that an eligible entity must satisfy to be a qualified opportunity zone business that is owned, in whole or in part, by one or more QOFs. Paragraph (e) of this section provides applicability dates for this section. See § 1.1400Z2(d)-2 for rules that must be satisfied for tangible property of an eligible entity to be treated as qualified opportunity zone business property.

(1) Eligible entity -

(i) In general. Except as provided in paragraph (a)(1)(ii) of this section, the term eligible entity means an entity that is classified as a corporation or partnership for Federal income tax purposes. In order to be treated as a QOF, an eligible entity must self-certify on an annual basis that it satisfies the requirements of paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, as appropriate. An eligible entity is a qualified opportunity zone business if it satisfies the requirements of paragraph (d) of this section.

(ii) Exceptions based on where an entity is created, formed, or organized -

(A) QOFs. An entity classified as a corporation or partnership for Federal income tax purposes (an entity) but that is not organized under the law of the United States or the law of one of the 50 states, a government of a federally recognized tribe (Indian tribal government), the District of Columbia, or a U.S. territory, is not an eligible entity and is ineligible to be a QOF. An entity described in the preceding sentence is also ineligible to be a qualified opportunity zone business, and therefore an equity interest in the entity is neither qualified opportunity zone stock nor a qualified opportunity zone partnership interest for purposes of section 1400Z-2(d)(2).

(B) Entities organized in a U.S. territory -

(1) In general. If an entity is organized in a U.S. territory but not in one of the 50 States or the District of Columbia, the entity may be a QOF only if the entity is organized for investing in qualified opportunity zone property that relates to a trade or business operated in the U.S. territory in which the entity is organized. If an entity is organized in a U.S. territory but not in one of the 50 States or the District of Columbia, an equity interest in the entity may be qualified opportunity zone stock or a qualified opportunity zone partnership interest, as the case may be, only if the entity conducts a qualified opportunity zone business in the U.S. territory in which the entity is organized. An entity described in the preceding sentence is treated as satisfying the requirement, as applicable, of being a domestic corporation for purposes of section 1400Z-2(d)(2)(B)(i) or of being a domestic partnership for purposes of section 1400Z-2(d)(2)(C).

(2) U.S. territory defined. For purposes of this paragraph (a)(1), the term U.S. territory means American Samoa, Guam, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the U.S. Virgin Islands, and any other territory not under the jurisdiction of one of the 50 States, an Indian tribal government, or the District of Columbia where a qualified opportunity zone has been designated under section 1400Z-1.

(iii) Pre-existing entities. There is no legal barrier to a pre-existing eligible entity qualifying as a QOF or a qualified opportunity zone business, but the pre-existing eligible entity must satisfy all of the applicable requirements of section 1400Z-2, this section, and § 1.1400Z2(d)-2.

(2) Self-certification as a QOF. The following rules apply to the required self-certification of an eligible entity as a QOF:

(i) Time, form, and manner. The self-certification must be timely-filed and effected annually in such form and manner as may be prescribed by the Commissioner of Internal Revenue (Commissioner) in the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) forms or instructions, or in publications or guidance published in the Internal Revenue Bulletin (see §§ 601.601(d)(2) and 601.602 of this chapter).

(ii) First taxable year. The self-certification must identify the first taxable year for which the self-certification takes effect.

(iii) First month. The self-certification may identify the first month (in that initial taxable year) in which the self-certification takes effect.

(A) Failure to specify first month. If the self-certification fails to specify the month in the initial taxable year that the self-certification takes effect, then the self-certification is treated as taking effect in the first month of that taxable year.

(B) Investments before entity's first month as QOF not eligible for deferral. If an investment in eligible interests of an eligible entity occurs prior to the eligible entity's first month as a QOF, any election under section 1400Z-2(a)(1) made for that investment is invalid and the investment is a non-qualifying investment.

(iv) Becoming a QOF in a month that is not the first month of the taxable year. This paragraph (a)(2)(iv) applies to an eligible entity if its self-certification as a QOF is first effective for a month that is not the first month of that entity's taxable year.

(A) For purposes of applying section 1400Z-2(d)(1)(A) and (B) in the first year of the QOF's existence, the phrase first six-month period of the taxable year of the fund means the first six months each of which is in the taxable year and in each of which the entity is a QOF. Thus, if an eligible entity becomes a QOF in the seventh or later month of a 12-month taxable year, the 90-percent investment standard in section 1400Z-2(d)(1) takes into account only the QOF's assets on the last day of the QOF's taxable year.

(B) The computation of any penalty under section 1400Z-2(f)(1) does not take into account any months before the first month in which an eligible entity is a QOF.

(3) Self-decertification of a QOF. If a QOF chooses to self-decertify as a QOF, the following rules apply:

(i) Form and manner. The self-decertification must be effected in such form and manner as may be prescribed by the Commissioner in IRS forms or instructions or in publications or guidance published in the Internal Revenue Bulletin (see §§ 601.601(d)(2) and 601.602 of this chapter).

(ii) Time. The self-decertification becomes effective at the beginning of the month following the month specified by the taxpayer, which month must not be earlier than the month in which the taxpayer files its self-decertification as provided in paragraph (a)(3)(i) of this section.

(4) [Reserved]

(b) Valuation of property for purposes of the 90-percent investment standard and the 70-percent tangible property standard -

(1) In general. An eligible entity may value its owned or leased property using the valuation methods provided in paragraphs (b)(3) and (4) of this section to determine whether -

(i) In the case of an eligible entity that has self-certified as a QOF, the assets owned or leased by the QOF satisfy the 90-percent investment standard in section 1400Z-2(d)(1); and

(ii) In the case of an eligible entity that has issued qualified opportunity zone partnership interests or qualified opportunity zone stock to a QOF, the tangible property owned or leased by the eligible entity satisfies the 70-percent tangible property standard in section 1400Z-2(d)(3)(A)(i).

(2) Special rules -

(i) QOFs -

(A) In general. To meet the 90-percent investment standard in section 1400Z-2(d)(1), on a semiannual basis, a QOF may value its assets using the applicable financial statement valuation method set forth in paragraph (b)(3) of this section, if the QOF has an applicable financial statement within the meaning of § 1.475(a)-4(h), or the alternative valuation method set forth in paragraph (b)(4) of this section. During each taxable year, a QOF must apply consistently the valuation method that it selects under paragraph (b) of this section to all assets valued with respect to the taxable year.

(B) Option for QOFs to disregard recently contributed property. A QOF may choose to determine compliance with the 90-percent investment standard by excluding from both the numerator and denominator of the test any property that satisfies all the criteria in paragraphs (b)(2)(i)(B)(1) through (3) of this section. A QOF need not be consistent from one semiannual test to another in whether it avails itself of the option in this paragraph (b)(2)(i)(B).

(1) The amount of the property was received by the QOF partnership as a contribution or by the QOF corporation solely in exchange for stock of the corporation;

(2) The contribution or exchange occurred not more than 6 months before the test from which it is being excluded; and

(3) Between the date of the fifth business day after the contribution or exchange and the date of the semiannual test, the amount was held continuously in cash, cash equivalents, or debt instruments with a term of 18 months or less.

(C) Safe harbor for QOFs to determine whether equity in an entity is qualified opportunity zone property. A QOF may choose to determine compliance with the 90-percent investment standard for each semiannual testing date of the QOF by including in both the numerator and denominator of the test the equity of each entity the QOF holds on that testing date that satisfies all the criteria in paragraph (b)(2)(i)(C)(1) or (2) of this section.

(1) The entity was a qualified opportunity zone business for at least 90 percent of the QOF's cumulative holding period for that equity of the entity -

(i) Beginning on the date the QOF's self-certification as a QOF is first effective; and

(ii) Ending on the last day of the entity's most recent taxable year ending on or before the semiannual testing date of the QOF.

(2) An entity that would not be a qualified opportunity zone business as of the end of its last taxable year ending on or before a semiannual testing date of the QOF is a qualified opportunity zone business with respect to the QOF for that taxable year of the entity if -

(i) A cure is achieved for the entity under paragraph (d)(6) of this section; and

(ii) The QOF files its Federal income tax return for the taxable year of the QOF containing the testing date on a date that is timely (taking extensions into account) and that is not earlier than when that cure is achieved.

(ii) Qualified opportunity zone businesses -

(A) In general. For purposes of the fraction set forth in paragraph (d)(2)(ii)(A) of this section, the owned or leased tangible property of a qualified opportunity zone business may be valued using the applicable financial statement valuation method set forth in paragraph (b)(3) of this section, if the qualified opportunity zone business has an applicable financial statement within the meaning of § 1.475(a)-4(h), or the alternative valuation method set forth in paragraph (b)(4) of this section. During each taxable year, the valuation method selected under this paragraph (b) must be applied consistently to all tangible property valued with respect to the taxable year.

(B) Five-percent zone taxpayer. If a taxpayer both has self-certified as a QOF and holds an equity interest in an eligible entity that is tested as a qualified opportunity zone business, then that taxpayer may value the eligible entity's tangible property for purposes of satisfying the 70-percent tangible property standard using the same valuation methodology under this paragraph (b) that the taxpayer uses for determining its own compliance with the 90-percent investment standard (compliance methodology), provided that no other equity holder in the eligible entity is a five-percent zone taxpayer. If two or more taxpayers that have self-certified as QOFs hold equity interests in the eligible entity and at least one of them is a five-percent zone taxpayer, then the values of the eligible entity's tangible property may be calculated using the compliance methodology that both is used by a five-percent zone taxpayer and that produces the highest percentage of qualified opportunity zone business property for the eligible entity for purposes of the 70-percent tangible property standard. A five-percent zone taxpayer is a taxpayer that has self-certified as a QOF and that holds stock in the entity (if it is a corporation) representing at least 5 percent in voting rights and value or holds an interest of at least 5 percent in the profits and capital of the entity (if it is a partnership).

(1) Example. The example in paragraph (b)(2)(ii)(B)(2) of this section illustrates the principles of paragraph (b)(2)(ii)(B) of this section.

(2) Example. Entity JH is a corporation that has issued only one class of stock and that conducts a trade or business. Taxpayer X holds 94% of the JH stock, and Taxpayer Y holds the remaining 6% of that stock. (Thus, both X and Y are five percent zone taxpayers within the meaning of paragraph (b)(2)(ii)(B) of this section.) JH does not have an applicable financial statement, and, for that reason, a determination of whether JH is conducting a qualified opportunity zone business may employ the compliance methodology of X or Y. X and Y use different compliance methodologies permitted under paragraph (b)(2)(i)(A) of this section for purposes of satisfying the 90-percent investment standard of section 1400Z-2(d)(1). Under X's compliance methodology (which is based on X's applicable financial statement), 65% of the tangible property owned or leased by JH's trade or business is qualified opportunity zone business property. Under Y's compliance methodology (which is based on Y's cost), 73% of the tangible property owned or leased by JH's trade or business is qualified opportunity zone business property. Because Y's compliance methodology would produce the higher percentage of qualified opportunity zone business property for JH (73%), both X and Y may use Y's compliance methodology to value JH's owned or leased tangible property. If JH's trade or business satisfies all additional requirements in section 1400Z-2(d)(3), the trade or business is a qualified opportunity zone business. Thus, if all of the additional requirements in section 1400Z-2(d)(2)(B) are satisfied, stock in JH is qualified opportunity zone stock in the hands of a taxpayer that has self-certified as a QOF.

(iii) Inventory. In determining whether the 90-percent investment standard in section 1400Z-2(d)(1) or the 70-percent tangible property standard in section 1400Z-2(d)(3)(A)(i) is satisfied, an eligible entity may choose to exclude from both the numerator and denominator of the applicable test the value of all inventory (including raw materials) of the trade or business, if applied consistently within a taxable year of the eligible entity.

(3) Applicable financial statement valuation method -

(i) In general. Under the applicable financial statement valuation method set forth in this paragraph (b)(3), the value of each property that is owned or leased by an eligible entity is the value of that asset as reported on the eligible entity's applicable financial statement for the relevant reporting period.

(ii) Requirement for selection of method. An eligible entity may select the applicable financial statement valuation method set forth in this paragraph (b)(3) to value an asset leased by the eligible entity only if the applicable financial statement of the eligible entity is prepared according to U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) and requires an assignment of value to the lease of the asset.

(4) Alternative valuation method -

(i) In general. Under the alternative valuation method set forth in this paragraph (b)(4), the value of the property owned by an eligible entity is calculated under paragraph (b)(4)(ii) of this section, and the value of the property leased by an eligible entity is calculated under paragraph (b)(4)(iii) of this section.

(ii) Property owned by an eligible entity -

(A) Property purchased or constructed. The value of each property owned by an eligible entity that is acquired by purchase for fair market value or constructed for fair market value is the eligible entity's unadjusted cost basis of the asset under section 1012 or section 1013. Solely for purposes of this paragraph (b)(4)(ii)(A), the acquisition by a QOF of qualified opportunity zone stock or a qualified opportunity zone partnership interest is treated as a purchase of such interest by the QOF.

(iii) Property leased by an eligible entity -

(A) In general. The value of each property that is leased by an eligible entity is equal to the present value of the leased property as defined in paragraph (b)(4)(iii)(C) of this section.

(B) Discount rate. For purposes of calculating present value under paragraph (b)(4)(iii) of this section, the discount rate is the short-term applicable Federal rate under section 1274(d)(1), based on semiannual compounding, for the month in which the eligible entity enters into the lease. For purposes of the preceding sentence, the three month rule in section 1274(d)(2) does not apply to determine the applicable Federal rate.

(C) Present value. For purposes of paragraph (b)(4)(iii) of this section, present value of a leased property -

(1) Is equal to the sum of the present values of each payment under the lease for the property;

(2) Is calculated at the time the eligible entity enters into the lease for the property; and

(3) Once calculated, is used as the value for the property by the eligible entity for all testing dates during the term of the lease for purposes of the 90-percent investment standard or the 70-perecent tangible property standard.

(D) Term of a lease. For purposes of paragraph (b)(4)(iii) of this section, the term of a lease includes periods during which the lessee may extend the lease at a pre-defined market rate rent. For nonresidential real property or residential real property, pre-defined rent does not include the option to renew at fair market value, determined at the time of renewal. The terms of the pre-defined rent must satisfy the following criteria:

(1) General rule. The terms of the pre-defined rent are market rate (that is, the terms of the pre-defined rent reflect common, arms-length market pricing in the locale that includes the qualified opportunity zone as determined under section 482 and all section 482 regulations in this chapter) at the time the lease is entered into.

(2) Rebuttable presumption regarding leases not between related persons. There will be a rebuttable presumption that the terms of the extension of the lease are market rate for leases not between related persons (within the meaning of section 1400Z-2(e)(2)), and thus, the parties to the lease are not required to perform a section 482 analysis.

(3) Exception for state, local, and Indian tribal governments. For purposes of this paragraph (b)(4)(iii)(D), tangible property acquired by lease from a state or local government, or an Indian tribal government, is not considered tangible property acquired by lease from a related person.

(c) Qualified opportunity zone property -

(1) In general. Pursuant to section 1400Z-2(d)(2)(A), the following property is qualified opportunity zone property:

(i) Qualified opportunity zone stock as defined in paragraph (c)(2) of this section;

(ii) Qualified opportunity zone partnership interest as defined in paragraph (c)(3) of this section; and

(iii) Qualified opportunity zone business property as defined in § 1.1400Z2(d)-2.

(2) Qualified opportunity zone stock -

(i) In general. Except as provided in paragraph (c)(2)(ii) of this section, if an eligible entity is classified as a corporation for Federal income tax purposes (corporation), then an equity interest (stock) in the eligible entity is qualified opportunity zone stock if the requirements described in this paragraph (c)(2)(i) are satisfied:

(A) Date of acquisition. The stock is acquired by a QOF after December 31, 2017, at its original issue (directly or through an underwriter) from the corporation solely in exchange for cash;

(B) Qualified opportunity zone business. As of the time the stock was issued, the corporation was a qualified opportunity zone business as defined in section 1400Z-2(d)(3) and paragraph (d) of this section (or, in the case of a new corporation, the corporation was being organized for purposes of being such a qualified opportunity zone business); and

(C) 90-percent qualified opportunity zone property holding period -

(1) Cumulative holding period test. During at least 90 percent of the QOF's holding period for the corporation's stock, determined on a cumulative basis in accordance with paragraph (c)(2)(i)(C)(2) of this section, the corporation qualified as a qualified opportunity zone business.

(2) Semiannual qualified opportunity zone business test. For purposes of determining satisfaction of the cumulative 90-percent qualified opportunity zone property holding period test described in paragraph (c)(2)(i)(C)(1) of this section, the determination of whether a corporation engaged in a trade or business qualifies as a qualified opportunity zone business may be made by the QOF on a semiannual basis pursuant to section 1400Z-2(d)(1). However, a QOF may choose to apply the safe harbor rule in paragraph (b)(2)(i)(C) of this section to make this determination.

(ii) Redemptions of stock. Pursuant to section 1400Z-2(d)(2)(B)(ii), the following rules apply for purposes of determining whether stock in a corporation qualifies as qualified opportunity zone stock:

(A) Redemptions from taxpayer or related person. Stock acquired by a QOF is not treated as qualified opportunity zone stock if, at any time during the 4-year period beginning on the date 2 years before the issuance of the stock, the corporation issuing the stock purchased either directly or indirectly any of its stock from the QOF or from a person related (within the meaning of section 1400Z-2(e)(2)) to the QOF. Even if the purchase occurs after the issuance, the stock was never qualified opportunity zone stock.

(B) Significant redemptions -

(1) In general. Stock issued by a corporation is not treated as qualified opportunity zone stock if, at any time during the 2-year period beginning on the date one year before the issuance of the stock, the corporation made one or more purchases of more than a de minimis amount of its stock and the purchased stock has an aggregate value (as of the time of the respective purchases) exceeding 5 percent of the aggregate value of all of its stock as of the beginning of the 2-year period. The aggregate value is determined as of the time of the stock purchases. Even if one or more of the disqualifying purchases occurs after the issuance, the stock was never qualified opportunity zone stock.

(2) De minimis amount. For purposes of this paragraph (c)(2)(ii)(B), stock acquired from the taxpayer or a related person exceeds a de minimis amount only if the aggregate amount paid for the stock exceeds $10,000 and more than 2 percent of the stock held by the taxpayer and related persons (within the meaning of section 1400Z-2(e)(2)) is acquired. The rules in the following sentences of this paragraph (c)(2)(ii)(B)(2) apply for purposes of determining whether the 2-percent limit is exceeded. The percentage of stock acquired in any single purchase is determined by dividing the stock's value (as of the time of purchase) by the value (as of the time of purchase) of all stock held (directly or indirectly) by the taxpayer and related persons immediately before the purchase. The percentage of stock acquired in multiple purchases is the sum of the percentages determined for each separate purchase.

(C) Treatment of certain transactions. If any transaction is treated under section 304(a) as a distribution in redemption of the stock of any corporation, for purposes of paragraphs (c)(2)(ii)(A) and (B) of this section, that corporation is treated as purchasing an amount of its stock equal to the amount that is treated as such a distribution under section 304(a).

(D) Principles of § 1.1202-2(c) and (d). The principles of § 1.1202-2(c) and (d) apply in determining whether stock is redeemed or purchased for purposes of paragraph (c)(2)(ii) of this section.

(iii) Reorganizations of corporations otherwise qualifying as qualified opportunity zone businesses -

(A) Qualification as qualified opportunity zone stock. Stock that meets all of the requirements of paragraph (c)(2)(i) of this section except for the requirement in paragraph (c)(2)(i)(A) of this section is qualified opportunity zone stock if it is received solely in exchange for qualified opportunity zone stock in a transaction described in section 381(a)(2). The requirements in paragraphs (c)(2)(i)(B) and (C) of this section must be met with respect to both the stock held before such transaction and the stock for which it is exchanged in such transaction.

(B) Satisfaction of original use and substantial improvement tests. The requirements of § 1.1400Z2(d)-2 apply to property of a qualified opportunity zone business acquired from a qualified opportunity zone business in a transaction described in section 381(a)(2) as if the acquiring corporation had held the property during the period in which the target corporation held the property. For example, an item of property must be substantially improved by the same date by which the target corporation was required to satisfy the substantial improvement test for such property.

(C) Reorganizations of qualified opportunity zone businesses within a consolidated group. See §§ 1.1502-14Z and 1.1504-3 for special rules applicable to consolidated groups.

(3) Qualified opportunity zone partnership interest -

(i) In general. If an eligible entity is classified as a partnership for Federal tax purposes (partnership), any capital or profits interest (partnership interest) in the eligible entity is a qualified opportunity zone partnership interest if -

(A) Date of acquisition. The partnership interest is acquired by a QOF after December 31, 2017, from the partnership solely in exchange for cash;

(B) Qualified opportunity zone business. As of the time the partnership interest was acquired, the partnership was a qualified opportunity zone business as defined in section 1400Z-2(d)(3) and paragraph (d) of this section (or, in the case of a new partnership, the partnership was being organized for purposes of being a qualified opportunity zone business); and

(C) 90-percent qualified opportunity zone property holding period -

(1) Cumulative holding period test. During at least 90-percent of the QOF's holding period for the partnership interest, determined on a cumulative basis in accordance with paragraph (c)(3)(i)(C)(2) of this section, the partnership qualified as a qualified opportunity zone business.

(2) Semiannual qualified opportunity zone business test. For purposes of determining satisfaction of the cumulative 90-percent qualified opportunity zone property holding period test described in paragraph (c)(3)(i)(C)(1) of this section, the determination of whether a partnership engaged in a trade or business qualifies as a qualified opportunity zone business is made by the QOF on a semiannual basis pursuant to section 1400Z-2(d)(1). However, a QOF may choose to apply the safe harbor rule in paragraph (b)(2)(i)(C) of this section to make this determination.

(ii) Reorganizations of partnerships otherwise qualifying as qualified opportunity zone businesses -

(A) Qualification as a qualified opportunity zone partnership interest. A partnership interest that meets all of the requirements of paragraph (c)(3)(i) of this section except for the requirement in paragraph (c)(3)(i)(A) of this section is a qualified opportunity zone partnership interest if it is received solely in exchange for a qualified opportunity zone partnership interest in a merger or consolidation transaction described in section 708(b)(2)(A). The requirements in paragraphs (c)(3)(i)(B) and (C) of this section must be met with respect to both the partnership interest held before the transaction and the partnership interest for which it is exchanged in the transaction.

(B) Satisfaction of original use and substantial improvement tests. The requirements of § 1.1400Z2(d)-2 apply to property of a qualified opportunity zone business acquired from a qualified opportunity zone business in a transaction described in section 708(b)(2)(A) as if the resulting partnership had held the property during the period in which the merging or consolidating partnership held the property. For example, an item of property must be substantially improved by the same date by which the merging or consolidating partnership was required to satisfy the substantial improvement test for such property.

(d) Qualified opportunity zone business -

(1) In general. An eligible entity engaged in a trade or business within the meaning of section 162 is a qualified opportunity zone business if the entity satisfies, as determined at the end of its taxable year, all the criteria in paragraphs (d)(1)(i) through (iii) of this section. An eligible entity's status as a qualified opportunity zone business applies for the entire taxable year of the entity.

(i) Pursuant to section 1400Z-2(d)(3)(A)(i), the eligible entity engaged in the trade or business satisfies the 70-percent tangible property standard with respect to its tangible property, as provided in paragraph (d)(2) of this section;

(ii) Pursuant to section 1400Z-2(d)(3)(A)(ii), the eligible entity engaged in the trade or business satisfies the requirements of section 1397C(b)(2), (4), and (8), as provided in paragraph (d)(3) of this section; and

(iii) Pursuant to section 1400Z-2(d)(3)(A)(iii), the eligible entity engaged in the trade or business is not described in section 144(c)(6)(B) as provided in paragraph (d)(4) of this section.

(2) Satisfaction of 70-percent tangible property standard -

(i) In general. A trade or business of an eligible entity satisfies the 70-percent tangible property standard if at least 70 percent of the tangible property owned or leased by the trade or business is qualified opportunity zone business property (as defined in § 1.1400Z2(d)-2).

(ii) Calculating percent of tangible property owned or leased in a trade or business -

(A) In general. Whether a trade or business of the eligible entity satisfies the 70-percent tangible property standard set forth in paragraph (d)(2)(i) of this section is determined by a fraction -

(1) The numerator of which is the total value of all tangible property owned or leased by the qualified opportunity zone business that is qualified opportunity zone business property; and

(2) The denominator of which is the total value of all tangible property owned or leased by the qualified opportunity zone business, whether located inside or outside of a qualified opportunity zone.

(B) Valuation. See paragraph (b)(2)(ii) of this section for rules regarding the valuation of tangible property for purposes of the 70-percent tangible property standard.

(3) Operation of section 1397C requirements adopted by reference -

(i) Gross income requirement. Section 1400Z-2(d)(3)(A)(ii) incorporates section 1397C(b)(2), requiring that for each taxable year at least 50 percent of the gross income of a qualified opportunity zone business is derived from the active conduct of a trade or business in the qualified opportunity zone (or in multiple qualified opportunity zones). A trade or business meets the 50-percent gross income requirement in the preceding sentence if the trade or business satisfies any one of the four criteria described in paragraph (d)(3)(i)(A), (B), (C), or (D) of this section, or any criteria identified in published guidance issued by the Commissioner under § 601.601(d)(2) of this chapter.

(A) Services performed in qualified opportunity zone based on hours. At least 50 percent of the services performed for the trade or business are performed in a qualified opportunity zone, determined by the fraction described in paragraphs (d)(3)(i)(A)(1) and (2) of this section. Amounts paid to partners that provide services to the trade or business of a partnership are taken into account in the numerator and denominator set forth in paragraphs (d)(3)(i)(A)(1) and (2) of this section only to the extent the amounts paid to the partners are guaranteed payments for services provided to the partnership within the meaning of section 707(c).

(1) The numerator of the fraction is the total number of hours of services performed for the trade or business in a qualified opportunity zone during the taxable year by employees, partners that provide services to a partnership, independent contractors, and employees of independent contractors; and

(2) The denominator of the fraction is the total number of hours of services performed for the trade or business during the taxable year by employees, partners that provide services to a partnership, independent contractors, and employees of independent contractors.

(B) Services performed in qualified opportunity zone based on amounts paid for services. At least 50 percent of the services performed for the trade or business are performed in a qualified opportunity zone, determined by the fraction described in paragraphs (d)(3)(i)(B)(1) and (2) of this section. Amounts paid to partners that provide services to the trade or business of a partnership are taken into account in the numerator and denominator set forth in paragraphs (d)(3)(i)(B)(1) and (2) of this section only to the extent the amounts paid to the partners are guaranteed payments for services provided to the partnership within the meaning of section 707(c).

(1) The numerator of the fraction is the total amount paid by the entity for services performed in a qualified opportunity zone during the taxable year, whether by employees, partners that provide services to a partnership, independent contractors, or employees of independent contractors; and

(2) The denominator of the fraction is the total amount paid by the entity for services performed during the taxable year, whether by employees, partners that provide services to a partnership, independent contractors, or employees of independent contractors.

(C) Necessary tangible property and business functions. The tangible property of the trade or business located in a qualified opportunity zone and the management or operational functions performed in a qualified opportunity zone are each necessary for the generation of at least 50 percent of the gross income of the trade or business.

(D) Facts and circumstances. Based on all the facts and circumstances, at least 50 percent of the gross income of a qualified opportunity zone business is derived from the active conduct of a trade or business in a qualified opportunity zone.

(E) Examples. The following examples illustrate the principles of paragraphs (d)(3)(i)(C) and (D) of this section.

(1) Example 1. A landscaping business has its headquarters in a qualified opportunity zone, its officers and employees manage the daily operations of the business (inside and outside the qualified opportunity zone) from its headquarters, and all its equipment and supplies are stored in the headquarters facilities. The activities occurring and the storage of equipment and supplies in the qualified opportunity zone are, taken together, necessary for the generation of the income of the business.

(2) Example 2. A trade or business is formed or organized under the laws of the jurisdiction within which a qualified opportunity zone is located, and the business has a P.O. Box located in the qualified opportunity zone. The mail received at that P.O. Box is fundamental to the income of the trade or business, but there is no other basis for concluding that the income of the trade or business is derived from activities in the qualified opportunity zone. The mere location of the P.O. Box is not necessary for the generation of gross income by the trade or business.

(3) Example 3. In 2019, Taxpayer X realized $w million of capital gains and within the 180-day period invested $w million in QOF Y, a qualified opportunity fund. QOF Y immediately acquired from partnership P a partnership interest in P, solely in exchange for $w million of cash. P is a real estate developer that has written plans to acquire land in a qualified opportunity zone on which it plans to construct a commercial building for lease to other trades or businesses. In 2023, P's commercial building is placed in service and is fully leased up to other trades or businesses. For the 2023 taxable year, at least 50 percent of P's gross income is derived from P's rental of its tangible property in the qualified opportunity zone. Thus, under P's facts and circumstances, P satisfies the gross income test under section 1397C(b)(2).

(ii) Use of intangible property requirement -

(A) In general. Section 1400Z-2(d)(3)(A)(ii) incorporates section 1397C(b)(4), requiring that, with respect to any taxable year, a substantial portion of the intangible property of a qualified opportunity zone business is used in the active conduct of a trade or business in a qualified opportunity zone. For purposes of section 1400Z-2(d)(3)(A)(ii) and the preceding sentence, the term substantial portion means at least 40 percent.

(B) Use of intangible property. For purposes of section 1400Z-2(d)(3)(A)(ii) and paragraph (d)(3)(ii)(A) of this section, intangible property of a qualified opportunity zone business is used in the active conduct of a trade or business in a qualified opportunity zone if -

(1) The use of the intangible property is normal, usual, or customary in the conduct of the trade or business; and

(2) The intangible property is used in the qualified opportunity zone in the performance of an activity of the trade or business that contributes to the generation of gross income for the trade or business.

(iii) Active conduct of a trade or business -

(A) Operating real property. Solely for purposes of section 1400Z-2(d)(3)(A), the ownership and operation (including leasing) of real property is the active conduct of a trade or business.

(B) Lessee is responsible for certain costs. Merely entering into a triple-net-lease with respect to real property owned by a taxpayer does not constitute the active conduct of a trade or business by such taxpayer.

(C) Examples. The following examples illustrate the rules of paragraph (d)(3)(iii) of this section.

(1) Example 1. Mere triple-net-lease not active conduct of trade or business -

(i) Facts. Company N constructs and places into service a new, three-story office building in a qualified opportunity zone and leases the entire building to tenant X, an unrelated person, which uses the building as office space for its software development firm. This building is the only property owned by Company N. The lease agreement between Company N and tenant X is a triple-net-lease under which tenant X is responsible for all of the costs relating to the office building (for example, paying all taxes, insurance, and maintenance expenses) in addition to paying rent. Company N also maintains an office in the building with staff members to address any issues that may arise with respect to the triple-net-lease.

(ii) Analysis. Solely for purposes of section 1400Z-2(d)(3)(A), Company N is treated as not engaged in the active conduct of a trade or business with respect to the leased office building. Company N leases the building to tenant X under a triple-net-lease, and therefore the employees of Company N do not meaningfully participate in the management or operations of the building. The fact that Company N maintains an office in the leased building with staff members to address any issues that may arise with respect to the triple-net-lease does not alter this result. Therefore, Company N does not conduct an active trade or business in a qualified opportunity zone.

(2) Example 2. Triple-net-lease and managerial and operational activities can constitute active conduct of trade or business -

(i) Facts. Company N constructs and places into service a new, three-story mixed-use building in a qualified opportunity zone and leases a floor to each of unrelated tenants X, Y, and Z, respectively. This building is the only property owned by Company N. The lease agreement between Company N and tenant X is a triple-net-lease under which tenant X is responsible for all of the costs relating to the third floor of the building (for example, paying all such taxes, insurance, and maintenance expenses) in addition to paying rent. The lease agreement between Company N and tenant Y is not a triple-net-lease and employees of Company N manage and operate the second floor of the building. Likewise, the lease agreement between Company N and tenant Z is not a triple-net-lease and employees of Company N manage and operate the first floor of the building. Company N maintains an office in the building, which the employees regularly use to carry out their managerial and operational duties with respect to the first and second floors, and address any other issues that may arise with respect to the three leases.

(ii) Analysis. Solely for purposes of section 1400Z-2(d)(3)(A), Company N is treated as engaged in the active conduct of a trade or business with respect to the leased mixed-use building. While Company N leases the third floor of the building to tenant X merely under a triple-net-lease, and therefore the employees of Company N do not meaningfully participate in the management or operations of that floor, the employees of Company N meaningfully participate in the management and operations of the first and second floors of the leased building. Therefore, in carrying out the overall leasing business of Company N with respect to the mixed-use building, employees of Company N conduct meaningful managerial and operational activities. As a result, Company N conducts an active trade or business in a qualified opportunity zone.

(iv) Nonqualified financial property limitation. Section 1400Z-2(d)(3)(A)(ii) incorporates section 1397C(b)(8), which requires that in each taxable year less than 5 percent of the average of the aggregate unadjusted bases of the property of a qualified opportunity zone business is attributable to nonqualified financial property. Section 1397C(e)(1), which defines the term nonqualified financial property for purposes of section 1397C(b)(8), excludes from that term reasonable amounts of working capital held in cash, cash equivalents, or debt instruments with a term of 18 months or less (working capital assets) and debt instruments described in section 1221(a)(4).

(v) Safe harbor for reasonable amount of working capital. Solely for purposes of applying section 1397C(e)(1) to the definition of a qualified opportunity zone business under section 1400Z-2(d)(3), working capital assets are treated as reasonable in amount for purposes of sections 1397C(b)(2) and 1400Z-2(d)(3)(A)(ii), if all of the requirements in paragraphs (d)(3)(v)(A) through (C) of this section are satisfied.

(A) Designated in writing. These amounts are designated in writing for the development of a trade or business in a qualified opportunity zone (as defined in section 1400Z-1(a)), including when appropriate the acquisition, construction, and/or substantial improvement of tangible property in such a zone.

(B) Reasonable written schedule. There is a written schedule consistent with the ordinary start-up of a trade or business for the expenditure of the working capital assets. Under the schedule, the working capital assets must be spent within 31 months of the receipt by the business of the assets.

(C) Property consumption consistent. The working capital assets are actually used in a manner that is substantially consistent with the writing and written schedule described in paragraphs (d)(3)(v)(A) and (B) of this section. If consumption of the working capital assets is delayed by waiting for governmental action the application for which is complete, that delay does not cause a failure of this paragraph (d)(3)(v)(C).

(D) Federally declared disasters. If the qualified opportunity zone business is located in a qualified opportunity zone within a federally declared disaster (as defined in section 165(i)(5)(A)), the qualified opportunity zone business may receive not more than an additional 24 months to consume its working capital assets, as long as it otherwise meets the requirements of paragraph (d)(3)(v) of this section.

(E) Ability of a single business to benefit from more than a single application of the safe harbor. A business may benefit from multiple overlapping or sequential applications of the working capital safe harbor, provided that each application independently satisfies all of the requirements in paragraphs (d)(3)(v)(A) through (C) of this section.

(vi) Safe harbor for section 1397C requirements other than “sin business” prohibition -

(A) Maximum 62-month safe harbor for start-up businesses. Property described in paragraphs (d)(3)(vi)(B), (C), and (D) of this section may benefit from one or more 31-month periods, for a total of 62 months, in the form of multiple overlapping or a sequential application of the working capital safe harbor if -

(1) Each application independently satisfies all of the requirements in paragraphs (d)(3)(v)(A) through (C) of this section;

(2) The working capital assets from an expiring 31-month period were expended in accordance with the requirements in paragraphs (d)(3)(v)(A) through (C) of this section;

(3) The subsequent infusions of working capital assets form an integral part of the plan covered by the initial working capital safe harbor period; and

(4) Each overlapping or sequential application of the working capital safe harbor includes a substantial amount of working capital assets (which may include debt instruments described in section 1221(a)(4)).

(B) Safe harbor for gross income derived from the active conduct of business. Solely for purposes of applying the 50-percent test in section 1397C(b)(2) to the definition of a qualified opportunity zone business in section 1400Z-2(d)(3), if any gross income is derived from property that paragraph (d)(3)(v) of this section treats as a reasonable amount of working capital, then that gross income is counted toward satisfaction of the 50-percent test.

(C) Safe harbor for use of intangible property. Solely for purposes of applying the use requirement in section 1397C(b)(4) to the definition of a qualified opportunity zone business under section 1400Z-2(d)(3), intangible property purchased or licensed by the trade or business, pursuant to the reasonable written plan with a written schedule for the expenditure of the working capital, satisfies the use requirement during any period in which the business is proceeding in a manner that is substantially consistent with paragraphs (d)(3)(v)(A) through (C) of this section.

(D) Safe harbor for working capital and property on which working capital is being expended -

(1) Working capital. If paragraph (d)(3)(v) of this section treats property of an entity that would otherwise be nonqualified financial property as being a reasonable amount of working capital because of compliance with the three requirements of paragraphs (d)(3)(v)(A) through (C) of this section, the entity satisfies the requirements of section 1400Z-2(d)(2)(D)(i) only during the working capital safe harbor period(s) for which the requirements of paragraphs (d)(3)(v)(A) through (C) of this section are satisfied; however such property is not qualified opportunity zone business property for any purpose.

(2) Tangible property acquired with covered working capital. If tangible property referred to in paragraph (d)(3)(v)(A) of this section is expected to satisfy the requirements of section 1400Z-2(d)(2)(D)(i) as a result of the planned expenditure of working capital described in paragraph (d)(3)(v)(A), and is purchased, leased, or improved by the trade or business, pursuant to the written plan for the expenditure of the working capital, then the tangible property is treated as qualified opportunity zone business property satisfying the requirements of section 1400Z-2(d)(2)(D)(i), during that and subsequent working capital periods the property is subject to, for purposes of the 70-percent tangible property standard in section 1400Z-2(d)(3).

(vii) Examples. The following examples illustrate the rules of paragraphs (d)(3)(v) and (vi) of this section.

(A) Example 1. General application of working capital safe harbor -

(1) Facts. QOF F creates a domestic C corporation E to open a fast-food restaurant and acquires almost all of the equity of E in exchange for cash. E has a written plan and a 20-month schedule for the use of this cash to establish the restaurant. Among the planned uses for the cash are identification of favorable locations in the qualified opportunity zone, leasing a building suitable for such a restaurant, outfitting the building with appropriate equipment and furniture (both owned and leased), necessary security deposits, obtaining a franchise and local permits, and the hiring and training of kitchen and wait staff. Not-yet-disbursed amounts were held in assets described in section 1397C(e)(1), and these assets were eventually expended in a manner consistent with the plan and schedule.

(2) Analysis. E's use of the cash qualifies for the working capital safe harbor described in paragraph (d)(3)(v) of this section.

(B) Example 2. Multiple applications of working capital safe harbor -

(1) Facts. QOF G creates a domestic C corporation H to start a new technology company and acquires equity of H in exchange for cash on Date 1. In addition to H's rapid deployment of capital received from other equity investors, H writes a plan with a 30-month schedule for the use of the Date 1 cash. The plan describes use of the cash to research and develop a new technology (Technology), including paying salaries for engineers and other scientists to conduct the research, purchasing, and leasing equipment to be used in research and furnishing office and laboratory space. Approximately 18 months after Date 1, on Date 2, G acquires additional equity in H for cash, and H writes a second plan. This new plan has a 25-month schedule for the development of a new application of existing software (Application), to be marketed to government agencies. Among the planned uses for the cash received on Date 2 are paying development costs, including salaries for software engineers, other employees, and third-party consultants to assist in developing and marketing the new application to the anticipated customers. Not-yet-disbursed amounts that were scheduled for development of the Technology and the Application were held in assets described in section 1397C(e)(1), and these assets were eventually expended in a manner substantially consistent with the plans and schedules for both the Technology and the Application.

(2) Analysis. H's use of both the cash received on Date 1 and the cash received on Date 2 qualifies for the working capital safe harbor described in paragraph (d)(3)(v) of this section.

(C) Example 3. General application of working capital safe harbor -

(1) Facts. In 2019, Taxpayer H realized $w million of capital gains and within the 180-day period invested $w million in QOF T, a qualified opportunity fund. QOF T immediately acquired from partnership P a partnership interest in P, solely in exchange for $w million of cash. P immediately placed the $w million in working capital assets, which remained in working capital assets until used. P had written plans to acquire land in a qualified opportunity zone on which it planned to construct a commercial building. Of the $w million, $x million was dedicated to the land purchase, $y million to the construction of the building, and $z million to ancillary but necessary expenditures for the project. The written plans provided for purchase of the land within a month of receipt of the cash from QOF T and for the remaining $y and $z million to be spent within the next 30 months on construction of the building and on the ancillary expenditures. All expenditures were made on schedule, consuming the $w million. During the taxable years that overlap with the first 31-month period, P had no gross income other than that derived from the amounts held in those working capital assets. Prior to completion of the building, P's only assets were the land it purchased, the unspent amounts in the working capital assets, and P's work in process as the building was constructed.

(2) Analysis - P met the three requirements of the safe harbor provided in paragraphs (d)(3)(v)(A) through (C) of this section. P had a written plan to spend the $w received from QOF T for the acquisition, construction, and/or substantial improvement of tangible property in a qualified opportunity zone, as defined in section 1400Z-1(a). P had a written schedule consistent with the ordinary start-up for a business for the expenditure of the working capital assets. And, finally, P's working capital assets were actually used in a manner that was substantially consistent with its written plan and the ordinary start-up of a business. First, the $x million, the $y million, and the $z million are treated as reasonable in amount for purposes of sections 1397C(b)(2) and 1400Z-2(d)(3)(A)(ii). Second, because P had no other gross income during the 31 months at issue, 100 percent of P's gross income during that time is treated as derived from an active trade or business in the qualified opportunity zone for purposes of satisfying the 50-percent test of section 1397C(b)(2). Third, for purposes of satisfying the requirement of section 1397C(b)(4), during the period of land acquisition and building construction a substantial portion of P's intangible property is treated as being used in the active conduct of a trade or business in the qualified opportunity zone. Fourth, all of the facts described are consistent with QOF T's interest in P being a qualified opportunity zone partnership interest for purposes of satisfying the 90-percent investment standard in section 1400Z-2(d)(1).

(3) Analysis if P had purchased an existing building. The conclusions would also apply if P's plans had been to buy and substantially improve a pre-existing commercial building. In addition, the fact that P's basis in the building has not yet doubled would not cause the building to fail to satisfy section 1400Z-2(d)(2)(D)(i)(III).

(D) Example 4. Multiple applications of working capital safe harbor to tangible property -

(1) Facts. QOF A forms a domestic C corporation B to develop a large mixed-use real estate development that will consist of commercial and residential real property, owning almost all of the equity of B in exchange for cash. To raise additional working capital for the mixed-use real estate development, B also will borrow cash under a new revolving credit agreement with an unrelated lender. B has a master written plan for the completion of the commercial and residential real property over a 55-month period. The plan provides that the commercial real property will be completed over a 30 month schedule and subsequently, the residential real property will be completed over a 25 month schedule. The plan further provides that a portion of the commercial real property is unable to be used in a trade or business after the completion of the commercial real property since that portion of the commercial real property will be unusable during the residential construction phase. Pursuant to B's original master plan for the completion of the real estate development, QOF A acquires additional equity in B for cash after the completion of the commercial development phase, and B commences use of those working capital assets for residential development phase.

(2) Analysis. B's use of the cash for the commercial and residential phase qualified for the working capital safe harbor described in paragraph (d)(3)(v) of this section. In addition, all of B's commercial real property developed pursuant to B's original master plan is treated as qualified opportunity zone business property under paragraph (d)(3)(vi)(D) of this section.

(viii) Safe harbor for property on which working capital is being expended -

(A) In general. If paragraph (d)(3)(v) of this section treats property that would otherwise be nonqualified financial property as being a reasonable amount of working capital because of compliance with the three requirements of paragraphs (d)(3)(v)(A) through (C) of this section and if the tangible property referred to in paragraph (d)(3)(v)(A) is expected to satisfy the requirements of section 1400Z-2(d)(2)(D)(i) as a result of the planned expenditure of those working capital assets, then tangible property purchased, leased, or improved by the trade or business, pursuant to the written plan for the expenditure of the working capital assets, is treated as qualified opportunity zone business property satisfying the requirements of section 1400Z-2(d)(2)(D)(i), during that and subsequent working capital periods the property is subject to, for purposes of the 70-percent tangible property standard in section 1400Z-2(d)(3).

(B) Example. Multiple applications of working capital safe harbor to tangible property -

(i) Facts. B also borrows cash and forms a domestic C corporation B to develop a large mixed-use real estate development that will consist of commercial and residential real property, owning almost all of the equity of B in exchange for cash. QOF A has a master written plan for the completion of the commercial and residential real property over a 55 month period. The plan provides that the commercial real property will be completed over a 30 month schedule and subsequently, the residential real property will be completed over a 25 month schedule. The plan further provides that a portion of the commercial real property is unable to be used in a trade or business after the completion of the commercial real property since that portion of the commercial real property will be unusable during the residential construction phase. Pursuant to B's original master plan for the completion of the real estate development, QOF A acquires additional equity in B for cash after the completion of the commercial development phase, and B commences use of those working capital assets for residential development phase.

(ii) Analysis. B's use of the cash for the commercial and residential phase qualified for the working capital safe harbor described in paragraph (d)(3)(v) of this section. In addition, all of B's commercial real property developed pursuant to B's original master plan is treated as qualified opportunity zone business property under paragraph (d)(3)(viii) of this section.

(ix) Real property straddling a qualified opportunity zone. For purposes of satisfying the requirements in this paragraph (d)(3) in the case of real property that straddles a qualified opportunity zone, a qualified opportunity zone is the location of services, tangible property, or business functions if -

(A) The trade or business uses the portion of the real property located within a qualified opportunity zone in carrying out its business activities;

(B) The trade or business uses the real property located outside of a qualified opportunity zone in carrying out its business activities;

(C) The amount of the real property located within a qualified opportunity zone is substantial compared to the amount of real property located outside of a qualified opportunity zone; and

(D) The real property located in the qualified opportunity zone is contiguous to part, or all, of the real property located outside of the qualified opportunity zone.

(E) In general, one of the two methods in paragraph (d)(3)(ix)(E)(1) and (2) of this section may be chosen to determine whether the amount of real property located in the qualified opportunity zone is substantial compared to the amount of real property located outside the qualified opportunity zone.

(1) Square footage test. If the amount of real property based on square footage located within the qualified opportunity zone is greater than the amount of real property based on square footage outside of the qualified opportunity zone, and the real property outside of the qualified opportunity zone is contiguous to part or all of the real property located inside the qualified opportunity zone, then all of the property is deemed to be located within a qualified opportunity zone. The test in this paragraph (d)(3)(ix)(E)(1) is carried out at the time at which the subject real property is acquired.

(2) Unadjusted cost test. If the unadjusted cost of the real property located inside a qualified opportunity zone is greater than the unadjusted cost of the real property outside the qualified opportunity zone, and the real property outside of the qualified opportunity zone is contiguous to all or part of the real property located inside the qualified opportunity zone, then all of the property is deemed to be located within a qualified opportunity zone. The unadjusted cost basis of property acquired as a single tract is presumed to be allocated on the basis of the square footage of the property. The test in this paragraph (d)(3)(ix)(E)(2) is carried out at the time at which the subject real property is acquired.

(F) For purposes of the two tests described in paragraph (d)(3)(ix)(E)(1) and (2) of this section, two or more tracts or parcels of land are contiguous if they share common boundaries or would share common boundaries but for the interposition of a road, street, railroad, stream or similar property. Tracts or parcels of land which touch only at a common corner are not contiguous.

(x) Example. The following example illustrates the rules of paragraph (d)(3) of this section -

(A) Facts. In 2019, Taxpayer H realized $w million of capital gains and within the 180-day period invested $w million in QOF T, a qualified opportunity fund. QOF T immediately acquired from partnership P a partnership interest in P, solely in exchange for $w million of cash. P immediately placed the $w million in working capital assets, which remained in working capital assets until used. P had written plans to acquire land in a qualified opportunity zone on which it planned to construct a commercial building. Of the $w million, $x million was dedicated to the land purchase, $y million to the construction of the building, and $z million to ancillary but necessary expenditures for the project. The written plans provided for purchase of the land within a month of receipt of the cash from QOF T and for the remaining $y and $z million to be spent within the next 30 months on construction of the building and on the ancillary expenditures. All expenditures were made on schedule, consuming the $w million. During the taxable years that overlap with the first 31-month period, P had no gross income other than that derived from the amounts held in those working capital assets. Prior to completion of the building, P's only assets were the land it purchased, the unspent amounts in the working capital assets, and P's work in process as the building was constructed.

(B) Analysis -

(1) P met the three requirements of the safe harbor provided in paragraph (d)(3)(v) of this section. P had a written plan to spend the $w received from QOF T for the acquisition, construction, and/or substantial improvement of tangible property in a qualified opportunity zone, as defined in section 1400Z-1(a). P had a written schedule consistent with the ordinary start-up for a business for the expenditure of the working capital assets. And, finally, P's working capital assets were actually used in a manner that was substantially consistent with its written plan and the ordinary start-up of a business. Therefore, the $x million, the $y million, and the $z million are treated as reasonable in amount for purposes of sections 1397C(b)(2) and 1400Z-2(d)(3)(A)(ii).

(2) Because P had no other gross income during the 31 months at issue, 100 percent of P's gross income during that time is treated as derived from an active trade or business in the qualified opportunity zone for purposes of satisfying the 50-percent test of section 1397C(b)(2).

(3) For purposes of satisfying the requirement of section 1397C(b)(4), during the period of land acquisition and building construction a substantial portion of P's intangible property is treated as being used in the active conduct of a trade or business in the qualified opportunity zone.

(4) All of the facts described are consistent with QOF T's interest in P being a qualified opportunity zone partnership interest for purposes of satisfying the 90-percent investment standard in section 1400Z-2(d)(1).

(C) Analysis if P had purchased an existing building. The conclusions in paragraph (d)(3)(x)(B) of this section would also apply if P's plans had been to buy and substantially improve a pre-existing commercial building. In addition, the fact that P's basis in the building has not yet doubled would not cause the building to fail to satisfy section 1400Z-2(d)(2)(D)(i)(III).

(4) Trade or businesses described in section 144(c)(6)(B) not eligible - (i) Pursuant to section 1400Z-2(d)(3)(A)(iii), the following trades or businesses, and businesses leasing more than a de minimis amount of property to the following trades or businesses, cannot qualify as a qualified opportunity zone business:

(A) Any private or commercial golf course;

(B) Country club;

(C) Massage parlor;

(D) Hot tub facility;

(E) Suntan facility;

(F) Racetrack or other facility used for gambling; or

(G) Any store the principal business of which is the sale of alcoholic beverages for consumption off premises.

(ii) De minimis amounts of gross income attributable to a business described in section 144(c)(6)(B) will not cause a trade or business to fail to be a qualified opportunity zone business.

(iii) The term de minimis amount of property, used in paragraph (d)(4)(i) of this section, means less than 5 percent of the net rentable square feet for real property and less than 5 percent of the value for all other tangible property. The term de minimis amount of gross income, used in paragraph (d)(4)(ii) of this section, means less than 5 percent of the gross income of the qualified opportunity zone business may be attributable to the types of business described in section 144(c)(6)(B).

(iv) The following examples illustrate the rules of paragraph (d)(4) of this section:

(A) Example 1. Entity A is a QOF that meets the requirements of section 1400Z-2(d)(1). Entity A owns qualified opportunity zone stock in a domestic corporation described in section 1400Z-2(d)(2)(B), which operates a hotel located in a qualified opportunity zone that qualifies as a trade or business. As part of that trade or business, the hotel operates a spa that provides massages and other therapies. Less than 5 percent of the hotel's total gross income is attributable to the spa, and less than 5 percent of the net rentable square feet for real property and less than 5 percent of the value for all other tangible property is attributable to the spa. As a result, the operation of the spa, which is a business described in section 144(c)(6)(B), will not prevent the operation of the hotel from qualifying as a qualified opportunity zone business.

(B) Example 2 -

(1) Facts. Entity B is a qualified opportunity zone business that meets the requirements of section 1400Z-2(d)(3). Entity B plans to acquire a commercial golf course that consists of land and other related buildings and equipment in a qualified opportunity zone, that will satisfy each requirement for qualified opportunity zone business property set forth in section 1400Z-2(d)(2)(D). Instead of directly managing and operating the commercial golf course business, Entity B will lease the land and other related buildings and equipment to a third party to manage and operate the commercial golf course. The leased real property represents more than 5 percent of the net rentable square feet of Entity B's real property and the leased and other tangible property represents more than 5 percent of the value for all other tangible property of Entity B.

(2) Analysis. Because a golf course is prohibited from being a qualified trade or business under section 1400Z-2(d)(3)(A)(iii), the leasing arrangement will cause Entity B to fail to be a qualified opportunity zone business regardless of the satisfaction of each requirement set forth in section 1400Z-2(d)(2)(D).

(C) Example 3 -

(1) Facts. Entity B meets the explicit requirements of section 1400Z-2(d)(1) and has certified itself as a QOF. Entity B owns a commercial golf course that consists of land and other related buildings and equipment in a qualified opportunity zone, and the land and buildings satisfy all explicit requirements (in section 1400Z-2(d)(2)(D)) to be qualified opportunity zone business property. Entity B manages and operates the commercial golf course business, but does not manage or operate any other trade or business not described in section 144(c)(6)(B) (listing businesses not eligible to be a qualified opportunity zone business pursuant to section 1400Z-2(d)(3)(A)(iii)). Entity B chose to operate the commercial golf course through Entity B, rather than through a qualified opportunity zone business, in order to avoid the requirement in section 1400Z-2(d)(3)(A)(iii), which provides that a qualified opportunity zone business cannot operate a commercial golf course due to the inclusion of that trade or business in section 144(c)(6)(B).

(2) Analysis. The ownership and operation of the golf course at the QOF level will not disqualify the QOF because the prohibition on businesses described in section 144(c)(6)(B) is not applicable at the QOF level. In addition, if each requirement set forth in section 1400Z-2(d)(2)(D) is satisfied, the property used in the commercial golf course will qualify as qualified opportunity zone business property held by Entity B for purposes of section 1400Z-2(d)(2)(A).

(5) Tangible property of a qualified opportunity zone business that ceases to be qualified opportunity zone business property. For qualified opportunity zone businesses, tangible property that ceases to be qualified opportunity zone business property shall continue to be treated as qualified opportunity zone business property for the lesser of five years after the date on which such tangible property ceases to be so qualified or the date on which such tangible property is no longer held by the qualified opportunity zone business. However, tangible property is not eligible for the benefits provided in this paragraph (d)(5) unless the tangible property ceasing to qualify as qualified opportunity zone business property was qualified opportunity zone business property used by a qualified opportunity zone business in a qualified opportunity zone for two years. For purposes of this paragraph (d)(5), tangible property purchased, leased, or improved by a trade or business, that is treated as satisfying the requirements of section 1400Z-2(d)(2)(D)(i) during that working capital safe harbor period pursuant to paragraph (d)(3)(v) of this section or that 30-month substantial improvement period described in § 1.1400Z2(d)-2(b)(4), is not treated as used by a qualified opportunity zone business in a qualified opportunity zone for any portion of the two year period described in this paragraph (d)(5).

(6) Cure period for qualified opportunity zone businesses.

(i) For purposes of the 90-percent qualified opportunity zone business holding period requirements set forth in sections 1400Z-2(d)(2)(B)(i)(III), 1400Z-2(d)(2)(C)(iii), and 1400Z-2(d)(2)(D)(i)(III), if a trade or business causes the QOF to fail the 90-percent investment standard on a semiannual testing date, the QOF may treat the stock or partnership interest in that trade or business as qualified opportunity zone property for that semiannual testing date provided the trade or business corrects the failure within 6 months of the date on which the stock or partnership interest lost its qualification.

(ii) If the failure occurs on the last testing date of the taxable year, the six-month cure period described in paragraph (d)(6)(i) of this section is available to the QOF only if the QOF files a valid application for an extension of time to file its tax return.

(iii) Each QOF is permitted only one correction for a trade or business pursuant to this paragraph (d)(6). If the entity, at the end of the additional six-month cure period, fails to qualify as a qualified opportunity zone business, then the QOF becomes subject to the penalty under section 1400Z-2(f)(1) for each month the entity failed to qualify as a qualified opportunity zone business beginning with the first month following the last month that the QOF met the 90-percent investment standard.

(e) Applicability dates -

(1) In general. The provisions of this section are applicable for taxable years beginning after March 13, 2020.

(2) Prior periods. With respect to the portion of a taxpayer's first taxable year ending after December 21, 2017, and for taxable years beginning after December 21, 2017, and on or before March 13, 2020, a taxpayer may choose either -

(i) To apply the section 1400Z-2 regulations, if applied in a consistent manner for all such taxable years (reliance by a taxpayer on paragraph (e)(2)(ii) of this section, § 1.1400Z2(a)-1(g)(2)(ii), § 1.1400Z2(b)-1(j)(2)(ii), § 1.1400Z2(d)-2(e)(2)(ii), or § 1.1400Z2(f)-1(d)(2)(ii), is disregarded solely for purposes of the consistency requirement under this paragraph (e)(2)(i)); or

(ii) To rely on the rules in proposed § 1.1400Z2(d)-1 contained in the notice of proposed rulemaking (REG-115420-18) published on October 29, 2018, as amplified by the notice of proposed rulemaking (REG-120186-18) published on May 1, 2019, but only if applied in a consistent manner for all such taxable years.

[T.D. 9889, 85 FR 1977, Jan. 13, 2020; 85 FR 19083, April 6, 2020]
Editorial Note:
At 85 FR 19083, April 6, 2020, § 1.1400Z2(d)-1 was amended in part by redesignating paragraphs (d)(3)(ix) and (x) as (d)(3)(viii) and (ix); however, the amendment could not be incorporated due to inaccurate amendatory instruction.