26 CFR 1.163-2 - Installment purchases where interest charge is not separately stated.

§ 1.163-2 Installment purchases where interest charge is not separately stated.

(a)In general.

(1) Whenever there is a contract with a seller for the purchase of personal property providing for payment of part or all of the purchase price in installments and there is a separately stated carrying charge (including a finance charge, service charge, and the like) but the actual interest charge cannot be ascertained, a portion of the payments made during the taxable year under the contract shall be treated as interest and is deductible under section 163 and this section. Section 163(b) contains a formula, described in paragraph (b) of this section, in accordance with which the amount of interest deductible in the taxable year must be computed. This formula is designed to operate automatically in the case of any installment purchase, without regard to whether payments under the contract are made when due or are in default. For applicable limitations when an obligation to pay is terminated, see paragraph (c) of this section.

(2) Whenever there is a contract with an educational institution for the purchase of educational services providing for payment of part or all of the purchase price in installments and there is a separately stated carrying charge (including a finance charge, service charge, and the like) but the actual interest charge cannot be ascertained, a portion of the payments made during the taxable year under the contract shall be treated as interest and is deductible under section 163 and this section. See paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section for the applicable computation and limitations rules. For purposes of section 163(b) and this section, the term “educational services” means any service (including lodging) which is purchased from an educational institution (as defined in section 151(e)(4) and paragraph (c) of § 1.151-3) and which is provided for a student of such institution.

(3) Section 163(b) and this section do not apply to a contract for the loan of money, even if the loan is to be repaid in installments and even if the borrowed amount is used to purchase personal property or educational services. In cases to which the preceding sentence applies, the portion of the installment payment which constitutes interest (as distinguished from payments of principal and charges such as payments for credit life insurance) is deductible under section 163(a) and § 1.163-1.

(b)Computation. The portion of any such payments to be treated as interest shall be equal to 6 percent of the average unpaid balance under the contract during the taxable year. For purposes of this computation, the average unpaid balance under the contract is the sum of the unpaid balance outstanding on the first day of each month beginning during the taxable year, divided by 12.

(c)Limitations. The amount treated as interest under section 163(b) and this section for any taxable year shall not exceed the amount of the payments made under the contract during the taxable year nor the aggregate carrying charges properly attributable to each contract for such taxable year. In computing the amount to be treated as interest if the obligation to pay is terminated as, for example, in the case of a repossession of the property, the unpaid balance on the first day of the month during which the obligation is terminated shall be zero.

(d)Illustrations. The provisions of this section may be illustrated by the following examples:

Example 1.
On January 20, 1955, A purchased a television set for $400, including a stated carrying charge of $25. The down payment was $50, and the balance was paid in 14 monthly installments of $25 each, on the 20th day of each month commencing with February. Assuming that A is a cash method, calendar year taxpayer and that no other installment purchases were made, the amount to be treated as interest in 1955 is $12.38, computed as follows:

Year 1955

First day of Unpaid balance outstanding
January 0
February $350
March 325
April 300
May 275
June 250
July 225
August 200
September 175
October 150
November 125
December 100
2,475
Sum of unpaid balances $2,475 ÷ 12 = $206.25; 6 percent thereof = $12.38.
Example 2.
On November 20, 1955, B purchased a furniture set for $1,250, including a stated carrying charge of $48. The down payment was $50 and the balance was payable in 12 monthly installments of $100 each, on the first day of each month commencing with December 1955. Assume that B is a cash method, calendar year taxpayer and that no other installment purchases were made. Assume further that B made the first payment when due, but made only one other payment on June 1, 1956. The amount to be treated as interest in 1955 is $4, and the amount to be treated as interest in 1956 is $33, computed as follows:

Year 1955

First day of Unpaid balance outstanding
December $1,200
Sum of unpaid balances $1,200 ÷ 12 = $100; 6 percent thereof = $6.

Carrying charges attributable to 1955 = $4.

Year 1956

First day of Unpaid balance outstanding
January $1,100
February 1,000
March 900
April 800
May 700
June 600
July 500
August 400
September 300
October 200
November 100
6,600
Sum of unpaid balances $6,600 ÷ 12 = $550; 6 percent thereof = $33.

Carrying charges attributable to 1956 = $44 ($4 × 11).

Example 3.
Assume the same facts as in example (2), except that the furniture was repossessed and B's obligation to pay terminated as of July 15, 1956. The amount to be treated as interest in 1955 is $4, computed as in example (2) above. The amount to be treated as interest in 1956 is $25.50, computed as follows:

Year 1956

First day of Unpaid balance outstanding
January $1,100
February 1,000
March 900
April 800
May 700
June 600
July-November 0
5,100
Sum of unpaid balances $5,100 ÷ 12 = $425. 6 percent thereof = $25.50.

Carrying charges attributable to 1956 = $44 ($4 × 11).

Example 4.
(i) On September 15, 1968, C registered at X University for the 1968-69 academic year. C entered into an agreement with the X University for the purchase during such academic year of educational services (including lodging and tuition) for a total fee of $1,000, including a separately stated carrying charge of $50. Under the terms of the agreement, an initial payment of $200 was to be made by C on September 15, 1968, and the balance was to be paid in 8 monthly installments of $100 each, on the 15th day of each month commencing with October 1968. C made all of the required 1968 payments. Assuming that C is a cash method, calendar year taxpayer and that no other installment purchases of services or property were made, the amount to be treated as interest in 1968 is $10.50, computed as follows:

Year 1968

First day of Unpaid balance outstanding
January-September 0
October $800
November 700
December 600
Total 2,100
The sum of unpaid balances ($2,100) divided by 12 is $175; 6 percent thereof is $10.50. The carrying charges attributable to 1968 are $18.75 (i.e., the total carrying charges ($50), divided by the total number of payments (8), multiplied by the number of payments made in 1968 (3)). Since the amount to be treated as interest in 1968 ($10.50) does not exceed the carrying charges attributable to 1968 ($18.75), the limitation set forth in paragraph (c) of this section is not applicable.
(ii) The result in this example would be the same even if the X University assigned the agreement to a bank or other financial institution and C made his payments directly to the bank or other financial institution.
Example 5.
On September 15, 1968, D registered at Y University for the 1968-69 academic year. The tuition for such year was $1,500. In order to pay his tuition, D borrowed $1,500 from the M Corporation, a lending institution, and remitted that sum to the Y University. The loan agreement between M Corporation and D provided that D was to repay the loan, plus a service charge, in 10 equal monthly installments, on the first day of each month commencing with October 1968. The service charge consisted of interest and the cost of credit life insurance on D's life. Since section 163(b) and this section do not apply to a contract for the loan of money, D is not entitled to compute his interest deduction with respect to his loan from M Corporation under such sections. D may deduct that portion of each installment payment which constitutes interest (as distinguished from payments of principal and the charge for credit life insurance) under section 163(a) and § 1.163-1, provided that the amount of such interest can be ascertained.

(e)Effective date. Except in the case of payments made under a contract for educational services, the rule provided in section 163(b) and this section applies to payments made during taxable years beginning after December 31, 1953, and ending after August 16, 1954, regardless of when the contract of sale was made. In the case of payments made under a contract for educational services, the rule provided in section 163(b) and this section applies to payments made during taxable years beginning after December 31, 1963, regardless of when the contract for educational services was made.

[T.D. 6500, 25 FR 11402, Nov. 26, 1960, as amended by T.D. 6991, 34 FR 742, Jan. 17, 1969]

This is a list of United States Code sections, Statutes at Large, Public Laws, and Presidential Documents, which provide rulemaking authority for this CFR Part.

This list is taken from the Parallel Table of Authorities and Rules provided by GPO [Government Printing Office].

It is not guaranteed to be accurate or up-to-date, though we do refresh the database weekly. More limitations on accuracy are described at the GPO site.


United States Code
U.S. Code: Title 26 - INTERNAL REVENUE CODE

§ 1 - Tax imposed

§ 21 - Expenses for household and dependent care services necessary for gainful employment

§ 23 - Adoption expenses

§ 25 - Interest on certain home mortgages

§ 25A - Hope and Lifetime Learning credits

§ 28 - Renumbered § 45C]

§ 30 - Repealed. Pub. L. 113–295, div. A, title II, § 221(a)(2)(A), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 4037]

§ 36B - Refundable credit for coverage under a qualified health plan

§ 38 - General business credit

§ 40 - Alcohol, etc., used as fuel

§ 41 - Credit for increasing research activities

§ 42 - Low-income housing credit

§ 43 - Enhanced oil recovery credit

§ 45D - New markets tax credit

§ 46 - Amount of credit

§ 47 - Rehabilitation credit

§ 52 - Special rules

§ 56 - Adjustments in computing alternative minimum taxable income

§ 58 - Denial of certain losses

§ 61 - Gross income defined

§ 62 - Adjusted gross income defined

§ 66 - Treatment of community income

§ 67 - 2-percent floor on miscellaneous itemized deductions

§ 72 - Annuities; certain proceeds of endowment and life insurance contracts

§ 101 - Certain death benefits

§ 103 - Interest on State and local bonds

§ 103A - Repealed. Pub. L. 99–514, title XIII, § 1301(j)(1), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2657]

§ 108 - Income from discharge of indebtedness

§ 110 - Qualified lessee construction allowances for short-term leases

§ 129 - Dependent care assistance programs

§ 132 - Certain fringe benefits

§ 148 - Arbitrage

§ 149 - Bonds must be registered to be tax exempt; other requirements

§ 150 - Definitions and special rules

§ 152 - Dependent defined

§ 162 - Trade or business expenses

§ 163 - Interest

§ 165 - Losses

§ 166 - Bad debts

§ 168 - Accelerated cost recovery system

§ 170 - Charitable, etc., contributions and gifts

§ 171 - Amortizable bond premium

§ 179 - Election to expense certain depreciable business assets

§ 179A - Repealed. Pub. L. 113–295, div. A, title II, § 221(a)(34)(A), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 4042]

§ 197 - Amortization of goodwill and certain other intangibles

§ 199 - Income attributable to domestic production activities

§ 216 - Deduction of taxes, interest, and business depreciation by cooperative housing corporation tenant-stockholder

§ 221 - Interest on education loans

§ 263A - Capitalization and inclusion in inventory costs of certain expenses

§ 267 - Losses, expenses, and interest with respect to transactions between related taxpayers

§ 274 - Disallowance of certain entertainment, etc., expenses

§ 280C - Certain expenses for which credits are allowable

§ 280F - Limitation on depreciation for luxury automobiles; limitation where certain property used for personal purposes

§ 280G - Golden parachute payments

§ 301 - Distributions of property

§ 304 - Redemption through use of related corporations

§ 305 - Distributions of stock and stock rights

§ 324

§ 336 - Gain or loss recognized on property distributed in complete liquidation

§ 337 - Nonrecognition for property distributed to parent in complete liquidation of subsidiary

§ 338 - Certain stock purchases treated as asset acquisitions

§ 351 - Transfer to corporation controlled by transferor

§ 355 - Distribution of stock and securities of a controlled corporation

§ 357 - Assumption of liability

§ 358 - Basis to distributees

§ 362 - Basis to corporations

§ 367 - Foreign corporations

§ 382 - Limitation on net operating loss carryforwards and certain built-in losses following ownership change

§ 383 - Special limitations on certain excess credits, etc.

§ 401 - Qualified pension, profit-sharing, and stock bonus plans

§ 401 note - Qualified pension, profit-sharing, and stock bonus plans

§ 402A - Optional treatment of elective deferrals as Roth contributions

§ 403 - Taxation of employee annuities

§ 404 - Deduction for contributions of an employer to an employees’ trust or annuity plan and compensation under a deferred-payment plan

§ 408 - Individual retirement accounts

§ 408A - Roth IRAs

§ 409 - Qualifications for tax credit employee stock ownership plans

§ 410 - Minimum participation standards

§ 411 - Minimum vesting standards

§ 414 - Definitions and special rules

§ 417 - Definitions and special rules for purposes of minimum survivor annuity requirements

§ 419A - Qualified asset account; limitation on additions to account

§ 420 - Transfers of excess pension assets to retiree health accounts

§ 441 - Period for computation of taxable income

§ 442 - Change of annual accounting period

§ 444 - Election of taxable year other than required taxable year

§ 446 - General rule for methods of accounting

§ 453 - Installment method

§ 453A - Special rules for nondealers

§ 458 - Magazines, paperbacks, and records returned after the close of the taxable year

§ 460 - Special rules for long-term contracts

§ 461 - General rule for taxable year of deduction

§ 465 - Deductions limited to amount at risk

§ 466 - Repealed. Pub. L. 99–514, title VIII, § 823(a), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2373]

§ 467 - Certain payments for the use of property or services

§ 468A - Special rules for nuclear decommissioning costs

§ 468B - Special rules for designated settlement funds

§ 469 - Passive activity losses and credits limited

§ 471 - General rule for inventories

§ 472 - Last-in, first-out inventories

§ 475 - Mark to market accounting method for dealers in securities

§ 481 - Adjustments required by changes in method of accounting

§ 482 - Allocation of income and deductions among taxpayers

§ 483 - Interest on certain deferred payments

§ 493

§ 504 - Status after organization ceases to qualify for exemption under section 501(c)(3) because of substantial lobbying or because of political activities

§ 514 - Unrelated debt-financed income

§ 527 - Political organizations

§ 585 - Reserves for losses on loans of banks

§ 597 - Treatment of transactions in which Federal financial assistance provided

§ 642 - Special rules for credits and deductions

§ 643 - Definitions applicable to subparts A, B, C, and D

§ 645 - Certain revocable trusts treated as part of estate

§ 663 - Special rules applicable to sections 661 and 662

§ 664 - Charitable remainder trusts

§ 672 - Definitions and rules

§ 679 - Foreign trusts having one or more United States beneficiaries

§ 701 - Partners, not partnership, subject to tax

§ 702 - Income and credits of partner

§ 703 - Partnership computations

§ 704 - Partner’s distributive share

§ 705 - Determination of basis of partner’s interest

§ 706 - Taxable years of partner and partnership

§ 707 - Transactions between partner and partnership

§ 708 - Continuation of partnership

§ 709 - Treatment of organization and syndication fees

§ 721 - Nonrecognition of gain or loss on contribution

§ 722 - Basis of contributing partner’s interest

§ 723 - Basis of property contributed to partnership

§ 724 - Character of gain or loss on contributed unrealized receivables, inventory items, and capital loss property

§ 731 - Extent of recognition of gain or loss on distribution

§ 732 - Basis of distributed property other than money

§ 733 - Basis of distributee partner’s interest

§ 734 - Adjustment to basis of undistributed partnership property where section 754 election or substantial basis reduction

§ 735 - Character of gain or loss on disposition of distributed property

§ 736 - Payments to a retiring partner or a deceased partner’s successor in interest

§ 737 - Recognition of precontribution gain in case of certain distributions to contributing partner

§ 741 - Recognition and character of gain or loss on sale or exchange

§ 742 - Basis of transferee partner’s interest

§ 743 - Special rules where section 754 election or substantial built-in loss

§ 751 - Unrealized receivables and inventory items

§ 752 - Treatment of certain liabilities

§ 753 - Partner receiving income in respect of decedent

§ 754 - Manner of electing optional adjustment to basis of partnership property

§ 755 - Rules for allocation of basis

§ 761 - Terms defined

§ 809 - Repealed. Pub. L. 108–218, title II, § 205(a), Apr. 10, 2004, 118 Stat. 610]

§ 817A - Special rules for modified guaranteed contracts

§ 832 - Insurance company taxable income

§ 845 - Certain reinsurance agreements

§ 846 - Discounted unpaid losses defined

§ 848 - Capitalization of certain policy acquisition expenses

§ 852 - Taxation of regulated investment companies and their shareholders

§ 860E - Treatment of income in excess of daily accruals on residual interests

§ 860G - Other definitions and special rules

§ 863 - Special rules for determining source

§ 864 - Definitions and special rules

§ 865 - Source rules for personal property sales

§ 874 - Allowance of deductions and credits

§ 882 - Tax on income of foreign corporations connected with United States business

§ 883 - Exclusions from gross income

§ 884 - Branch profits tax

§ 892 - Income of foreign governments and of international organizations

§ 894 - Income affected by treaty

§ 897 - Disposition of investment in United States real property

§ 901 - Taxes of foreign countries and of possessions of United States

§ 902 - Deemed paid credit where domestic corporation owns 10 percent or more of voting stock of foreign corporation

§ 904 - Limitation on credit

§ 907 - Special rules in case of foreign oil and gas income

§ 911 - Citizens or residents of the United States living abroad

§ 924

§ 925

§ 927

§ 934 - Limitation on reduction in income tax liability incurred to the Virgin Islands

§ 936 - Puerto Rico and possession tax credit

§ 937 - Residence and source rules involving possessions

§ 954 - Foreign base company income

§ 956 - Investment of earnings in United States property

§ 957 - Controlled foreign corporations; United States persons

§ 960 - Special rules for foreign tax credit

§ 963 - Repealed. Pub. L. 94–12, title VI, § 602(a)(1), Mar. 29, 1975, 89 Stat. 58]

§ 985 - Functional currency

§ 987 - Branch transactions

§ 988 - Treatment of certain foreign currency transactions

§ 989 - Other definitions and special rules

§ 1017 - Discharge of indebtedness

§ 1032 - Exchange of stock for property

§ 1059 - Corporate shareholder’s basis in stock reduced by nontaxed portion of extraordinary dividends

§ 1060 - Special allocation rules for certain asset acquisitions

§ 1092 - Straddles

§ 1202 - Partial exclusion for gain from certain small business stock

§ 1221 - Capital asset defined

§ 1244 - Losses on small business stock

§ 1248 - Gain from certain sales or exchanges of stock in certain foreign corporations

§ 1254 - Gain from disposition of interest in oil, gas, geothermal, or other mineral properties

§ 1275 - Other definitions and special rules

§ 1286 - Tax treatment of stripped bonds

§ 1291 - Interest on tax deferral

§ 1293 - Current taxation of income from qualified electing funds

§ 1294 - Election to extend time for payment of tax on undistributed earnings

§ 1295 - Qualified electing fund

§ 1296 - Election of mark to market for marketable stock

§ 1297 - Passive foreign investment company

§ 1298 - Special rules

§ 1301 - Averaging of farm income

§ 1361 - S corporation defined

§ 1368 - Distributions

§ 1374 - Tax imposed on certain built-in gains

§ 1377 - Definitions and special rule

§ 1378 - Taxable year of S corporation

§ 1397D - Qualified zone property defined

§ 1397E - Credit to holders of qualified zone academy bonds

§ 1402 - Definitions

§ 1441 - Withholding of tax on nonresident aliens

§ 1443 - Foreign tax-exempt organizations

§ 1445 - Withholding of tax on dispositions of United States real property interests

§ 1471 - Withholdable payments to foreign financial institutions

§ 1472 - Withholdable payments to other foreign entities

§ 1473 - Definitions

§ 1474 - Special rules

§ 1502 - Regulations

§ 1503 - Computation and payment of tax

§ 1504 - Definitions

§ 1561 - Limitations on certain multiple tax benefits in the case of certain controlled corporations

§ 3401 - Definitions

§ 5000 - Certain group health plans

§ 5000A - Requirement to maintain minimum essential coverage

§ 6001 - Notice or regulations requiring records, statements, and special returns

§ 6011 - General requirement of return, statement, or list

§ 6015 - Relief from joint and several liability on joint return

§ 6033 - Returns by exempt organizations

§ 6035 - Basis information to persons acquiring property from decedent

§ 6038 - Information reporting with respect to certain foreign corporations and partnerships

§ 6038A - Information with respect to certain foreign-owned corporations

§ 6038B - Notice of certain transfers to foreign persons

§ 6038D - Information with respect to foreign financial assets

§ 6039I - Returns and records with respect to employer-owned life insurance contracts

§ 6041 - Information at source

§ 6043 - Liquidating, etc., transactions

§ 6045 - Returns of brokers

§ 6046A - Returns as to interests in foreign partnerships

§ 6049 - Returns regarding payments of interest

§ 6050E - State and local income tax refunds

§ 6050H - Returns relating to mortgage interest received in trade or business from individuals

§ 6050I-1

§ 6050K - Returns relating to exchanges of certain partnership interests

§ 6050M - Returns relating to persons receiving contracts from Federal executive agencies

§ 6050P - Returns relating to the cancellation of indebtedness by certain entities

§ 6050S - Returns relating to higher education tuition and related expenses

§ 6060 - Information returns of tax return preparers

§ 6061 - Signing of returns and other documents

§ 6065 - Verification of returns

§ 6081 - Extension of time for filing returns

§ 6103 - Confidentiality and disclosure of returns and return information

§ 6109 - Identifying numbers

§ 6302 - Mode or time of collection

§ 6402 - Authority to make credits or refunds

§ 6411 - Tentative carryback and refund adjustments

§ 6655 - Failure by corporation to pay estimated income tax

§ 6662 - Imposition of accuracy-related penalty on underpayments

§ 6695 - Other assessable penalties with respect to the preparation of tax returns for other persons

§ 6851 - Termination assessments of income tax

§ 7520 - Valuation tables

§ 7654 - Coordination of United States and certain possession individual income taxes

§ 7701 - Definitions

§ 7702 - Life insurance contract defined

§ 7805 - Rules and regulations

§ 7872 - Treatment of loans with below-market interest rates

§ 7874 - Rules relating to expatriated entities and their foreign parents

U.S. Code: Title 29 - LABOR
Statutes at Large
Public Laws
Presidential Documents

Reorganization ... 1978 Plan No. 4

Title 26 published on 16-Jun-2017 03:58

The following are ALL rules, proposed rules, and notices (chronologically) published in the Federal Register relating to 26 CFR Part 1 after this date.

  • 2017-06-30; vol. 82 # 125 - Friday, June 30, 2017
    1. 82 FR 29719 - Regulations Regarding Withholding of Tax on Certain U.S. Source Income Paid to Foreign Persons, Information Reporting and Backup Withholding on Payments Made to Certain U.S. Persons, and Portfolio Interest Treatment; Correction
      GPO FDSys XML | Text
      DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY, Internal Revenue Service
      Correcting amendment.
        Effective Date: These corrections are effective June 30, 2017. Applicability Date: The corrections to §§ 1.1441-0; 1.1441-1(b)(7)(ii)(B), (e)(3)(iv)(B) and (C), (e)(4)(ii)(B)( 11 ), (e)(4)(ix)(D), (e)(5)(ii) through (e)(5)(ii)(B), (e)(5)(ii)(D) through (e)(5)(v)(B)( 3 ), (e)(5)(v)(B)( 5 ) through (e)(5)(v)(D), and (f) through (f)(4); 1.1441-1T; 1.1441-3(d)(1); 1.1441-4; 1.6045-1(m)(2)(ii) and (n)(12)(ii); and 1.6049-5(c)(1) through (c)(4) are applicable on January 6, 2017.
      26 CFR Part 1

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