26 CFR § 1.168(k)-2 - Additional first year depreciation deduction for property acquired and placed in service after September 27, 2017.

§ 1.168(k)-2 Additional first year depreciation deduction for property acquired and placed in service after September 27, 2017.

(a) Scope and definitions -

(1) Scope. This section provides rules for determining the additional first year depreciation deduction allowable under section 168(k) for qualified property acquired and placed in service after September 27, 2017, except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section.

(2) Definitions. For purposes of this section -

(i) Act is the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act, Public Law 115-97 (131 Stat. 2054 (December 22, 2017));

(ii) Applicable percentage is the percentage provided in section 168(k)(6);

(iii) Initial live staged performance is the first commercial exhibition of a production to an audience. However, the term initial live staged performance does not include limited exhibition prior to commercial exhibition to general audiences if the limited exhibition is primarily for purposes of publicity, determining the need for further production activity, or raising funds for the completion of production. For example, an initial live staged performance does not include a preview of the production if the preview is primarily to determine the need for further production activity; and

(iv) Predecessor includes -

(A) A transferor of an asset to a transferee in a transaction to which section 381(a) applies;

(B) A transferor of the asset to a transferee in a transaction in which the transferee's basis in the asset is determined, in whole or in part, by reference to the basis of the asset in the hands of the transferor;

(C) A partnership that is considered as continuing under section 708(b)(2) and § 1.708-1; or

(D) The decedent in the case of an asset acquired by the estate.

(b) Qualified property -

(1) In general. Qualified property is depreciable property, as defined in § 1.168(b)-1(a)(1), that meets all the following requirements in the first taxable year in which the property is subject to depreciation by the taxpayer whether or not depreciation deductions for the property are allowable:

(i) The requirements in § 1.168(k)-2(b)(2) (description of qualified property);

(ii) The requirements in § 1.168(k)-2(b)(3) (original use or used property acquisition requirements);

(iii) The requirements in § 1.168(k)-2(b)(4) (placed-in-service date); and

(iv) The requirements in § 1.168(k)-2(b)(5) (acquisition of property).

(2) Description of qualified property -

(i) In general. Depreciable property will meet the requirements of this paragraph (b)(2) if the property is -

(A) MACRS property, as defined in § 1.168(b)-1(a)(2), that has a recovery period of 20 years or less. For purposes of this paragraph (b)(2)(i)(A) and section 168(k)(2)(A)(i)(I), the recovery period is determined in accordance with section 168(c) regardless of any election made by the taxpayer under section 168(g)(7). This paragraph (b)(2)(i)(A) includes the following MACRS property that is acquired by the taxpayer after September 27, 2017, and placed in service by the taxpayer after September 27, 2017, and before January 1, 2018:

(1) Qualified leasehold improvement property as defined in section 168(e)(6) as in effect on the day before amendment by section 13204(a)(1) of the Act;

(2) Qualified restaurant property, as defined in section 168(e)(7) as in effect on the day before amendment by section 13204(a)(1) of the Act, that is qualified improvement property as defined in § 1.168(b)-1(a)(5)(i)(C) and (a)(5)(ii); and

(3) Qualified retail improvement property as defined in section 168(e)(8) as in effect on the day before amendment by section 13204(a)(1) of the Act;

(B) Computer software as defined in, and depreciated under, section 167(f)(1) and § 1.167(a)-14;

(C) Water utility property as defined in section 168(e)(5) and depreciated under section 168;

(D) Qualified improvement property as defined in § 1.168(b)-1(a)(5)(i)(C) and (a)(5)(ii) and depreciated under section 168;

(E) A qualified film or television production, as defined in section 181(d) and § 1.181-3, for which a deduction would have been allowable under section 181 and §§ 1.181-1 through 1.181-6 without regard to section 181(a)(2) and (g), § 1.181-1(b)(1)(i) and (ii), and (b)(2)(i), or section 168(k). Only production costs of a qualified film or television production are allowable as a deduction under section 181 and §§ 1.181-1 through 1.181-6 without regard, for purposes of section 168(k), to section 181(a)(2) and (g), § 1.181-1(b)(1)(i) and (ii), and (b)(2)(i). The taxpayer that claims the additional first year depreciation deduction under this section for the production costs of a qualified film or television production must be the owner, as defined in § 1.181-1(a)(2), of the qualified film or television production. See § 1.181-1(a)(3) for the definition of production costs;

(F) A qualified live theatrical production, as defined in section 181(e), for which a deduction would have been allowable under section 181 and §§ 1.181-1 through 1.181-6 without regard to section 181(a)(2) and (g), § 1.181-1(b)(1)(i) and (ii), and (b)(2)(i), or section 168(k). Only production costs of a qualified live theatrical production are allowable as a deduction under section 181 and §§ 1.181-1 through 1.181-6 without regard, for purposes of section 168(k), to section 181(a)(2) and (g), § 1.181-1(b)(1)(i) and (ii), and (b)(2)(i). The taxpayer that claims the additional first year depreciation deduction under this section for the production costs of a qualified live theatrical production must be the owner, as defined in § 1.181-1(a)(2), of the qualified live theatrical production. In applying § 1.181-1(a)(2)(ii) to a person that acquires a finished or partially-finished qualified live theatrical production, such person is treated as an owner of that production, but only if the production is acquired prior to its initial live staged performance. Rules similar to the rules in § 1.181-1(a)(3) for the definition of production costs of a qualified film or television production apply for defining production costs of a qualified live theatrical production; or

(G) A specified plant, as defined in section 168(k)(5)(B), for which the taxpayer has properly made an election to apply section 168(k)(5) for the taxable year in which the specified plant is planted, or grafted to a plant that has already been planted, by the taxpayer in the ordinary course of the taxpayer's farming business, as defined in section 263A(e)(4) (for further guidance, see paragraph (f) of this section).

(ii) Property not eligible for additional first year depreciation deduction. Depreciable property will not meet the requirements of this paragraph (b)(2) if the property is -

(A) Described in section 168(f) (for example, automobiles for which the taxpayer uses the optional business standard mileage rate);

(B) Required to be depreciated under the alternative depreciation system of section 168(g) pursuant to section 168(g)(1)(A), (B), (C), (D), (F), or (G), or other provisions of the Internal Revenue Code (for example, property described in section 263A(e)(2)(A) if the taxpayer or any related person, as defined in section 263A(e)(2)(B), has made an election under section 263A(d)(3), or property described in section 280F(b)(1)). If section 168(h)(6) applies to the property, only the tax-exempt entity's proportionate share of the property, as determined under section 168(h)(6), is treated as tax-exempt use property described in section 168(g)(1)(B) and in this paragraph (b)(2)(ii)(B). This paragraph (b)(2)(ii)(B) does not apply to property for which the adjusted basis is required to be determined using the alternative depreciation system of section 168(g) pursuant to section 250(b)(2)(B) or 951A(d)(3), as applicable, or to property for which the adjusted basis is required to be determined using the alternative depreciation system of section 168(g) for allocating business interest expense between excepted and non-excepted trades or businesses under section 163(j), but only if the property is not required to be depreciated under the alternative depreciation system of section 168(g) pursuant to section 168(g)(1)(A), (B), (C), (D), (F), or (G), or other provisions of the Code, other than section 163(j), 250(b)(2)(B), or 951A(d)(3), as applicable;

(C) Included in any class of property for which the taxpayer elects not to deduct the additional first year depreciation (for further guidance, see paragraph (f) of this section);

(D) A specified plant that is placed in service by the taxpayer during the taxable year and for which the taxpayer made an election to apply section 168(k)(5) for a prior taxable year;

(E) Included in any class of property for which the taxpayer elects to apply section 168(k)(4). This paragraph (b)(2)(ii)(E) applies to property placed in service by the taxpayer in any taxable year beginning before January 1, 2018;

(F) Primarily used in a trade or business described in section 163(j)(7)(A)(iv) and §§ 1.163(j)-1(b)(15)(i) and 1.163(j)-10(c)(3)(iii)(C)(3), and placed in service by the taxpayer in any taxable year beginning after December 31, 2017. For purposes of section 168(k)(9)(A) and this paragraph (b)(2)(ii)(F), the term primarily used has the same meaning as that term is used in § 1.167(a)-11(b)(4)(iii)(b) and (e)(3)(iii) for classifying property. This paragraph (b)(2)(ii)(F) does not apply to property that is leased to a lessee's trade or business described in section 163(j)(7)(A)(iv) and §§ 1.163(j)-1(b)(15)(i) and 1.163(j)-10(c)(3)(iii)(C)(3), by a lessor's trade or business that is not described in section 163(j)(7)(A)(iv) and §§ 1.163(j)-1(b)(15)(i) and 1.163(j)-10(c)(3)(iii)(C)(3) for the taxable year; or

(G) Used in a trade or business that has had floor plan financing indebtedness, as defined in section 163(j)(9)(B) and § 1.163(j)-1(b)(18), if the floor plan financing interest expense, as defined in section 163(j)(9)(A) and § 1.163(j)-1(b)(19), related to such indebtedness is taken into account under section 163(j)(1)(C) for the taxable year. Such property also must be placed in service by the taxpayer in any taxable year beginning after December 31, 2017. Solely for purposes of section 168(k)(9)(B) and this paragraph (b)(2)(ii)(G), floor plan financing interest expense is taken into account for the taxable year by a trade or business that has had floor plan financing indebtedness only if the business interest expense, as defined in section 163(j)(5) and § 1.163(j)-1(b)(3), of the trade or business for the taxable year (which includes floor plan financing interest expense) exceeds the sum of the amounts calculated under section 163(j)(1)(A) and (B) for the trade or business for the taxable year. If the trade or business has taken floor plan financing interest expense into account pursuant to this paragraph (b)(2)(ii)(G) for a taxable year, this paragraph (b)(2)(ii)(G) applies to any property placed in service by that trade or business in that taxable year. This paragraph (b)(2)(ii)(G) does not apply to property that is leased to a lessee's trade or business that has had floor plan financing indebtedness, by a lessor's trade or business that has not had floor plan financing indebtedness during the taxable year or that has had floor plan financing indebtedness but did not take into account floor plan financing interest expense for the taxable year pursuant to this paragraph (b)(2)(ii)(G).

(iii) Examples. The application of this paragraph (b)(2) is illustrated by the following examples. Unless the facts specifically indicate otherwise, assume that the parties are not related within the meaning of section 179(d)(2)(A) or (B) and § 1.179-4(c), and are not described in section 163(j)(3):

(A) Example 1. On February 8, 2018, A finishes the production of a qualified film, as defined in § 1.181-3. On June 4, 2018, B acquires this finished production from A. The initial release or broadcast, as defined in § 1.181-1(a)(7), of this qualified film is on July 28, 2018. Because B acquired the qualified film before its initial release or broadcast, B is treated as the owner of the qualified film for purposes of section 181 and § 1.181-1(a)(2). Assuming all other requirements of this section are met and all requirements of section 181 and §§ 1.181-1 through 1.181-6, other than section 181(a)(2) and (g), and § 1.181-1(b)(1)(i) and (ii), and (b)(2)(i), are met, B's acquisition cost of the qualified film qualifies for the additional first year depreciation deduction under this section.

(B) Example 2. The facts are the same as in Example 1 of paragraph (b)(2)(iii)(A) of this section, except that B acquires a limited license or right to release the qualified film in Europe. As a result, B is not treated as the owner of the qualified film pursuant to § 1.181-1(a)(2). Accordingly, paragraph (b)(2)(i)(E) of this section is not satisfied, and B's acquisition cost of the license or right does not qualify for the additional first year depreciation deduction.

(C) Example 3. C owns a film library. All of the films in this film library are completed and have been released or broadcasted. In 2018, D buys this film library from C. Because D acquired the films after their initial release or broadcast, D's acquisition cost of the film library does not qualify for a deduction under section 181. As a result, paragraph (b)(2)(i)(E) of this section is not satisfied, and D's acquisition cost of the film library does not qualify for the additional first year depreciation deduction.

(D) Example 4. During 2019, E Corporation, a domestic corporation, acquired new equipment for use in its manufacturing trade or business in Mexico. To determine its qualified business asset investment for purposes of section 250, E Corporation must determine the adjusted basis of the new equipment using the alternative depreciation system of section 168(g) pursuant to sections 250(b)(2)(B) and 951A(d)(3). E Corporation also is required to depreciate the new equipment under the alternative depreciation system of section 168(g) pursuant to section 168(g)(1)(A). As a result, the new equipment does not qualify for the additional first year depreciation deduction pursuant to paragraph (b)(2)(ii)(B) of this section.

(E) Example 5. The facts are the same as in Example 4 of paragraph (b)(2)(iii)(D) of this section, except E Corporation acquired the new equipment for use in its manufacturing trade or business in California. The new equipment is not described in section 168(g)(1)(A), (B), (C), (D), (F), or (G). No other provision of the Internal Revenue Code, other than section 250(b)(2)(B) or 951A(d)(3), requires the new equipment to be depreciated using the alternative depreciation system of section 168(g). To determine its qualified business asset investment for purposes of section 250, E Corporation must determine the adjusted basis of the new equipment using the alternative depreciation system of section 168(g) pursuant to sections 250(b)(2)(B) and 951A(d)(3). Because E Corporation is not required to depreciate the new equipment under the alternative depreciation system of section 168(g), paragraph (b)(2)(ii)(B) of this section does not apply to this new equipment. Assuming all other requirements are met, the new equipment qualifies for the additional first year depreciation deduction under this section.

(F) Example 6. In 2019, a financial institution buys new equipment for $1 million and then leases this equipment to a lessee that primarily uses the equipment in a trade or business described in section 163(j)(7)(A)(iv) and §§ 1.163(j)-1(b)(15)(i) and 1.163(j)-10(c)(3)(iii)(C)(3). The financial institution is not described in section 163(j)(7)(A)(iv) and §§ 1.163(j)-1(b)(15)(i) and § 1.163(j)-10(c)(3)(iii)(C)(3). As a result, paragraph (b)(2)(ii)(F) of this section does not apply to this new equipment. Assuming all other requirements are met, the financial institution's purchase price of $1 million for the new equipment qualifies for the additional first year depreciation deduction under this section.

(G) Example 7. During its taxable year beginning in 2020, F, a corporation that is an automobile dealer, buys new computers for $50,000 for use in its trade or business of selling automobiles. For purposes of section 163(j), F has the following for 2020: $700 of adjusted taxable income, $40 of business interest income, $400 of business interest expense (which includes $100 of floor plan financing interest expense). The sum of the amounts calculated under section 163(j)(1)(A) and (B) for F for 2020 is $390 ($40 + ($700 × 50 percent)). F's business interest expense, which includes floor plan financing interest expense, for 2020 is $400. As a result, F's floor plan financing interest expense is taken into account by F for 2020 pursuant to paragraph (b)(2)(ii)(G) of this section. Accordingly, F's purchase price of $50,000 for the computers does not qualify for the additional first year depreciation deduction under this section.

(H) Example 8. The facts are the same as in Example 7 in paragraph (b)(2)(iii)(G) of this section, except F buys new computers for $30,000 for use in its trade or business of selling automobiles and, for purposes of section 163(j), F has $1,300 of adjusted taxable income. The sum of the amounts calculated under section 163(j)(1)(A) and (B) for F for 2020 is $690 ($40 + ($1,300 × 50 percent)). F's business interest expense, which includes floor plan financing interest expense, for 2020 is $400. As a result, F's floor plan financing interest expense is not taken into account by F for 2020 pursuant to paragraph (b)(2)(ii)(G) of this section. Assuming all other requirements are met, F's purchase price of $30,000 for the computers qualifies for the additional first year depreciation deduction under this section.

(I) Example 9.

(1) G, a calendar-year taxpayer, owns an office building for use in its trade or business and G placed in service such building in 2000. In November 2018, G made and placed in service an improvement to the inside of such building at a cost of $100,000. In January 2019, G entered into a written contract with H for H to construct an improvement to the inside of the building. In March 2019, H completed construction of the improvement at a cost of $750,000 and G placed in service such improvement. Both improvements to the building are section 1250 property and are not described in § 1.168(b)-1(a)(5)(ii).

(2) Both the improvement to the office building made by G in November 2018 and the improvement to the office building that was constructed by H for G in 2019 are improvements made by G under § 1.168(b)-1(a)(5)(i)(A). Further, each improvement is made to the inside of the office building, is section 1250 property, and is not described in § 1.168(b)-1(a)(5)(ii). As a result, each improvement meets the definition of qualified improvement property in section 168(e)(6) and § 1.168(b)-1(a)(5)(i)(A) and (a)(5)(ii). Accordingly, each improvement is 15-year property under section 168(e)(3) and is described in § 1.168(k)-2(b)(2)(i)(A). Assuming all other requirements of this section are met, each improvement made by G qualifies for the additional first year depreciation deduction for G under this section.

(3) Original use or used property acquisition requirements -

(i) In general. Depreciable property will meet the requirements of this paragraph (b)(3) if the property meets the original use requirements in paragraph (b)(3)(ii) of this section or if the property meets the used property acquisition requirements in paragraph (b)(3)(iii) of this section.

(ii) Original use -

(A) In general. Depreciable property will meet the requirements of this paragraph (b)(3)(ii) if the original use of the property commences with the taxpayer. Except as provided in paragraphs (b)(3)(ii)(B) and (C) of this section, original use means the first use to which the property is put, whether or not that use corresponds to the use of the property by the taxpayer. Additional capital expenditures paid or incurred by a taxpayer to recondition or rebuild property acquired or owned by the taxpayer satisfy the original use requirement. However, the cost of reconditioned or rebuilt property does not satisfy the original use requirement (but may satisfy the used property acquisition requirements in paragraph (b)(3)(iii) of this section). The question of whether property is reconditioned or rebuilt property is a question of fact. For purposes of this paragraph (b)(3)(ii)(A), property that contains used parts will not be treated as reconditioned or rebuilt if the cost of the used parts is not more than 20 percent of the total cost of the property, whether acquired or self-constructed.

(B) Conversion to business or income-producing use -

(1) Personal use to business or income-producing use. If a taxpayer initially acquires new property for personal use and subsequently uses the property in the taxpayer's trade or business or for the taxpayer's production of income, the taxpayer is considered the original user of the property. If a person initially acquires new property for personal use and a taxpayer subsequently acquires the property from the person for use in the taxpayer's trade or business or for the taxpayer's production of income, the taxpayer is not considered the original user of the property.

(2) Inventory to business or income-producing use. If a taxpayer initially acquires new property and holds the property primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of the taxpayer's business and subsequently withdraws the property from inventory and uses the property primarily in the taxpayer's trade or business or primarily for the taxpayer's production of income, the taxpayer is considered the original user of the property. If a person initially acquires new property and holds the property primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of the person's business and a taxpayer subsequently acquires the property from the person for use primarily in the taxpayer's trade or business or primarily for the taxpayer's production of income, the taxpayer is considered the original user of the property. For purposes of this paragraph (b)(3)(ii)(B)(2), the original use of the property by the taxpayer commences on the date on which the taxpayer uses the property primarily in the taxpayer's trade or business or primarily for the taxpayer's production of income.

(C) Fractional interests in property. If, in the ordinary course of its business, a taxpayer sells fractional interests in new property to third parties unrelated to the taxpayer, each first fractional owner of the property is considered as the original user of its proportionate share of the property. Furthermore, if the taxpayer uses the property before all of the fractional interests of the property are sold but the property continues to be held primarily for sale by the taxpayer, the original use of any fractional interest sold to a third party unrelated to the taxpayer subsequent to the taxpayer's use of the property begins with the first purchaser of that fractional interest. For purposes of this paragraph (b)(3)(ii)(C), persons are not related if they do not have a relationship described in section 267(b) and § 1.267(b)-1, or section 707(b) and § 1.707-1.

(iii) Used property acquisition requirements -

(A) In general. Depreciable property will meet the requirements of this paragraph (b)(3)(iii) if the acquisition of the used property meets the following requirements:

(1) Such property was not used by the taxpayer or a predecessor at any time prior to such acquisition;

(2) The acquisition of such property meets the requirements of section 179(d)(2)(A), (B), and (C), and § 1.179-4(c)(1)(ii), (iii), and (iv); or § 1.179-4(c)(2) (property is acquired by purchase); and

(3) The acquisition of such property meets the requirements of section 179(d)(3) and § 1.179-4(d) (cost of property) (for further guidance regarding like-kind exchanges and involuntary conversions, see paragraph (g)(5) of this section).

(B) Property was not used by the taxpayer at any time prior to acquisition -

(1) In general. Solely for purposes of paragraph (b)(3)(iii)(A)(1) of this section, the property is treated as used by the taxpayer or a predecessor at any time prior to acquisition by the taxpayer or predecessor if the taxpayer or the predecessor had a depreciable interest in the property at any time prior to such acquisition, whether or not the taxpayer or the predecessor claimed depreciation deductions for the property. To determine if the taxpayer or a predecessor had a depreciable interest in the property at any time prior to the acquisition, only the five calendar years immediately prior to the current calendar year in which the property is placed in service by the taxpayer, and the portion of such current calendar year before the placed-in-service date of the property without taking into account the applicable convention, are taken into account (lookback period). If either the taxpayer or a predecessor, or both, have not been in existence for the entire lookback period, only the portion of the lookback period during which the taxpayer or a predecessor, or both, as applicable, have been in existence is taken into account to determine if the taxpayer or a predecessor had a depreciable interest in the property at any time prior to the acquisition. If a lessee has a depreciable interest in the improvements made to leased property and subsequently the lessee acquires the leased property of which the improvements are a part, the unadjusted depreciable basis, as defined in § 1.168(b)-1(a)(3), of the acquired property that is eligible for the additional first year depreciation deduction, assuming all other requirements are met, must not include the unadjusted depreciable basis attributable to the improvements.

(2) Taxpayer has a depreciable interest in a portion of the property. If a taxpayer initially acquires a depreciable interest in a portion of the property and subsequently acquires a depreciable interest in an additional portion of the same property, such additional depreciable interest is not treated as used by the taxpayer at any time prior to its acquisition by the taxpayer under paragraphs (b)(3)(iii)(A)(1) and (b)(3)(iii)(B)(1) of this section. This paragraph (b)(3)(iii)(B)(2) does not apply if the taxpayer or a predecessor previously had a depreciable interest in the subsequently acquired additional portion. For purposes of this paragraph (b)(3)(iii)(B)(2), a portion of the property is considered to be the percentage interest in the property. If a taxpayer holds a depreciable interest in a portion of the property, sells that portion or a part of that portion, and subsequently acquires a depreciable interest in another portion of the same property, the taxpayer will be treated as previously having a depreciable interest in the property up to the amount of the portion for which the taxpayer held a depreciable interest in the property before the sale.

(3) Substantial renovation of property. If a taxpayer acquires and places in service substantially renovated property and the taxpayer or a predecessor previously had a depreciable interest in the property before it was substantially renovated, the taxpayer's or predecessor's depreciable interest in the property before it was substantially renovated is not taken into account for determining whether the substantially renovated property was used by the taxpayer or a predecessor at any time prior to its acquisition by the taxpayer under paragraphs (b)(3)(iii)(A)(1) and (b)(3)(iii)(B)(1) of this section. For purposes of this paragraph (b)(3)(iii)(B)(3), property is substantially renovated if the cost of the used parts is not more than 20 percent of the total cost of the substantially renovated property, whether acquired or self-constructed.

(4) De minimis use of property. If a taxpayer acquires and places in service property, the taxpayer or a predecessor did not previously have a depreciable interest in the property, the taxpayer disposes of the property to an unrelated party within 90 calendar days after the date the property was originally placed in service by the taxpayer, without taking into account the applicable convention, and the taxpayer reacquires and again places in service the property, then the taxpayer's depreciable interest in the property during that 90-day period is not taken into account for determining whether the property was used by the taxpayer or a predecessor at any time prior to its reacquisition by the taxpayer under paragraphs (b)(3)(iii)(A)(1) and (b)(3)(iii)(B)(1) of this section. If the taxpayer originally acquired the property before September 28, 2017, as determined under § 1.168(k)-1(b)(4), and the taxpayer reacquires and again places in service the property during the same taxable year the taxpayer disposed of the property to the unrelated party, then this paragraph (b)(3)(iii)(B)(4) does not apply. For purposes of this paragraph (b)(3)(iii)(B)(4), an unrelated party is a person not described in section 179(d)(2)(A) or (B), and § 1.179-4(c)(1)(ii) or (iii) or (c)(2).

(C) Special rules for a series of related transactions -

(1) In general. Solely for purposes of paragraph (b)(3)(iii) of this section, each transferee in a series of related transactions tests its relationship under section 179(d)(2)(A) or (B) with the transferor from which the transferee directly acquires the depreciable property (immediate transferor) and with the original transferor of the depreciable property in the series. The transferee is treated as related to the immediate transferor or the original transferor if the relationship exists either when the transferee acquires, or immediately before the first transfer of, the depreciable property in the series. A series of related transactions may include, for example, a transfer of partnership assets followed by a transfer of an interest in the partnership that owned the assets; or a disposition of property and a disposition, directly or indirectly, of the transferor or transferee of the property. For special rules that may apply when the transferor and transferee of the property are members of a consolidated group, as defined in § 1.1502-1(h), see § 1.1502-68.

(2) Special rules -

(i) Property placed in service and disposed of in same taxable year or property not placed in service. Any party in a series of related transactions that is neither the original transferor nor the ultimate transferee is disregarded (disregarded party) for purposes of testing the relationships under paragraph (b)(3)(iii)(C)(1) of this section if the party places in service and disposes of the depreciable property subject to the series, other than in a transaction described in paragraph (g)(1)(iii) of this section, during the party's same taxable year, or if the party does not place in service the depreciable property subject to the series for use in the party's trade or business or production of income. In either case, the party to which the disregarded party disposed of the depreciable property tests its relationship with the party from which the disregarded party acquired the depreciable property and with the original transferor of the depreciable property in the series. If the series has consecutive disregarded parties, the party to which the last disregarded party disposed of the depreciable property tests its relationship with the party from which the first disregarded party acquired the depreciable property and with the original transferor of the depreciable property in the series. The rules for testing the relationships in paragraph (b)(3)(iii)(C)(1) of this section continue to apply for the other transactions in the series.

(ii) All section 168(i)(7) transactions. This paragraph (b)(3)(iii)(C) does not apply if all transactions in a series of related transactions are described in paragraph (g)(1)(iii) of this section (section 168(i)(7) transactions in which property is transferred in the same taxable year that the property is placed in service by the transferor).

(iii) One or more section 168(i)(7) transactions. Any step in a series of related transactions that is neither the original step nor the ultimate step is disregarded (disregarded step) for purposes of testing the relationships under paragraph (b)(3)(iii)(C)(1) of this section if the step is a transaction described in paragraph (g)(1)(iii) of this section. In this case, the relationship is not tested between the transferor and transferee of that transaction. Instead, the relationship is tested between the transferor in the disregarded step and the party to which the transferee in the disregarded step disposed of the depreciable property, the transferee in the disregarded step and the party to which the transferee in the disregarded step disposed of the depreciable property, and the original transferor of the depreciable property in the series and the party to which the transferee in the disregarded step disposed of the depreciable property. If the series has consecutive disregarded steps, the relationship is tested between the transferor in the first disregarded step and the party to which the transferee in the last disregarded step disposed of the depreciable property, the transferee in the last disregarded step and the party to which the transferee in the last disregarded step disposed of the depreciable property, and the original transferor of the depreciable property in the series and the party to which the transferee in the last disregarded step disposed of the depreciable property. The rules for testing the relationships in paragraph (b)(3)(iii)(C)(1) of this section continue to apply for the other transactions in the series.

(iv) Syndication transaction. This paragraph (b)(3)(iii)(C) does not apply to a syndication transaction described in paragraph (b)(3)(vi) of this section.

(v) Certain relationships disregarded. If a party acquires depreciable property in a series of related transactions in which the party acquires stock, meeting the requirements of section 1504(a)(2), of a corporation in a fully taxable transaction followed by a liquidation of the acquired corporation under section 331, any relationship created as part of such series of related transactions is disregarded in determining whether any party is related to such acquired corporation for purposes of testing the relationships under paragraph (b)(3)(iii)(C)(1) of this section.

(vi) Transferors that cease to exist for Federal tax purposes. Any transferor in a series of related transactions that ceases to exist for Federal tax purposes during the series is deemed, for purposes of testing the relationships under paragraph (b)(3)(iii)(C)(1) of this section, to be in existence at the time of any transfer in the series.

(vii) Newly created party. If a transferee in a series of related transactions acquires depreciable property from a transferor that was not in existence immediately prior to the first transfer of such property in such series (new transferor), the transferee tests its relationship with the party from which the new transferor acquired such property and with the original transferor of the depreciable property in the series for purposes of paragraph (b)(3)(iii)(C)(1) of this section. If the series has consecutive new transferors, the party to which the last new transferor disposed of the depreciable property tests its relationship with the party from which the first new transferor acquired the depreciable property and with the original transferor of the depreciable property in the series. The rules for testing the relationships in paragraph (b)(3)(iii)(C)(1) of this section continue to apply for the other transactions in the series.

(viii) Application of paragraph (g)(1) of this section. Paragraph (g)(1) of this section applies to each step in a series of related transactions.

(4) De minimis use of property. If a taxpayer acquires and places in service property, the taxpayer or a predecessor did not previously have a depreciable interest in the property, the taxpayer disposes of the property to an unrelated party within 90 calendar days after the date the property was originally placed in service by the taxpayer, without taking into account the applicable convention, and the taxpayer reacquires and again places in service the property, then the taxpayer's depreciable interest in the property during that 90-day period is not taken into account for determining whether the property was used by the taxpayer or a predecessor at any time prior to its reacquisition by the taxpayer under paragraphs (b)(3)(iii)(A)(1) and (b)(3)(iii)(B)(1) of this section. If the taxpayer originally acquired the property before September 28, 2017, as determined under § 1.168(k)-1(b)(4), and the taxpayer reacquires and again places in service the property during the same taxable year the taxpayer disposed of the property to the unrelated party, then this paragraph (b)(3)(iii)(B)(4) does not apply. For purposes of this paragraph (b)(3)(iii)(B)(4), an unrelated party is a person not described in section 179(d)(2)(A) or (B), and § 1.179-4(c)(1)(ii) or (iii) or (c)(2).

(C) Special rules for a series of related transactions -

(1) In general. Solely for purposes of paragraph (b)(3)(iii) of this section, each transferee in a series of related transactions tests its relationship under section 179(d)(2)(A) or (B) with the transferor from which the transferee directly acquires the depreciable property (immediate transferor) and with the original transferor of the depreciable property in the series. The transferee is treated as related to the immediate transferor or the original transferor if the relationship exists either when the transferee acquires, or immediately before the first transfer of, the depreciable property in the series. A series of related transactions may include, for example, a transfer of partnership assets followed by a transfer of an interest in the partnership that owned the assets; or a disposition of property and a disposition, directly or indirectly, of the transferor or transferee of the property. For special rules that may apply when the transferor and transferee of the property are members of a consolidated group, as defined in § 1.1502-1(h), see § 1.1502-68.

(2) Special rules -

(i) Property placed in service and disposed of in same taxable year or property not placed in service. Any party in a series of related transactions that is neither the original transferor nor the ultimate transferee is disregarded (disregarded party) for purposes of testing the relationships under paragraph (b)(3)(iii)(C)(1) of this section if the party places in service and disposes of the depreciable property subject to the series, other than in a transaction described in paragraph (g)(1)(iii) of this section, during the party's same taxable year, or if the party does not place in service the depreciable property subject to the series for use in the party's trade or business or production of income. In either case, the party to which the disregarded party disposed of the depreciable property tests its relationship with the party from which the disregarded party acquired the depreciable property and with the original transferor of the depreciable property in the series. If the series has consecutive disregarded parties, the party to which the last disregarded party disposed of the depreciable property tests its relationship with the party from which the first disregarded party acquired the depreciable property and with the original transferor of the depreciable property in the series. The rules for testing the relationships in paragraph (b)(3)(iii)(C)(1) of this section continue to apply for the other transactions in the series.

(ii) All section 168(i)(7) transactions. This paragraph (b)(3)(iii)(C) does not apply if all transactions in a series of related transactions are described in paragraph (g)(1)(iii) of this section (section 168(i)(7) transactions in which property is transferred in the same taxable year that the property is placed in service by the transferor).

(iii) One or more section 168(i)(7) transactions. Any step in a series of related transactions that is neither the original step nor the ultimate step is disregarded (disregarded step) for purposes of testing the relationships under paragraph (b)(3)(iii)(C)(1) of this section if the step is a transaction described in paragraph (g)(1)(iii) of this section. In this case, the relationship is not tested between the transferor and transferee of that transaction. Instead, the relationship is tested between the transferor in the disregarded step and the party to which the transferee in the disregarded step disposed of the depreciable property, the transferee in the disregarded step and the party to which the transferee in the disregarded step disposed of the depreciable property, and the original transferor of the depreciable property in the series and the party to which the transferee in the disregarded step disposed of the depreciable property. If the series has consecutive disregarded steps, the relationship is tested between the transferor in the first disregarded step and the party to which the transferee in the last disregarded step disposed of the depreciable property, the transferee in the last disregarded step and the party to which the transferee in the last disregarded step disposed of the depreciable property, and the original transferor of the depreciable property in the series and the party to which the transferee in the last disregarded step disposed of the depreciable property. The rules for testing the relationships in paragraph (b)(3)(iii)(C)(1) of this section continue to apply for the other transactions in the series.

(iv) Syndication transaction. This paragraph (b)(3)(iii)(C) does not apply to a syndication transaction described in paragraph (b)(3)(vi) of this section.

(v) Certain relationships disregarded. If a party acquires depreciable property in a series of related transactions in which the party acquires stock, meeting the requirements of section 1504(a)(2), of a corporation in a fully taxable transaction followed by a liquidation of the acquired corporation under section 331, any relationship created as part of such series of related transactions is disregarded in determining whether any party is related to such acquired corporation for purposes of testing the relationships under paragraph (b)(3)(iii)(C)(1) of this section.

(vi) Transferors that cease to exist for Federal tax purposes. Any transferor in a series of related transactions that ceases to exist for Federal tax purposes during the series is deemed, for purposes of testing the relationships under paragraph (b)(3)(iii)(C)(1) of this section, to be in existence at the time of any transfer in the series.

(vii) Newly created party. If a transferee in a series of related transactions acquires depreciable property from a transferor that was not in existence immediately prior to the first transfer of such property in such series (new transferor), the transferee tests its relationship with the party from which the new transferor acquired such property and with the original transferor of the depreciable property in the series for purposes of paragraph (b)(3)(iii)(C)(1) of this section. If the series has consecutive new transferors, the party to which the last new transferor disposed of the depreciable property tests its relationship with the party from which the first new transferor acquired the depreciable property and with the original transferor of the depreciable property in the series. The rules for testing the relationships in paragraph (b)(3)(iii)(C)(1) of this section continue to apply for the other transactions in the series.

(viii) Application of paragraph (g)(1) of this section. Paragraph (g)(1) of this section applies to each step in a series of related transactions.

(iv) Application to partnerships -

(A) Section 704(c) remedial allocations. Remedial allocations under section 704(c) do not satisfy the requirements of paragraph (b)(3) of this section. See § 1.704-3(d)(2).

(B) Basis determined under section 732. Any basis of distributed property determined under section 732 does not satisfy the requirements of paragraph (b)(3) of this section.

(C) Section 734(b) adjustments. Any increase in basis of depreciable property under section 734(b) does not satisfy the requirements of paragraph (b)(3) of this section.

(D) Section 743(b) adjustments -

(1) In general. For purposes of determining whether the transfer of a partnership interest meets the requirements of paragraph (b)(3)(iii)(A) of this section, each partner is treated as having a depreciable interest in the partner's proportionate share of partnership property. Any increase in basis of depreciable property under section 743(b) satisfies the requirements of paragraph (b)(3)(iii)(A) of this section if -

(i) At any time prior to the transfer of the partnership interest that gave rise to such basis increase, neither the transferee partner nor a predecessor of the transferee partner had any depreciable interest in the portion of the property deemed acquired to which the section 743(b) adjustment is allocated under section 755 and § 1.755-1; and

(ii) The transfer of the partnership interest that gave rise to such basis increase satisfies the requirements of paragraphs (b)(3)(iii)(A)(2) and (3) of this section.

(2) Relatedness tested at partner level. Solely for purposes of paragraph (b)(3)(iv)(D)(1)(ii) of this section, whether the parties are related or unrelated is determined by comparing the transferor and the transferee of the transferred partnership interest.

(v) Application to members of a consolidated group. For rules applicable to the acquisition of depreciable property by a member of a consolidated group, see § 1.1502-68.

(vi) Syndication transaction. If new property is acquired and placed in service by a lessor, or if used property is acquired and placed in service by a lessor and the lessor or a predecessor did not previously have a depreciable interest in the used property, and the property is sold by the lessor or any subsequent purchaser within three months after the date the property was originally placed in service by the lessor (or, in the case of multiple units of property subject to the same lease, within three months after the date the final unit is placed in service, so long as the period between the time the first unit is placed in service and the time the last unit is placed in service does not exceed 12 months), and the user of the property after the last sale during the three-month period remains the same as when the property was originally placed in service by the lessor, the purchaser of the property in the last sale during the three-month period is considered the taxpayer that acquired the property for purposes of applying paragraphs (b)(3)(ii) and (iii) of this section. The purchaser of the property in the last sale during the three-month period is treated, for purposes of applying paragraph (b)(3) of this section, as -

(A) The original user of the property in this transaction if the lessor acquired and placed in service new property; or

(B) The taxpayer having the depreciable interest in the property in this transaction if the lessor acquired and placed in service used property.

(vii) Examples. The application of this paragraph (b)(3) is illustrated by the following examples. Unless the facts specifically indicate otherwise, assume that the parties are not related within the meaning of section 179(d)(2)(A) or (B) and § 1.179-4(c), no corporation is a member of a consolidated or controlled group, and the parties do not have predecessors:

(A) Example 1.

(1) On August 1, 2018, A buys a new machine for $35,000 from an unrelated party for use in A's trade or business. On July 1, 2020, B buys that machine from A for $20,000 for use in B's trade or business. On October 1, 2020, B makes a $5,000 capital expenditure to recondition the machine. B did not have any depreciable interest in the machine before B acquired it on July 1, 2020.

(2) A's purchase price of $35,000 satisfies the original use requirement of paragraph (b)(3)(ii) of this section and, assuming all other requirements are met, qualifies for the additional first year depreciation deduction under this section.

(3) B's purchase price of $20,000 does not satisfy the original use requirement of paragraph (b)(3)(ii) of this section, but it does satisfy the used property acquisition requirements of paragraph (b)(3)(iii) of this section. Assuming all other requirements are met, the $20,000 purchase price qualifies for the additional first year depreciation deduction under this section. Further, B's $5,000 expenditure satisfies the original use requirement of paragraph (b)(3)(ii) of this section and, assuming all other requirements are met, qualifies for the additional first year depreciation deduction under this section, regardless of whether the $5,000 is added to the basis of the machine or is capitalized as a separate asset.

(B) Example 2. C, an automobile dealer, uses some of its automobiles as demonstrators in order to show them to prospective customers. The automobiles that are used as demonstrators by C are held by C primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of its business. On November 1, 2017, D buys from C an automobile that was previously used as a demonstrator by C. D will use the automobile solely for business purposes. The use of the automobile by C as a demonstrator does not constitute a “use” for purposes of the original use requirement and, therefore, D will be considered the original user of the automobile for purposes of paragraph (b)(3)(ii) of this section. Assuming all other requirements are met, D's purchase price of the automobile qualifies for the additional first year depreciation deduction for D under this section, subject to any limitation under section 280F.

(C) Example 3. On April 1, 2015, E acquires a horse to be used in E's thoroughbred racing business. On October 1, 2018, F buys the horse from E and will use the horse in F's horse breeding business. F did not have any depreciable interest in the horse before F acquired it on October 1, 2018. The use of the horse by E in its racing business prevents F from satisfying the original use requirement of paragraph (b)(3)(ii) of this section. However, F's acquisition of the horse satisfies the used property acquisition requirements of paragraph (b)(3)(iii) of this section. Assuming all other requirements are met, F's purchase price of the horse qualifies for the additional first year depreciation deduction for F under this section.

(D) Example 4. In the ordinary course of its business, G sells fractional interests in its aircraft to unrelated parties. G holds out for sale eight equal fractional interests in an aircraft. On October 1, 2017, G sells five of the eight fractional interests in the aircraft to H and H begins to use its proportionate share of the aircraft immediately upon purchase. On February 1, 2018, G sells to I the remaining unsold 3/8 fractional interests in the aircraft. H is considered the original user as to its 5/8 fractional interest in the aircraft and I is considered the original user as to its 3/8 fractional interest in the aircraft. Thus, assuming all other requirements are met, H's purchase price for its 5/8 fractional interest in the aircraft qualifies for the additional first year depreciation deduction under this section and I's purchase price for its 3/8 fractional interest in the aircraft qualifies for the additional first year depreciation deduction under this section.

(E) Example 5. On September 1, 2017, J, an equipment dealer, buys new tractors that are held by J primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of its business. On October 15, 2017, J withdraws the tractors from inventory and begins to use the tractors primarily for producing rental income. The holding of the tractors by J as inventory does not constitute a “use” for purposes of the original use requirement and, therefore, the original use of the tractors commences with J on October 15, 2017, for purposes of paragraph (b)(3)(ii) of this section. However, the tractors are not eligible for the additional first year depreciation deduction under this section because J acquired the tractors before September 28, 2017.

(F) Example 6. K is in the trade or business of leasing equipment to others. During 2016, K buys a new machine (Machine #1) and then leases it to L for use in L's trade or business. The lease between K and L for Machine #1 is a true lease for Federal income tax purposes. During 2018, L enters into a written binding contract with K to buy Machine #1 at its fair market value on May 15, 2018. L did not have any depreciable interest in Machine #1 before L acquired it on May 15, 2018. As a result, L's acquisition of Machine #1 satisfies the used property acquisition requirements of paragraph (b)(3)(iii) of this section. Assuming all other requirements are met, L's purchase price of Machine #1 qualifies for the additional first year depreciation deduction for L under this section.

(G) Example 7. The facts are the same as in Example 6 of paragraph (b)(3)(vii)(F) of this section, except that K and L are related parties within the meaning of section 179(d)(2)(A) or (B) and § 1.179-4(c). As a result, L's acquisition of Machine #1 does not satisfy the used property acquisition requirements of paragraph (b)(3)(iii) of this section. Thus, Machine #1 is not eligible for the additional first year depreciation deduction for L.

(H) Example 8. The facts are the same as in Example 6 of paragraph (b)(3)(vii)(F) of this section, except L incurred capital expenditures of $5,000 to improve Machine #1 on September 5, 2017, and has a depreciable interest in such improvements. L's purchase price of $5,000 for the improvements to Machine #1 satisfies the original use requirement of § 1.168(k)-1(b)(3)(i) and, assuming all other requirements are met, qualifies for the 50-percent additional first year depreciation deduction. Because L had a depreciable interest only in the improvements to Machine #1, L's acquisition of Machine #1, excluding L's improvements to such machine, satisfies the used property acquisition requirements of paragraph (b)(3)(iii) of this section. Assuming all other requirements are met, L's unadjusted depreciable basis of Machine #1, excluding the amount of such unadjusted depreciable basis attributable to L's improvements to Machine #1, qualifies for the additional first year depreciation deduction for L under this section.

(I) Example 9. During 2016, M and N purchased used equipment for use in their trades or businesses and each own a 50 percent interest in such equipment. Prior to this acquisition, M and N did not have any depreciable interest in the equipment. Assume this ownership arrangement is not a partnership. During 2018, N enters into a written binding contract with M to buy M's interest in the equipment. Pursuant to paragraph (b)(3)(iii)(B)(2) of this section, N is not treated as using M's interest in the equipment prior to N's acquisition of M's interest. As a result, N's acquisition of M's interest in the equipment satisfies the used property acquisition requirements of paragraph (b)(3)(iii) of this section. Assuming all other requirements are met, N's purchase price of M's interest in the equipment qualifies for the additional first year depreciation deduction for N under this section.

(J) Example 10. The facts are the same as in Example 9 of paragraph (b)(3)(vii)(I) of this section, except N had a 100-percent depreciable interest in the equipment during 2011 through 2015, and M purchased from N a 50-percent interest in the equipment during 2016. Pursuant to paragraph (b)(3)(iii)(B)(1) of this section, the lookback period is 2013 through 2017 to determine if N had a depreciable interest in M's 50-percent interest in the equipment N acquired from M in 2018. Because N had a 100-percent depreciable interest in the equipment during 2013 through 2015, N had a depreciable interest in M's 50-percent interest in the equipment during the lookback period. As a result, N's acquisition of M's interest in the equipment during 2018 does not satisfy the used property acquisition requirements of paragraphs (b)(3)(iii)(A)(1) and (b)(3)(iii)(B)(1) of this section. Paragraph (b)(3)(iii)(B)(2) of this section does not apply because N initially acquired a 100-percent depreciable interest in the equipment. Accordingly, N's purchase price of M's interest in the equipment during 2018 does not qualify for the additional first year depreciation deduction for N.

(K) Example 11. The facts are the same as in Example 9 of paragraph (b)(3)(vii)(I) of this section, except N had a 100-percent depreciable interest in the equipment only during 2011, and M purchased from N a 50-percent interest in the equipment during 2012. Pursuant to paragraph (b)(3)(iii)(B)(1) of this section, the lookback period is 2013 through 2017 to determine if N had a depreciable interest in M's 50-percent interest in the equipment N acquired from M in 2018. Because N had a depreciable interest in only its 50-percent interest in the equipment during this lookback period, N's acquisition of M's interest in the equipment during 2018 satisfies the used property acquisition requirements of paragraphs (b)(3)(iii)(A)(1) and (b)(3)(iii)(B)(1) of this section. Assuming all other requirements are met, N's purchase price of M's interest in the equipment during 2018 qualifies for the additional first year depreciation deduction for N under this section.

(L) Example 12. The facts are the same as in Example 9 of paragraph (b)(3)(vii)(I) of this section, except during 2018, M also enters into a written binding contract with N to buy N's interest in the equipment. Pursuant to paragraph (b)(3)(iii)(B)(2) of this section, both M and N are treated as previously having a depreciable interest in a 50-percent portion of the equipment. Accordingly, the acquisition by M of N's 50-percent interest and the acquisition by N of M's 50-percent interest in the equipment during 2018 do not qualify for the additional first year depreciation deduction.

(M) Example 13. O and P form an equal partnership, OP, in 2018. O contributes cash to OP, and P contributes equipment to OP. OP's basis in the equipment contributed by P is determined under section 723. Because OP's basis in such equipment is determined in whole or in part by reference to P's adjusted basis in such equipment, OP's acquisition of such equipment does not satisfy section 179(d)(2)(C) and § 1.179-4(c)(1)(iv) and, thus, does not satisfy the used property acquisition requirements of paragraph (b)(3)(iii) of this section. Accordingly, OP's acquisition of such equipment is not eligible for the additional first year depreciation deduction.

(N) Example 14. Q,R, and S form an equal partnership, QRS, in 2019. Each partner contributes $100, which QRS uses to purchase a retail motor fuels outlet for $300. Assume this retail motor fuels outlet is QRS' only property and is qualified property under section 168(k)(2)(A)(i). QRS makes an election not to deduct the additional first year depreciation for all qualified property placed in service during 2019. QRS has a section 754 election in effect. QRS claimed depreciation of $15 for the retail motor fuels outlet for 2019. During 2020, when the retail motor fuels outlet's fair market value is $600, Q sells all of its partnership interest to T in a fully taxable transaction for $200. T never previously had a depreciable interest in the retail motor fuels outlet. T takes an outside basis of $200 in the partnership interest previously owned by Q. T's share of the partnership's previously taxed capital is $95. Accordingly, T's section 743(b) adjustment is $105 and is allocated entirely to the retail motor fuels outlet under section 755. Assuming all other requirements are met, T's section 743(b) adjustment qualifies for the additional first year depreciation deduction under this section.

(O) Example 15. The facts are the same as in Example 14 of paragraph (b)(3)(vii)(N) of this section, except that Q sells his partnership interest to U, a related person within the meaning of section 179(d)(2)(A) or (B) and § 1.179-4(c). U's section 743(b) adjustment does not qualify for the additional first year depreciation deduction.

(P) Example 16. The facts are the same as in Example 14 of paragraph (b)(3)(vii)(N) of this section, except that Q dies and his partnership interest is transferred to V. V takes a basis in Q's partnership interest under section 1014. As a result, section 179(d)(2)(C)(ii) and § 1.179-4(c)(1)(iv) are not satisfied, and V's section 743(b) adjustment does not qualify for the additional first year depreciation deduction.

(Q) Example 17. The facts are the same as in Example 14 of paragraph (b)(3)(vii)(N) of this section, except that QRS purchased the retail motor fuels outlet from T prior to T purchasing Q's partnership interest in QRS. T had a depreciable interest in such retail motor fuels outlet. Because T had a depreciable interest in the retail motor fuels outlet before T acquired its interest in QRS, T's section 743(b) adjustment does not qualify for the additional first year depreciation deduction.

(R) Example 18.

(1) W, a freight transportation company, acquires and places in service a used aircraft during 2019 (Airplane #1). Prior to this acquisition, W never had a depreciable interest in this aircraft. During September 2020, W enters into a written binding contract with a third party to renovate Airplane #1. The third party begins to renovate Airplane #1 in October 2020 and delivers the renovated aircraft (Airplane #2) to W in February 2021. To renovate Airplane #1, the third party used mostly new parts but also used parts from Airplane #1. The cost of the used parts is not more than 20 percent of the total cost of the renovated airplane, Airplane #2. W uses Airplane #2 in its trade or business.

(2) Although Airplane #2 contains used parts, the cost of the used parts is not more than 20 percent of the total cost of Airplane #2. As a result, Airplane #2 is not treated as reconditioned or rebuilt property, and W is considered the original user of Airplane #2, pursuant to paragraph (b)(3)(ii)(A) of this section. Accordingly, assuming all other requirements are met, the amount paid or incurred by W for Airplane #2 qualifies for the additional first year depreciation deduction for W under this section.

(S) Example 19.

(1) X, a freight transportation company, acquires and places in service a new aircraft in 2019 (Airplane #1). During 2022, X sells Airplane #1 to AB and AB uses Airplane #1 in its trade or business. Prior to this acquisition, AB never had a depreciable interest in Airplane #1. During January 2023, AB enters into a written binding contract with a third party to renovate Airplane #1. The third party begins to renovate Airplane #1 in February 2023 and delivers the renovated aircraft (Airplane #2) to AB in June 2023. To renovate Airplane #1, the third party used mostly new parts but also used parts from Airplane #1. The cost of the used parts is not more than 20 percent of the total cost of the renovated airplane, Airplane #2. AB uses Airplane #2 in its trade or business. During 2025, AB sells Airplane #2 to X and X uses Airplane #2 in its trade or business.

(2) With respect to X's purchase of Airplane #1 in 2019, X is the original user of this airplane pursuant to paragraph (b)(3)(ii)(A) of this section. Accordingly, assuming all other requirements are met, X's purchase price for Airplane #1 qualifies for the additional first year depreciation deduction for X under this section.

(3) Because AB never had a depreciable interest in Airplane #1 prior to its acquisition in 2022, the requirements of paragraphs (b)(3)(iii)(A)(1) and (b)(3)(ii)(B)(1) of this section are satisfied. Accordingly, assuming all other requirements are met, AB's purchase price for Airplane #1 qualifies for the additional first year depreciation deduction for AB under this section.

(4) Although Airplane #2 contains used parts, the cost of the used parts is not more than 20 percent of the total cost of Airplane #2. As a result, Airplane #2 is not treated as reconditioned or rebuilt property, and AB is considered the original user of Airplane #2, pursuant to paragraph (b)(3)(ii)(A) of this section. Accordingly, assuming all other requirements are met, the amount paid or incurred by AB for Airplane #2 qualifies for the additional first year depreciation deduction for AB under this section.

(5) With respect to X's purchase of Airplane #2 in 2025, Airplane #2 is substantially renovated property pursuant to paragraph (b)(3)(iii)(B)(3) of this section. Also, pursuant to paragraph (b)(3)(iii)(B)(3) of this section, X's depreciable interest in Airplane #1 is not taken into account for determining if X previously had a depreciable interest in Airplane #2 prior to its acquisition during 2025. As a result, Airplane #2 is not treated as used by X at any time before its acquisition of Airplane #2 in 2025 pursuant to paragraph (b)(3)(iii)(B)(3) of this section. Accordingly, assuming all other requirements are met, X's purchase price of Airplane #2 qualifies for the additional first year depreciation deduction for X under this section.

(T) Example 20. In November 2017, AA Corporation purchases a used drill press costing $10,000 and is granted a trade-in allowance of $2,000 on its old drill press. The used drill press is qualified property under section 168(k)(2)(A)(i). The old drill press had a basis of $1,200. Under sections 1012 and 1031(d), the basis of the used drill press is $9,200 ($1,200 basis of old drill press plus cash expended of $8,000). Only $8,000 of the basis of the used drill press satisfies the requirements of section 179(d)(3) and § 1.179-4(d) and, thus, satisfies the used property acquisition requirement of paragraph (b)(3)(iii) of this section. The remaining $1,200 of the basis of the used drill press does not satisfy the requirements of section 179(d)(3) and § 1.179-4(d) because it is determined by reference to the old drill press. Accordingly, assuming all other requirements are met, only $8,000 of the basis of the used drill press is eligible for the additional first year depreciation deduction under this section.

(U) Example 21.

(1) M Corporation acquires and places in service a used airplane on March 26, 2018. Prior to this acquisition, M Corporation never had a depreciable interest in this airplane. On March 26, 2018, M Corporation also leases the used airplane to N Corporation, an airline company. On May 27, 2018, M Corporation sells to O Corporation the used airplane subject to the lease with N Corporation. M Corporation and O Corporation are related parties within the meaning of section 179(d)(2)(A) or (B) and § 1.179-4(c). As of May 27, 2018, N Corporation is still the lessee of the used airplane. Prior to this acquisition, O Corporation never had a depreciable interest in the used airplane. O Corporation is a calendar-year taxpayer.

(2) The sale transaction of May 27, 2018, satisfies the requirements of a syndication transaction described in paragraph (b)(3)(vi) of this section. As a result, O Corporation is considered the taxpayer that acquired the used airplane for purposes of applying the used property acquisition requirements in paragraph (b)(3)(iii) of this section. In applying these rules, the fact that M Corporation and O Corporation are related parties is not taken into account because O Corporation, not M Corporation, is treated as acquiring the used airplane. Also, O Corporation, not M Corporation, is treated as having the depreciable interest in the used airplane. Further, pursuant to paragraph (b)(4)(iv) of this section, the used airplane is treated as originally placed in service by O Corporation on May 27, 2018. Because O Corporation never had a depreciable interest in the used airplane and assuming all other requirements are met, O Corporation's purchase price of the used airplane qualifies for the additional first year depreciation deduction for O Corporation under this section.

(V) Example 22.

(1) The facts are the same as in Example 21 of paragraph (b)(3)(vii)(U)(1) of this section. Additionally, on September 5, 2018, O Corporation sells to P Corporation the used airplane subject to the lease with N Corporation. Prior to this acquisition, P Corporation never had a depreciable interest in the used airplane.

(2) Because O Corporation, a calendar-year taxpayer, placed in service and disposed of the used airplane during 2018, the used airplane is not eligible for the additional first year depreciation deduction for O Corporation pursuant to paragraph (g)(1)(i) of this section.

(3) Because P Corporation never had a depreciable interest in the used airplane and assuming all other requirements are met, P Corporation's purchase price of the used airplane qualifies for the additional first year depreciation deduction for P Corporation under this section.

(W) Example 23.

(1) The facts are the same as in Example 21 of paragraph (b)(3)(vii)(U)(1) of this section, except M Corporation and O Corporation are not related parties within the meaning of section 179(d)(2)(A) or (B) and § 1.179-4(c). Additionally, on March 26, 2020, O Corporation sells to M Corporation the used airplane subject to the lease with N Corporation.

(2) The sale transaction of May 27, 2018, satisfies the requirements of a syndication transaction described in paragraph (b)(3)(vi) of this section. As a result, O Corporation is considered the taxpayer that acquired the used airplane for purposes of applying the used property acquisition requirements in paragraph (b)(3)(iii) of this section. Also, O Corporation, not M Corporation, is treated as having the depreciable interest in the used airplane. Further, pursuant to paragraph (b)(4)(iv) of this section, the used airplane is treated as originally placed in service by O Corporation on May 27, 2018. Because O Corporation never had a depreciable interest in the used airplane before its acquisition in 2018 and assuming all other requirements are met, O Corporation's purchase price of the used airplane qualifies for the additional first year depreciation deduction for O Corporation under this section.

(3) Prior to its acquisition of the used airplane on March 26, 2020, M Corporation never had a depreciable interest in the used airplane pursuant to paragraph (b)(3)(vi) of this section. Assuming all other requirements are met, M Corporation's purchase price of the used airplane on March 26, 2020, qualifies for the additional first year depreciation deduction for M Corporation under this section.

(X) Example 24.

(1) J, K, and L are corporations that are unrelated parties within the meaning of section 179(d)(2)(A) or (B) and § 1.179-4(c). None of J, K, or L is a member of a consolidated group. J has a depreciable interest in Equipment #5. During 2018, J sells Equipment #5 to K. During 2020, J merges into L in a transaction described in section 368(a)(1)(A). In 2021, L acquires Equipment #5 from K.

(2) Because J is the predecessor of L, and because J previously had a depreciable interest in Equipment #5, L's acquisition of Equipment #5 does not satisfy paragraphs (b)(3)(iii)(A)(1) and (b)(3)(iii)(B)(1) of this section. Thus, L's acquisition of Equipment #5 does not satisfy the used property acquisition requirements of paragraph (b)(3)(iii) of this section. Accordingly, L's acquisition of Equipment #5 is not eligible for the additional first year depreciation deduction.

(4) Placed-in-service date -

(i) In general. Depreciable property will meet the requirements of this paragraph (b)(4) if the property is placed in service by the taxpayer for use in its trade or business or for production of income after September 27, 2017; and, except as provided in paragraphs (b)(2)(i)(A) and (D) of this section, before January 1, 2027, or, in the case of property described in section 168(k)(2)(B) or (C), before January 1, 2028.

(ii) Specified plant. If the taxpayer has properly made an election to apply section 168(k)(5) for a specified plant, the requirements of this paragraph (b)(4) are satisfied only if the specified plant is planted before January 1, 2027, or is grafted before January 1, 2027, to a plant that has already been planted, by the taxpayer in the ordinary course of the taxpayer's farming business, as defined in section 263A(e)(4).

(iii) Qualified film, television, or live theatrical production -

(A) Qualified film or television production. For purposes of this paragraph (b)(4), a qualified film or television production is treated as placed in service at the time of initial release or broadcast as defined under § 1.181-1(a)(7). The taxpayer that places in service a qualified film or television production must be the owner, as defined in § 1.181-1(a)(2), of the qualified film or television production.

(B) Qualified live theatrical production. For purposes of this paragraph (b)(4), a qualified live theatrical production is treated as placed in service at the time of the initial live staged performance. The taxpayer that places in service a qualified live theatrical production must be the owner, as defined in paragraph (b)(2)(i)(F) of this section and in § 1.181-1(a)(2), of the qualified live theatrical production.

(iv) Syndication transaction. If new property is acquired and placed in service by a lessor, or if used property is acquired and placed in service by a lessor and the lessor and any predecessor did not previously have a depreciable interest in the used property, and the property is sold by the lessor or any subsequent purchaser within three months after the date the property was originally placed in service by the lessor (or, in the case of multiple units of property subject to the same lease, within three months after the date the final unit is placed in service, so long as the period between the time the first unit is placed in service and the time the last unit is placed in service does not exceed 12 months), and the user of the property after the last sale during this three-month period remains the same as when the property was originally placed in service by the lessor, the property is treated as originally placed in service by the purchaser of the property in the last sale during the three-month period but not earlier than the date of the last sale for purposes of sections 167 and 168, and §§ 1.46-3(d) and 1.167(a)-11(e)(1).

(v) Technical termination of a partnership. For purposes of this paragraph (b)(4), in the case of a technical termination of a partnership under section 708(b)(1)(B) occurring in a taxable year beginning before January 1, 2018, qualified property placed in service by the terminated partnership during the taxable year of termination is treated as originally placed in service by the new partnership on the date the qualified property is contributed by the terminated partnership to the new partnership.

(vi) Section 168(i)(7) transactions. For purposes of this paragraph (b)(4), if qualified property is transferred in a transaction described in section 168(i)(7) in the same taxable year that the qualified property is placed in service by the transferor, the transferred property is treated as originally placed in service on the date the transferor placed in service the qualified property. In the case of multiple transfers of qualified property in multiple transactions described in section 168(i)(7) in the same taxable year, the placed-in-service date of the transferred property is deemed to be the date on which the first transferor placed in service the qualified property.

(5) Acquisition of property -

(i) In general. This paragraph (b)(5) provides rules for the acquisition requirements in section 13201(h) of the Act. These rules apply to all property, including self-constructed property or property described in section 168(k)(2)(B) or (C).

(ii) Acquisition date -

(A) In general. Except as provided in paragraph (b)(5)(vi) of this section, depreciable property will meet the requirements of this paragraph (b)(5) if the property is acquired by the taxpayer after September 27, 2017, or is acquired by the taxpayer pursuant to a written binding contract entered into by the taxpayer after September 27, 2017. Property that is manufactured, constructed, or produced for the taxpayer by another person under a written binding contract that is entered into prior to the manufacture, construction, or production of the property for use by the taxpayer in its trade or business or for its production of income is not acquired pursuant to a written binding contract but is considered to be self-constructed property under this paragraph (b)(5). For determination of acquisition date, see paragraph (b)(5)(ii)(B) of this section for property acquired pursuant to a written binding contract and paragraph (b)(5)(iv) of this section for self-constructed property.

(B) Determination of acquisition date for property acquired pursuant to a written binding contract. Except as provided in paragraphs (b)(5)(vi) and (vii) of this section, the acquisition date of property that the taxpayer acquired pursuant to a written binding contract is the later of -

(1) The date on which the contract was entered into;

(2) The date on which the contract is enforceable under State law;

(3) If the contract has one or more cancellation periods, the date on which all cancellation periods end. For purposes of this paragraph (b)(5)(ii)(B)(3), a cancellation period is the number of days stated in the contract for any party to cancel the contract without penalty; or

(4) If the contract has one or more contingency clauses, the date on which all conditions subject to such clauses are satisfied. For purposes of this paragraph (b)(5)(ii)(B)(4), a contingency clause is one that provides for a condition (or conditions) or action (or actions) that is within the control of any party or a predecessor.

(iii) Definition of binding contract -

(A) In general. A contract is binding only if it is enforceable under State law against the taxpayer or a predecessor, and does not limit damages to a specified amount (for example, by use of a liquidated damages provision). For this purpose, any contractual provision that limits damages to an amount equal to at least 5 percent of the total contract price will not be treated as limiting damages to a specified amount. If a contract has multiple provisions that limit damages, only the provision with the highest damages is taken into account in determining whether the contract limits damages. Also, in determining whether a contract limits damages, the fact that there may be little or no damages because the contract price does not significantly differ from fair market value will not be taken into account. For example, if a taxpayer entered into an irrevocable written contract to purchase an asset for $100 and the contract did not contain a provision for liquidated damages, the contract is considered binding notwithstanding the fact that the asset had a fair market value of $99 and under local law the seller would only recover the difference in the event the purchaser failed to perform. If the contract provided for a full refund of the purchase price in lieu of any damages allowable by law in the event of breach or cancellation, the contract is not considered binding.

(B) Conditions. A contract is binding even if subject to a condition, as long as the condition is not within the control of either party or a predecessor. A contract will continue to be binding if the parties make insubstantial changes in its terms and conditions or if any term is to be determined by a standard beyond the control of either party. A contract that imposes significant obligations on the taxpayer or a predecessor will be treated as binding notwithstanding the fact that certain terms remain to be negotiated by the parties to the contract.

(C) Options. An option to either acquire or sell property is not a binding contract.

(D) Letter of intent. A letter of intent for an acquisition is not a binding contract.

(E) Supply agreements. A binding contract does not include a supply or similar agreement if the amount and design specifications of the property to be purchased have not been specified. The contract will not be a binding contract for the property to be purchased until both the amount and the design specifications are specified. For example, if the provisions of a supply or similar agreement state the design specifications of the property to be purchased, a purchase order under the agreement for a specific number of assets is treated as a binding contract.

(F) Components. A binding contract to acquire one or more components of a larger property will not be treated as a binding contract to acquire the larger property. If a binding contract to acquire the component does not satisfy the requirements of this paragraph (b)(5), the component does not qualify for the additional first year depreciation deduction under this section.

(G) [Reserved]

(iv) Self-constructed property -

(A) In general. If a taxpayer manufactures, constructs, or produces property for use by the taxpayer in its trade or business or for its production of income, the acquisition rules in paragraph (b)(5)(ii) of this section are treated as met for the property if the taxpayer begins manufacturing, constructing, or producing the property after September 27, 2017. Property that is manufactured, constructed, or produced for the taxpayer by another person under a written binding contract, as defined in paragraph (b)(5)(iii) of this section, that is entered into prior to the manufacture, construction, or production of the property for use by the taxpayer in its trade or business or for its production of income is considered to be manufactured, constructed, or produced by the taxpayer. If a taxpayer enters into a written binding contract, as defined in paragraph (b)(5)(iii) of this section, before September 28, 2017, with another person to manufacture, construct, or produce property and the manufacture, construction, or production of this property begins after September 27, 2017, the acquisition rules in paragraph (b)(5)(ii) of this section are met.

(B) When does manufacture, construction, or production begin -

(1) In general. For purposes of paragraph (b)(5)(iv)(A) of this section, manufacture, construction, or production of property begins when physical work of a significant nature begins. Physical work does not include preliminary activities such as planning or designing, securing financing, exploring, or researching. The determination of when physical work of a significant nature begins depends on the facts and circumstances. For example, if a retail motor fuels outlet is to be constructed on-site, construction begins when physical work of a significant nature commences at the site; that is, when work begins on the excavation for footings, pouring the pads for the outlet, or the driving of foundation pilings into the ground. Preliminary work, such as clearing a site, test drilling to determine soil condition, or excavation to change the contour of the land (as distinguished from excavation for footings) does not constitute the beginning of construction. However, if a retail motor fuels outlet is to be assembled on-site from modular units manufactured off-site and delivered to the site where the outlet will be used, manufacturing begins when physical work of a significant nature commences at the off-site location.

(2) Safe harbor. For purposes of paragraph (b)(5)(iv)(B)(1) of this section, a taxpayer may choose to determine when physical work of a significant nature begins in accordance with this paragraph (b)(5)(iv)(B)(2). Physical work of a significant nature will be considered to begin at the time the taxpayer incurs (in the case of an accrual basis taxpayer) or pays (in the case of a cash basis taxpayer) more than 10 percent of the total cost of the property, excluding the cost of any land and preliminary activities such as planning or designing, securing financing, exploring, or researching. When property is manufactured, constructed, or produced for the taxpayer by another person, this safe harbor test must be satisfied by the taxpayer. For example, if a retail motor fuels outlet or other facility is to be constructed for an accrual basis taxpayer by another person for the total cost of $200,000, excluding the cost of any land and preliminary activities such as planning or designing, securing financing, exploring, or researching, construction is deemed to begin for purposes of this paragraph (b)(5)(iv)(B)(2) when the taxpayer has incurred more than 10 percent (more than $20,000) of the total cost of the property. A taxpayer chooses to apply this paragraph (b)(5)(iv)(B)(2) by filing a Federal income tax return for the placed-in-service year of the property that determines when physical work of a significant nature begins consistent with this paragraph (b)(5)(iv)(B)(2).

(C) Components of self-constructed property -

(1) Acquired components. If a binding contract, as defined in paragraph (b)(5)(iii) of this section, to acquire a component does not satisfy the requirements of paragraph (b)(5)(ii) of this section, the component does not qualify for the additional first year depreciation deduction under this section. A binding contract described in the preceding sentence to acquire one or more components of a larger self-constructed property will not preclude the larger self-constructed property from satisfying the acquisition rules in paragraph (b)(5)(iv)(A) of this section. Accordingly, the unadjusted depreciable basis of the larger self-constructed property that is eligible for the additional first year depreciation deduction under this section, assuming all other requirements are met, must not include the unadjusted depreciable basis of any component that does not satisfy the requirements of paragraph (b)(5)(ii) of this section. If the manufacture, construction, or production of the larger self-constructed property begins before September 28, 2017, the larger self-constructed property and any acquired components related to the larger self-constructed property do not qualify for the additional first year depreciation deduction under this section. If a binding contract to acquire the component is entered into after September 27, 2017, but the manufacture, construction, or production of the larger self-constructed property does not begin before January 1, 2027, the component qualifies for the additional first year depreciation deduction under this section, assuming all other requirements are met, but the larger self-constructed property does not.

(2) Self-constructed components. If the manufacture, construction, or production of a component does not satisfy the requirements of this paragraph (b)(5)(iv), the component does not qualify for the additional first year depreciation deduction under this section. However, if the manufacture, construction, or production of a component does not satisfy the requirements of this paragraph (b)(5)(iv), but the manufacture, construction, or production of the larger self-constructed property satisfies the requirements of this paragraph (b)(5)(iv), the larger self-constructed property qualifies for the additional first year depreciation deduction under this section, assuming all other requirements are met, even though the component does not qualify for the additional first year depreciation deduction under this section. Accordingly, the unadjusted depreciable basis of the larger self-constructed property that is eligible for the additional first year depreciation deduction under this section, assuming all other requirements are met, must not include the unadjusted depreciable basis of any component that does not qualify for the additional first year depreciation deduction under this section. If the manufacture, construction, or production of the larger self-constructed property began before September 28, 2017, the larger self-constructed property and any self-constructed components related to the larger self-constructed property do not qualify for the additional first year depreciation deduction under this section. If the manufacture, construction, or production of a component begins after September 27, 2017, but the manufacture, construction, or production of the larger self-constructed property does not begin before January 1, 2027, the component qualifies for the additional first year depreciation deduction under this section, assuming all other requirements are met, but the larger self-constructed property does not.

(v) [Reserved]

(vi) Qualified film, television, or live theatrical production -

(A) Qualified film or television production. For purposes of section 13201(h)(1)(A) of the Act, a qualified film or television production is treated as acquired on the date principal photography commences.

(B) Qualified live theatrical production. For purposes of section 13201(h)(1)(A) of the Act, a qualified live theatrical production is treated as acquired on the date when all of the necessary elements for producing the live theatrical production are secured. These elements may include a script, financing, actors, set, scenic and costume designs, advertising agents, music, and lighting.

(vii) Specified plant. If the taxpayer has properly made an election to apply section 168(k)(5) for a specified plant, the requirements of this paragraph (b)(5) are satisfied if the specified plant is planted after September 27, 2017, or is grafted after September 27, 2017, to a plant that has already been planted, by the taxpayer in the ordinary course of the taxpayer's farming business, as defined in section 263A(e)(4).

(viii) Examples. The application of this paragraph (b)(5) is illustrated by the following examples. Unless the facts specifically indicate otherwise, assume that the parties are not related within the meaning of section 179(d)(2)(A) or (B) and § 1.179-4(c), and the parties do not have predecessors:

(A) Example 1. On September 1, 2017, BB, a corporation, entered into a written agreement with CC, a manufacturer, to purchase 20 new lamps for $100 each within the next two years. Although the agreement specifies the number of lamps to be purchased, the agreement does not specify the design of the lamps to be purchased. Accordingly, the agreement is not a binding contract pursuant to paragraph (b)(5)(iii)(E) of this section.

(B) Example 2. The facts are the same as in Example 1 of paragraph (b)(5)(viii)(A) of this section. On December 1, 2017, BB placed a purchase order with CC to purchase 20 new model XPC5 lamps for $100 each for a total amount of $2,000. Because the agreement specifies the number of lamps to be purchased and the purchase order specifies the design of the lamps to be purchased, the purchase order placed by BB with CC on December 1, 2017, is a binding contract pursuant to paragraph (b)(5)(iii)(E) of this section. Accordingly, assuming all other requirements are met, the cost of the 20 lamps qualifies for the 100-percent additional first year depreciation deduction.

(C) Example 3. The facts are the same as in Example 1 of paragraph (b)(5)(viii)(A) of this section, except that the written agreement between BB and CC is to purchase 100 model XPC5 lamps for $100 each within the next two years. Because this agreement specifies the amount and design of the lamps to be purchased, the agreement is a binding contract pursuant to paragraph (b)(5)(iii)(E) of this section. However, because the agreement was entered into before September 28, 2017, no lamp acquired by BB under this contract qualifies for the 100-percent additional first year depreciation deduction.

(D) Example 4. On September 1, 2017, DD began constructing a retail motor fuels outlet for its own use. On November 1, 2018, DD ceases construction of the retail motor fuels outlet prior to its completion. Between September 1, 2017, and November 1, 2018, DD incurred $3,000,000 of expenditures for the construction of the retail motor fuels outlet. On May 1, 2019, DD resumed construction of the retail motor fuels outlet and completed its construction on August 31, 2019. Between May 1, 2019, and August 31, 2019, DD incurred another $1,600,000 of expenditures to complete the construction of the retail motor fuels outlet and, on September 1, 2019, DD placed the retail motor fuels outlet in service. None of DD's total expenditures of $4,600,000 qualify for the 100-percent additional first year depreciation deduction because, pursuant to paragraph (b)(5)(iv)(A) of this section, DD began constructing the retail motor fuels outlet before September 28, 2017.

(E) Example 5. The facts are the same as in Example 4 of paragraph (b)(5)(viii)(D) of this section except that DD began constructing the retail motor fuels outlet for its own use on October 1, 2017, and DD incurred the $3,000,000 between October 1, 2017, and November 1, 2018. DD's total expenditures of $4,600,000 qualify for the 100-percent additional first year depreciation deduction because, pursuant to paragraph (b)(5)(iv)(A) of this section, DD began constructing the retail motor fuels outlet after September 27, 2017, and DD placed the retail motor fuels outlet in service on September 1, 2019. Accordingly, assuming all other requirements are met, the additional first year depreciation deduction for the retail motor fuels outlet will be $4,600,000, computed as $4,600,000 multiplied by 100 percent.

(F) Example 6. On August 15, 2017, EE, an accrual basis taxpayer, entered into a written binding contract with FF to manufacture an aircraft described in section 168(k)(2)(C) for use in EE's trade or business. FF begins to manufacture the aircraft on October 1, 2017. The completed aircraft is delivered to EE on February 15, 2018, at which time EE incurred the total cost of the aircraft. EE places the aircraft in service on March 1, 2018. Pursuant to paragraphs (b)(5)(ii)(A) and (b)(5)(iv)(A) of this section, the aircraft is considered to be manufactured by EE. Because EE began manufacturing the aircraft after September 27, 2017, the aircraft qualifies for the 100-percent additional first year depreciation deduction, assuming all other requirements are met.

(G) Example 7. On June 1, 2017, HH entered into a written binding contract with GG to acquire a new component part of property that is being constructed by HH for its own use in its trade or business. HH commenced construction of the property in November 2017, and placed the property in service in November 2018. Because HH entered into a written binding contract to acquire a component part prior to September 28, 2017, pursuant to paragraphs (b)(5)(ii) and (b)(5)(iv)(C)(1) of this section, the component part does not qualify for the 100-percent additional first year depreciation deduction. However, pursuant to paragraphs (b)(5)(iv)(A) and (b)(5)(iv)(C)(1) of this section, the property constructed by HH will qualify for the 100-percent additional first year depreciation deduction, because construction of the property began after September 27, 2017, assuming all other requirements are met. Accordingly, the unadjusted depreciable basis of the property that is eligible for the 100-percent additional first year depreciation deduction must not include the unadjusted depreciable basis of the component part.

(H) Example 8. The facts are the same as in Example 7 of paragraph (b)(5)(viii)(G) of this section except that HH entered into the written binding contract with GG to acquire the new component part on September 30, 2017, and HH commenced construction of the property on August 1, 2017. Pursuant to paragraphs (b)(5)(iv)(A) and (C) of this section, neither the property constructed by HH nor the component part will qualify for the 100-percent additional first year depreciation deduction, because HH began construction of the property prior to September 28, 2017.

(I) Example 9. On September 1, 2017, II acquired and placed in service equipment. On January 15, 2018, II sells the equipment to JJ and leases the property back from JJ in a sale-leaseback transaction. Pursuant to paragraph (b)(5)(ii) of this section, II's cost of the equipment does not qualify for the 100-percent additional first year depreciation deduction because II acquired the equipment prior to September 28, 2017. However, JJ acquired used equipment from an unrelated party after September 27, 2017, and, assuming all other requirements are met, JJ's cost of the used equipment qualifies for the 100-percent additional first year depreciation deduction for JJ.

(J) Example 10. On July 1, 2017, KK began constructing property for its own use in its trade or business. KK placed this property in service on September 15, 2017. On January 15, 2018, KK sells the property to LL and leases the property back from LL in a sale-leaseback transaction. Pursuant to paragraph (b)(5)(iv) of this section, KK's cost of the property does not qualify for the 100-percent additional first year depreciation deduction because KK began construction of the property prior to September 28, 2017. However, LL acquired used property from an unrelated party after September 27, 2017, and, assuming all other requirements are met, LL's cost of the used property qualifies for the 100-percent additional first year depreciation deduction for LL.

(K) Example 11. MM, a calendar year taxpayer, is engaged in a trade or business described in section 163(j)(7)(A)(iv). In December 2018, MM began constructing a new electric generation power plant for its own use. MM placed in service this new power plant, including all component parts, in 2020. Even though MM began constructing the power plant after September 27, 2017, none of MM's total expenditures of the power plant qualify for the additional first year depreciation deduction under this section because, pursuant to paragraph (b)(2)(ii)(F) of this section, the power plant is property that is primarily used in a trade or business described in section 163(j)(7)(A)(iv) and the power plant was placed in service in MM's taxable year beginning after 2017.

(c) Election for components of larger self-constructed property for which the manufacture, construction, or production begins before September 28, 2017 -

(1) In general. A taxpayer may elect to treat any acquired or self-constructed component, as described in paragraph (c)(3) of this section, of the larger self-constructed property, as described in paragraph (c)(2) of this section, as being eligible for the additional first year depreciation deduction under this section, assuming all requirements of section 168(k) and this section are met. The taxpayer may make this election for one or more such components.

(2) Eligible larger self-constructed property -

(i) In general. Solely for purposes of this paragraph (c), a larger self-constructed property is property that is manufactured, constructed, or produced by the taxpayer for its own use in its trade or business or production of income. Solely for purposes of this paragraph (c), property that is manufactured, constructed, or produced for the taxpayer by another person under a written binding contract, as defined in paragraph (b)(5)(iii) of this section, or under a written contract that does not meet the definition of a binding contract in paragraph (b)(5)(iii) of this section, that is entered into prior to the manufacture, construction, or production of the property for use by the taxpayer in its trade or business or production of income is considered to be manufactured, constructed, or produced by the taxpayer. Except as provided in paragraph (c)(2)(iv) of this section, such larger self-constructed property must be property -

(A) That is described in paragraph (b)(2)(i)(A), (B), (C), or (D) of this section. Solely for purposes of the preceding sentence, the requirement that property has to be acquired after September 27, 2017, is disregarded;

(B) That meets the requirements under paragraph (b) of this section, determined without regard to the acquisition date requirement in paragraph (b)(5) of this section; and

(C) For which the taxpayer begins the manufacture, construction, or production before September 28, 2017.

(ii) Residential rental property or nonresidential real property. If the taxpayer constructs, manufactures, or produces residential rental property or nonresidential real property, as defined in section 168(e)(2), or an improvement to such property, for use in its trade or business or production of income, all property that is constructed, manufactured, or produced as part of such residential rental property, nonresidential real property, or improvement, as applicable, and that is described in paragraph (c)(2)(i)(A) of this section is the larger self-constructed property for purposes of applying the rules in this paragraph (c).

(iii) Beginning of manufacturing, construction, or production. Solely for purposes of paragraph (c)(2)(i)(C) of this section, the determination of when manufacture, construction, or production of the larger self-constructed property begins is made in accordance with the rules in paragraph (b)(5)(iv)(B) of this section if the larger self-constructed property is manufactured, constructed, or produced by the taxpayer for its own use in its trade or business or production of income, or is manufactured, constructed, or produced for the taxpayer by another person under a written binding contract, as defined in paragraph (b)(5)(iii) of this section, that is entered into prior to the manufacture, construction, or production of the property for use by the taxpayer in its trade or business or production of income. If the larger self-constructed property is manufactured, constructed, or produced for the taxpayer by another person under a written contract that does not meet the definition of a binding contract in paragraph (b)(5)(iii) of this section, that is entered into prior to the manufacture, construction, or production of the property for use by the taxpayer in its trade or business or production of income, the determination of when manufacture, construction, or production of the larger self-constructed property begins is made in accordance with the rules in paragraph (b)(5)(v) of this section. If the taxpayer enters into a written binding contract, as defined in paragraph (b)(5)(iii) of this section, before September 28, 2017, with another person to manufacture, construct, or produce the larger self-constructed property and the manufacture, construction, or production of this property begins after September 27, 2017, as determined under paragraph (b)(5)(iv)(B) of this section, this paragraph (c) does not apply. If the taxpayer enters into a written contract that does not meet the definition of a binding contract in paragraph (b)(5)(iii) of this section before September 28, 2017, with another person to manufacture, construct, or produce the larger self-constructed property and the manufacture, construction, or production of this property begins after September 27, 2017, as determined under paragraph (b)(5)(v) of this section, this paragraph (c) does not apply.

(iv) Exception. This paragraph (c) does not apply to any larger self-constructed property that is included in a class of property for which the taxpayer made an election under section 168(k)(7) (formerly section 168(k)(2)(D)(iii)) not to deduct the additional first year depreciation deduction.

(3) Eligible components -

(i) In general. Solely for purposes of this paragraph (c), a component of the larger self-constructed property, as described in paragraph (c)(2) of this section, must be qualified property under section 168(k)(2) and paragraph (b) of this section. Solely for purposes of the preceding sentence, a component will satisfy the acquisition date requirement in paragraph (b)(5) of this section if it satisfies the requirements in paragraph (c)(3)(ii) or (iii) of this section, as applicable.

(ii) Acquired components. If a component of the larger self-constructed property is acquired pursuant to a written binding contract, as defined in paragraph (b)(5)(iii) of this section, the component must be acquired by the taxpayer after September 27, 2017, as determined under the rules in paragraph (b)(5)(ii)(B) of this section. If a component of the larger self-constructed property is acquired pursuant to a written contract that does not meet the definition of a binding contract in paragraph (b)(5)(iii) of this section, the component must be acquired by the taxpayer after September 27, 2017, as determined under the rules in paragraph (b)(5)(v) of this section.

(iii) Self-constructed components. The manufacture, construction, or production of a component of a larger self-constructed property must begin after September 27, 2017. The determination of when manufacture, construction, or production of the component begins is made in accordance with the rules in -

(A) Paragraph (b)(5)(iv)(B) of this section if the component is manufactured, constructed, or produced by the taxpayer for its own use in its trade or business or for its production of income, or is manufactured, constructed, or produced for the taxpayer by another person under a written binding contract, as defined in paragraph (b)(5)(iii) of this section, that is entered into prior to the manufacture, construction, or production of the component for use by the taxpayer in its trade or business or for its production of income; or

(B) Paragraph (b)(5)(v) of this section if the component is manufactured, constructed, or produced for the taxpayer by another person under a written contract that does not meet the definition of a binding contract in paragraph (b)(5)(iii) of this section, that is entered into prior to the manufacture, construction, or production of the component for use by the taxpayer in its trade or business or for its production of income.

(4) Special rules -

(i) Installation costs. If the taxpayer pays, in the case of a cash basis taxpayer, or incurs, in the case of an accrual basis taxpayer, costs, including labor costs, to install a component of the larger self-constructed property, as described in paragraph (c)(2) of this section, such costs are eligible for the additional first year depreciation under this section, assuming all requirements are met, only if the component being installed meets the requirements in paragraph (c)(3) of this section.

(ii) Property described in section 168(k)(2)(B). The rules in paragraph (e)(1)(iii) of this section apply for determining the unadjusted depreciable basis, as defined in § 1.168(b)-1(a)(3), of larger self-constructed property described in paragraph (c)(2) of this section and in section 168(k)(2)(B).

(5) Computation of additional first year depreciation deduction -

(i) Election is made. Before determining the allowable additional first year depreciation deduction for the larger self-constructed property, as described in paragraph (c)(2) of this section, for which the taxpayer makes the election specified in this paragraph (c) for one or more components of such property, the taxpayer must determine the portion of the unadjusted depreciable basis, as defined in § 1.168(b)-1(a)(3), of the larger self-constructed property, including all components, attributable to the component that meets the requirements of paragraphs (c)(3) and (c)(4)(i) of this section (component basis). The additional first year depreciation deduction for the component basis is determined by multiplying such component basis by the applicable percentage for the placed-in-service year of the larger self-constructed property. The additional first year depreciation deduction, if any, for the remaining unadjusted depreciable basis of the larger self-constructed property, as described in paragraph (c)(2) of this section, is determined under section 168(k), as in effect on the day before the date of the enactment of the Act, and section 168(k)(8). For purposes of this paragraph (c), the remaining unadjusted depreciable basis of the larger self-constructed property is equal to the unadjusted depreciable basis, as defined in § 1.168(b)-1(a)(3), of the larger self-constructed property, including all components, reduced by the sum of the component basis of the components for which the taxpayer makes the election specified in this paragraph (c).

(ii) Election is not made. If the taxpayer does not make the election specified in this paragraph (c), the additional first year depreciation deduction, if any, for the larger self-constructed property, including all components, is determined under section 168(k), as in effect on the day before the date of the enactment of the Act, and section 168(k)(8).

(6) Time and manner for making election -

(i) Time for making election. The election specified in this paragraph (c) must be made by the due date, including extensions, of the Federal tax return for the taxable year in which the taxpayer placed in service the larger self-constructed property.

(ii) Manner of making election. The election specified in this paragraph (c) must be made by attaching a statement to such return indicating that the taxpayer is making the election provided in this paragraph (c) and whether the taxpayer is making the election for all or some of the components described in paragraph (c)(3) of this section. The election is made separately by each person owning qualified property (for example, for each member of a consolidated group by the agent for the group (within the meaning of § 1.1502-77(a) and (c)), by the partnership (including a lower-tier partnership), or by the S corporation).

(7) Revocation of election -

(i) In general. Except as provided in paragraph (c)(7)(ii) of this section, the election specified in this paragraph (c), once made, may be revoked only by filing a request for a private letter ruling and obtaining the Commissioner of Internal Revenue's written consent to revoke the election. The Commissioner may grant a request to revoke the election if the taxpayer acted reasonably and in good faith, and the revocation will not prejudice the interests of the Government. See generally § 301.9100-3 of this chapter. The election specified in this paragraph (c) may not be revoked through a request under section 446(e) to change the taxpayer's method of accounting.

(ii) Automatic 6-month extension. If a taxpayer made the election specified in this paragraph (c), an automatic extension of 6 months from the due date of the taxpayer's Federal tax return, excluding extensions, for the placed-in-service year of the larger self-constructed property is granted to revoke that election, provided the taxpayer timely filed the taxpayer's Federal tax return for that placed-in-service year and, within this 6-month extension period, the taxpayer, and all taxpayers whose tax liability would be affected by the election, file an amended Federal tax return for the placed-in-service year in a manner that is consistent with the revocation of the election.

(8) Additional procedural guidance. The IRS may publish procedural guidance in the Internal Revenue Bulletin (see § 601.601(d)(2)(ii)(b) of this chapter) that provides alternative procedures for complying with paragraph (c)(6) or (c)(7)(i) of this section.

(9) Examples. The application of this paragraph (c) is illustrated by the following examples. Unless the facts specifically indicate otherwise, assume that the larger self-constructed property is described in paragraph (c)(2) of this section, the components that are acquired or self-constructed after September 27, 2017, are described in paragraph (c)(3) of this section, the taxpayer is an accrual basis taxpayer, and none of the costs paid or incurred after September 27, 2017, are for the installation of components that do not meet the requirements of paragraph (c)(3) of this section.

(i) Example 1.

(A) BC, a calendar year taxpayer, is engaged in a trade or business described in section 163(j)(7)(A)(iv) and §§ 1.163(j)-1(b)(15)(i) and 1.163(j)-10(c)(3)(iii)(C)(3). In December 2015, BC decided to construct an electric generation power plant for its own use. This plant is property described in section 168(k)(2)(B) as in effect on the day before the date of the enactment of the Act. However, the turbine for the plant had to be manufactured by another person for BC. In January 2016, BC entered into a written binding contract with CD to acquire the turbine. BC received the completed turbine in August 2017 at which time BC incurred the cost of the turbine. The cost of the turbine is 11 percent of the total cost of the electric generation power plant to be constructed by BC. BC began constructing the electric generation power plant in October 2017 and placed in service this new power plant, including all component parts, in 2020.

(B) The larger self-constructed property is the electric generation power plant to be constructed by BC. For determining if the construction of this power plant begins before September 28, 2017, paragraph (b)(5)(iv)(B) of this section provides that manufacture, construction, or production of property begins when physical work of a significant nature begins. BC uses the safe harbor test in paragraph (b)(5)(iv)(B)(2) of this section to determine when physical work of a significant nature begins for the electric generation power plant. Because the turbine that was manufactured by CD for BC is more than 10 percent of the total cost of the electric generation power plant, physical work of a significant nature for this plant began before September 28, 2017.

(C) The power plant is described in section 168(k)(9)(A) and paragraph (b)(2)(ii)(F) of this section and, therefore, is not larger self-constructed property eligible for the election pursuant to paragraph (c)(2)(i)(B) of this section. Accordingly, none of BC's expenditures for components of the power plant that are acquired or self-constructed after September 27, 2017, are eligible for the election specified in this paragraph (c). Assuming all requirements are met under section 168(k)(2) as in effect on the day before the date of the enactment of the Act, the unadjusted depreciable basis of the power plant, including all components, attributable to its construction before January 1, 2020, is eligible for the 30-percent additional first year depreciation deduction pursuant to section 168(k)(8).

(ii) Example 2.

(A) In August 2017, BD, a calendar-year taxpayer, entered into a written binding contract with CE for CE to manufacture a locomotive for BD for use in its trade or business. Before September 28, 2017, BD acquired or self-constructed components of the locomotive. These components cost $500,000, which is more than 10 percent of the total cost of the locomotive, and BD incurred such costs before September 28, 2017. After September 27, 2017, BD acquired or self-constructed components of the locomotive and these components cost $4,000,000. In February 2019, CE delivered the locomotive to BD and BD placed in service the locomotive. The total cost of the locomotive is $4,500,000. The locomotive is property described in section 168(k)(2)(B) as in effect on the day before the date of the enactment of the Act. On its timely filed Federal income tax return for 2019, BD made the election specified in this paragraph (c).

(B) The larger self-constructed property is the locomotive being manufactured by CE for BD. For determining if the manufacturing of this locomotive begins before September 28, 2017, paragraph (b)(5)(iv)(B) of this section provides that manufacture, construction, or production of property begins when physical work of a significant nature begins. BD uses the safe harbor test in paragraph (b)(5)(iv)(B)(2) of this section to determine when physical work of a significant nature begins for the locomotive. Because BD had incurred more than 10 percent of the total cost of the locomotive before September 28, 2017, physical work of a significant nature for this locomotive began before September 28, 2017.

(C) Because BD made the election specified in this paragraph (c), the cost of $4,000,000 for the locomotive's components acquired or self-constructed after September 27, 2017, qualifies for the 100-percent additional first year depreciation deduction under this section, assuming all other requirements are met. The remaining cost of the locomotive is $500,000 and such amount qualifies for the 40-percent additional first year depreciation deduction pursuant to section 168(k)(8), assuming all other requirements in section 168(k) as in effect on the day before the date of the enactment of the Act are met.

(iii) Example 3.

(A) In February 2016, BF, a calendar-year taxpayer, entered into a written binding contract with CG for CG to manufacture a vessel for BF for use in its trade or business. Before September 28, 2017, BF acquired or self-constructed components for the vessel. These components cost $30,000,000, which is more than 10 percent of the total cost of the vessel, and BF incurred such costs before September 28, 2017. After September 27, 2017, BF acquired or self-constructed components for the vessel and these components cost $15,000,000. In February 2021, CG delivered the vessel to BF and BF placed in service the vessel. The vessel is property described in section 168(k)(2)(B) as in effect on the day before the date of the enactment of the Act. The total cost of the vessel is $45,000,000. On its timely filed Federal income tax return for 2021, BF made the election specified in this paragraph (c).

(B) The larger self-constructed property is the vessel being manufactured by CG for BF. For determining if the manufacturing of this vessel begins before September 28, 2017, paragraph (b)(5)(iv)(B) of this section provides that manufacture, construction, or production of property begins when physical work of a significant nature begins. BF uses the safe harbor test in paragraph (b)(5)(iv)(B)(2) of this section to determine when physical work of a significant nature begins for the vessel. Because BF had incurred more than 10 percent of the total cost of the vessel before September 28, 2017, physical work of a significant nature for this vessel began before September 28, 2017.

(C) Because BF made the election specified in this paragraph (c), the cost of $15,000,000 for the vessel's components acquired or self-constructed after September 27, 2017, qualifies for the 100-percent additional first year depreciation deduction under this section, assuming all other requirements are met. Pursuant to section 168(k)(8) and because BF placed in service the vessel after 2020, none of the remaining cost of the vessel is eligible for any additional first year depreciation deduction under section 168(k) and this section nor under section 168(k) as in effect on the day before the date of the enactment of the Act.

(iv) Example 4.

(A) In March 2017, BG, a calendar year taxpayer, entered into a written contract with CH for CH to construct a building for BG to use in its retail business. This written contract does not meet the definition of a binding contract in paragraph (b)(5)(iii) of this section. In September 2019, the construction of the building was completed and placed in service by BG. The total cost is $10,000,000. Of this amount, $3,000,000 is the total cost for all section 1245 properties constructed as part of the building, and $7,000,000 is for the building. Under section 168(e), section 1245 properties in the total amount of $2,400,000 are 5-year property and in the total amount of $600,000 are 7-year property. The building is nonresidential real property under section 168(e). Before September 28, 2017, BG acquired or self-constructed certain components and the total cost of these components is $500,000 for the section 1245 properties and $3,000,000 for the building. BG incurred these costs before September 28, 2017. After September 27, 2017, BG acquired or self-constructed the remaining components of the section 1245 properties and these components cost $2,500,000. BG incurred these costs of $2,500,000 after September 27, 2017. On its timely filed Federal income tax return for 2019, BG made the election specified in this paragraph (c).

(B) All section 1245 properties are constructed as part of the construction of the building and are described in paragraph (b)(2)(i)(A) of this section. The building is not described in paragraph (b)(2)(i)(A), (B), (C), or (D) of this section. As a result, under paragraph (c)(2)(ii) of this section, the larger self-constructed property is all section 1245 properties with a total cost of $3,000,000. For determining if the construction of these section 1245 properties begins before September 28, 2017, paragraph (b)(5)(v) of this section provides that manufacture, construction, or production of property begins when the taxpayer incurs more than 10 percent of the total cost of the property. Because BG incurred more than 10 percent of the total cost of the section 1245 properties before September 28, 2017, construction of the section 1245 properties began before September 28, 2017.

(C) Because BG made the election specified in this paragraph (c), the cost of $2,500,000 for the section 1245 components acquired or self-constructed by BG after September 27, 2017, qualifies for the 100-percent additional first year depreciation deduction under this section, assuming all other requirements are met. The remaining cost of the section 1245 components is $500,000 and such amount qualifies for the 30-percent additional first year depreciation deduction pursuant to section 168(k)(8), assuming all other requirements in section 168(k), as in effect on the day before the date of the enactment of the Act, are met. Because the building is not qualified property under section 168(k), as in effect on the day before the date of the enactment of the Act, none of the cost of $7,000,000 for the building is eligible for any additional first year depreciation deduction under section 168(k) and this section or under section 168(k), as in effect on the day before the date of the enactment of the Act.

(d) Property described in section 168(k)(2)(B) or (C) -

(1) In general. Property described in section 168(k)(2)(B) or (C) will meet the acquisition requirements of section 168(k)(2)(B)(i)(III) or (k)(2)(C)(i) if the property is acquired by the taxpayer before January 1, 2027, or acquired by the taxpayer pursuant to a written binding contract that is entered into before January 1, 2027. Property described in section 168(k)(2)(B) or (C), including its components, also must meet the acquisition requirement in section 13201(h)(1)(A) of the Act (for further guidance, see paragraph (b)(5) of this section).

(2) Definition of binding contract. For purposes of this paragraph (d), the rules in paragraph (b)(5)(iii) of this section for a binding contract apply.

(3) Self-constructed property -

(i) In general. If a taxpayer manufactures, constructs, or produces property for use by the taxpayer in its trade or business or for its production of income, the acquisition rules in paragraph (d)(1) of this section are treated as met for the property if the taxpayer begins manufacturing, constructing, or producing the property before January 1, 2027. Property that is manufactured, constructed, or produced for the taxpayer by another person under a written binding contract, as defined in paragraph (b)(5)(iii) of this section, that is entered into prior to the manufacture, construction, or production of the property for use by the taxpayer in its trade or business or for its production of income is considered to be manufactured, constructed, or produced by the taxpayer. If a taxpayer enters into a written binding contract, as defined in paragraph (b)(5)(iii) of this section, before January 1, 2027, with another person to manufacture, construct, or produce property described in section 168(k)(2)(B) or (C) and the manufacture, construction, or production of this property begins after December 31, 2026, the acquisition rule in paragraph (d)(1) of this section is met.

(ii) When does manufacture, construction, or production begin -

(A) In general. For purposes of this paragraph (d)(3), manufacture, construction, or production of property begins when physical work of a significant nature begins. Physical work does not include preliminary activities such as planning or designing, securing financing, exploring, or researching. The determination of when physical work of a significant nature begins depends on the facts and circumstances. For example, if a retail motor fuels outlet is to be constructed on-site, construction begins when physical work of a significant nature commences at the site; that is, when work begins on the excavation for footings, pouring the pads for the outlet, or the driving of foundation pilings into the ground. Preliminary work, such as clearing a site, test drilling to determine soil condition, or excavation to change the contour of the land (as distinguished from excavation for footings) does not constitute the beginning of construction. However, if a retail motor fuels outlet is to be assembled on-site from modular units manufactured off-site and delivered to the site where the outlet will be used, manufacturing begins when physical work of a significant nature commences at the off-site location.

(B) Safe harbor. For purposes of paragraph (d)(3)(ii)(A) of this section, a taxpayer may choose to determine when physical work of a significant nature begins in accordance with this paragraph (d)(3)(ii)(B). Physical work of a significant nature will be considered to begin at the time the taxpayer incurs (in the case of an accrual basis taxpayer) or pays (in the case of a cash basis taxpayer) more than 10 percent of the total cost of the property, excluding the cost of any land and preliminary activities such as planning or designing, securing financing, exploring, or researching. When property is manufactured, constructed, or produced for the taxpayer by another person, this safe harbor test must be satisfied by the taxpayer. For example, if a retail motor fuels outlet is to be constructed for an accrual basis taxpayer by another person for the total cost of $200,000, excluding the cost of any land and preliminary activities such as planning or designing, securing financing, exploring, or researching, construction is deemed to begin for purposes of this paragraph (d)(3)(ii)(B) when the taxpayer has incurred more than 10 percent (more than $20,000) of the total cost of the property. A taxpayer chooses to apply this paragraph (d)(3)(ii)(B) by filing a Federal income tax return for the placed-in-service year of the property that determines when physical work of a significant nature begins consistent with this paragraph (d)(3)(ii)(B).

(iii) Components of self-constructed property -

(A) Acquired components. If a binding contract, as defined in paragraph (b)(5)(iii) of this section, to acquire a component does not satisfy the requirements of paragraph (d)(1) of this section, the component does not qualify for the additional first year depreciation deduction under this section. A binding contract described in the preceding sentence to acquire one or more components of a larger self-constructed property will not preclude the larger self-constructed property from satisfying the acquisition rules in paragraph (d)(3)(i) of this section. Accordingly, the unadjusted depreciable basis of the larger self-constructed property that is eligible for the additional first year depreciation deduction under this section, assuming all other requirements are met, must not include the unadjusted depreciable basis of any component that does not satisfy the requirements of paragraph (d)(1) of this section. If a binding contract to acquire the component is entered into before January 1, 2027, but the manufacture, construction, or production of the larger self-constructed property does not begin before January 1, 2027, the component qualifies for the additional first year depreciation deduction under this section, assuming all other requirements are met, but the larger self-constructed property does not.

(B) Self-constructed components. If the manufacture, construction, or production of a component by the taxpayer does not satisfy the requirements of paragraph (d)(3)(i) of this section, the component does not qualify for the additional first year depreciation deduction under this section. However, if the manufacture, construction, or production of a component does not satisfy the requirements of paragraph (d)(3)(i) of this section, but the manufacture, construction, or production of the larger self-constructed property satisfies the requirements of paragraph (d)(3)(i) of this section, the larger self-constructed property qualifies for the additional first year depreciation deduction under this section, assuming all other requirements are met, even though the component does not qualify for the additional first year depreciation deduction under this section. Accordingly, the unadjusted depreciable basis of the larger self-constructed property that is eligible for the additional first year depreciation deduction under this section, assuming all other requirements are met, must not include the unadjusted depreciable basis of any component that does not qualify for the additional first year depreciation deduction under this section. If the manufacture, construction, or production of a component begins before January 1, 2027, but the manufacture, construction, or production of the larger self-constructed property does not begin before January 1, 2027, the component qualifies for the additional first year depreciation deduction under this section, assuming all other requirements are met, but the larger self-constructed property does not.

(iv) Determination of acquisition date for property not acquired pursuant to a written binding contract. For purposes of the acquisition rules in paragraph (d)(1) of this section, the following property is acquired by the taxpayer before January 1, 2027, if the taxpayer paid, in the case of a cash basis taxpayer, or incurred, in the case of an accrual basis taxpayer, more than 10 percent of the total cost of the property before January 1, 2027, excluding the cost of any land and preliminary activities such as planning and designing, securing financing, exploring, or researching:

(A) Property that the taxpayer acquires pursuant to a contract that does not meet the definition of a written binding contract in paragraph (b)(5)(iii) of this section; or

(B) Property that is manufactured, constructed, or produced for the taxpayer by another person under a written contract that does not meet the definition of a binding contract in paragraph (b)(5)(iii) of this section, and that is entered into prior to the manufacture, construction, or production of the property for use by the taxpayer in its trade or business or production of income.

(4) Examples. The application of this paragraph (d) is illustrated by the following examples:

(A) Example 1.

(1) On June 1, 2016, NN decided to construct property described in section 168(k)(2)(B) for its own use. However, one of the component parts of the property had to be manufactured by another person for NN. On August 15, 2016, NN entered into a written binding contract with OO to acquire this component part of the property for $100,000. OO began manufacturing the component part on November 1, 2016, and delivered the completed component part to NN on September 1, 2017, at which time NN incurred $100,000 for the cost of the component. The cost of this component part is 9 percent of the total cost of the property to be constructed by NN. NN did not incur any other cost of the property to be constructed before NN began construction. NN began constructing the property described in section 168(k)(2)(B) on October 15, 2017, and placed in service this property, including all component parts, on November 1, 2020. NN uses the safe harbor test in paragraph (d)(3)(ii)(B) of this section to determine when physical work of a significant nature begins for the property described in section 168(k)(2)(B).

(2) Because the component part of $100,000 that was manufactured by OO for NN is not more than 10 percent of the total cost of the property described in section 168(k)(2)(B), physical work of a significant nature for the property described in section 168(k)(2)(B) did not begin before September 28, 2017.

(3) Pursuant to paragraphs (b)(5)(iv)(C)(2) and (d)(1) of this section, the self-constructed component part of $100,000 manufactured by OO for NN is not eligible for the 100-percent additional first year depreciation deduction because the manufacturing of such component part began before September 28, 2017. However, pursuant to paragraph (d)(3)(i) of this section, the cost of the property described in section 168(k)(2)(B), excluding the cost of the component part of $100,000 manufactured by OO for NN, is eligible for the 100-percent additional first year depreciation deduction, assuming all other requirements are met, because construction of the property began after September 27, 2017, and before January 1, 2027, and the property described in section 168(k)(2)(B) was placed in service by NN during 2020.

(B) Example 2.

(1) On June 1, 2026, PP decided to construct property described in section 168(k)(2)(B) for its own use. However, one of the component parts of the property had to be manufactured by another person for PP. On August 15, 2026, PP entered into a written binding contract with XP to acquire this component part of the property for $100,000. XP began manufacturing the component part on September 1, 2026, and delivered the completed component part to PP on February 1, 2027, at which time PP incurred $100,000 for the cost of the component. The cost of this component part is 9 percent of the total cost of the property to be constructed by PP. PP did not incur any other cost of the property to be constructed before PP began construction. PP began constructing the property described in section 168(k)(2)(B) on January 15, 2027, and placed this property, including all component parts, in service on November 1, 2027.

(2) Pursuant to paragraph (d)(3)(iii)(B) of this section, the self-constructed component part of $100,000 manufactured by XP for PP is eligible for the additional first year depreciation deduction under this section, assuming all other requirements are met, because the manufacturing of the component part began before January 1, 2027, and the property described in section 168(k)(2)(B), the larger self-constructed property, was placed in service by PP before January 1, 2028. However, pursuant to paragraph (d)(3)(i) of this section, the cost of the property described in section 168(k)(2)(B), excluding the cost of the self-constructed component part of $100,000 manufactured by XP for PP, is not eligible for the additional first year depreciation deduction under this section because construction of the property began after December 31, 2026.

(C) Example 3. On December 1, 2026, QQ entered into a written binding contract, as defined in paragraph (b)(5)(iii) of this section, with RR to manufacture an aircraft described in section 168(k)(2)(C) for use in QQ's trade or business. RR begins to manufacture the aircraft on February 1, 2027. QQ places the aircraft in service on August 1, 2027. Pursuant to paragraph (d)(3)(i) of this section, the aircraft meets the requirements of paragraph (d)(1) of this section because the aircraft was acquired by QQ pursuant to a written binding contract entered into before January 1, 2027. Further, the aircraft was placed in service by QQ before January 1, 2028. Thus, assuming all other requirements are met, QQ's cost of the aircraft is eligible for the additional first year depreciation deduction under this section.

(e) Computation of depreciation deduction for qualified property -

(1) Additional first year depreciation deduction -

(i) Allowable taxable year. The additional first year depreciation deduction is allowable -

(A) Except as provided in paragraph (e)(1)(i)(B) or (g) of this section, in the taxable year in which the qualified property is placed in service by the taxpayer for use in its trade or business or for the production of income; or

(B) In the taxable year in which the specified plant is planted, or grafted to a plant that has already been planted, by the taxpayer in the ordinary course of the taxpayer's farming business, as defined in section 263A(e)(4), if the taxpayer properly made the election to apply section 168(k)(5) (for further guidance, see paragraph (f) of this section).

(ii) Computation. Except as provided in paragraph (g)(5) of this section, the allowable additional first year depreciation deduction for qualified property is determined by multiplying the unadjusted depreciable basis, as defined in § 1.168(b)-1(a)(3), of the qualified property by the applicable percentage. Except as provided in paragraph (g)(1) of this section, the additional first year depreciation deduction is not affected by a taxable year of less than 12 months. See paragraph (g)(1) of this section for qualified property placed in service or planted or grafted, as applicable, and disposed of during the same taxable year. See paragraph (g)(5) of this section for qualified property acquired in a like-kind exchange or as a result of an involuntary conversion.

(iii) Property described in section 168(k)(2)(B). For purposes of paragraph (e)(1)(ii) of this section, the unadjusted depreciable basis, as defined in § 1.168(b)-1(a)(3), of qualified property described in section 168(k)(2)(B) is limited to the property's unadjusted depreciable basis attributable to the property's manufacture, construction, or production before January 1, 2027. The amounts of unadjusted depreciable basis attributable to the property's manufacture, construction, or production before January 1, 2027, are referred to as “progress expenditures.” Rules similar to the rules in section 4.02(1)(b) of Notice 2007-36 (2007-17 I.R.B. 1000) (see § 601.601(d)(2)(ii)(b) of this chapter) apply for determining progress expenditures, regardless of whether the property is manufactured, constructed, or produced for the taxpayer by another person under a written binding contract, as defined in paragraph (b)(5)(iii) of this section, or under a written contract that does not meet the definition of a binding contract in paragraph (b)(5)(iii) of this section. The IRS may publish procedural guidance in the Internal Revenue Bulletin (see § 601.601(d)(2)(ii)(b) of this chapter) that provides alternative procedures for complying with this paragraph (e)(1)(iii).

(iv) Alternative minimum tax -

(A) In general. The additional first year depreciation deduction is allowable for alternative minimum tax purposes -

(1) Except as provided in paragraph (e)(1)(iv)(A)(2) of this section, in the taxable year in which the qualified property is placed in service by the taxpayer; or

(2) In the taxable year in which a specified plant is planted by the taxpayer, or grafted by the taxpayer to a plant that was previously planted, if the taxpayer properly made the election to apply section 168(k)(5) (for further guidance, see paragraph (f) of this section).

(B) Special rules. In general, the additional first year depreciation deduction for alternative minimum tax purposes is based on the unadjusted depreciable basis of the property for alternative minimum tax purposes. However, see paragraph (g)(5)(iii)(E) of this section for qualified property acquired in a like-kind exchange or as a result of an involuntary conversion.

(2) Otherwise allowable depreciation deduction -

(i) In general. Before determining the amount otherwise allowable as a depreciation deduction for the qualified property for the placed-in-service year and any subsequent taxable year, the taxpayer must determine the remaining adjusted depreciable basis of the qualified property. This remaining adjusted depreciable basis is equal to the unadjusted depreciable basis, as defined in § 1.168(b)-1(a)(3), of the qualified property reduced by the amount of the additional first year depreciation allowed or allowable, whichever is greater. The remaining adjusted depreciable basis of the qualified property is then depreciated using the applicable depreciation provisions under the Internal Revenue Code for the qualified property. The remaining adjusted depreciable basis of the qualified property that is MACRS property is also the basis to which the annual depreciation rates in the optional depreciation tables apply (for further guidance, see section 8 of Rev. Proc. 87-57 (1987-2 C.B. 687) and § 601.601(d)(2)(ii)(b) of this chapter). The depreciation deduction allowable for the remaining adjusted depreciable basis of the qualified property is affected by a taxable year of less than 12 months.

(ii) Alternative minimum tax. For alternative minimum tax purposes, the depreciation deduction allowable for the remaining adjusted depreciable basis of the qualified property is based on the remaining adjusted depreciable basis for alternative minimum tax purposes. The remaining adjusted depreciable basis of the qualified property for alternative minimum tax purposes is depreciated using the same depreciation method, recovery period (or useful life in the case of computer software), and convention that apply to the qualified property for regular tax purposes.

(3) Examples. This paragraph (e) is illustrated by the following examples:

(i) Example 1. On March 1, 2023, SS, a calendar-year taxpayer, purchased and placed in service qualified property that costs $1 million and is 5-year property under section 168(e). SS depreciates its 5-year property placed in service in 2023 using the optional depreciation table that corresponds with the general depreciation system, the 200-percent declining balance method, a 5-year recovery period, and the half-year convention. For 2023, SS is allowed an 80-percent additional first year depreciation deduction of $800,000 (the unadjusted depreciable basis of $1 million multiplied by 0.80). Next, SS must reduce the unadjusted depreciable basis of $1 million by the additional first year depreciation deduction of $800,000 to determine the remaining adjusted depreciable basis of $200,000. Then, SS' depreciation deduction allowable in 2023 for the remaining adjusted depreciable basis of $200,000 is $40,000 (the remaining adjusted depreciable basis of $200,000 multiplied by the annual depreciation rate of 0.20 for recovery year 1).

(ii) Example 2. On June 1, 2023, TT, a calendar-year taxpayer, purchased and placed in service qualified property that costs $1,500,000. The property qualifies for the expensing election under section 179 and is 5-year property under section 168(e). TT did not purchase any other section 179 property in 2023. TT makes the election under section 179 for the property and depreciates its 5-year property placed in service in 2023 using the optional depreciation table that corresponds with the general depreciation system, the 200-percent declining balance method, a 5-year recovery period, and the half-year convention. Assume the maximum section 179 deduction for 2023 is $1,000,000. For 2023, TT is first allowed a $1,000,000 deduction under section 179. Next, TT must reduce the cost of $1,500,000 by the section 179 deduction of $1,000,000 to determine the unadjusted depreciable basis of $500,000. Then, for 2023, TT is allowed an 80-percent additional first year depreciation deduction of $400,000 (the unadjusted depreciable basis of $500,000 multiplied by 0.80). Next, TT must reduce the unadjusted depreciable basis of $500,000 by the additional first year depreciation deduction of $400,000 to determine the remaining adjusted depreciable basis of $100,000. Then, TT's depreciation deduction allowable in 2023 for the remaining adjusted depreciable basis of $100,000 is $20,000 (the remaining adjusted depreciable basis of $100,000 multiplied by the annual depreciation rate of 0.20 for recovery year 1).

(f) Elections under section 168(k) -

(1) Election not to deduct additional first year depreciation -

(i) In general. A taxpayer may make an election not to deduct the additional first year depreciation for any class of