26 CFR § 1.199A-4 - Aggregation.

§ 1.199A-4 Aggregation.

(a) Scope and purpose. An individual or RPE may be engaged in more than one trade or business. Except as provided in this section, each trade or business is a separate trade or business for purposes of applying the limitations described in § 1.199A-1(d)(2)(iv). This section sets forth rules to allow individuals and RPEs to aggregate trades or businesses, treating the aggregate as a single trade or business for purposes of applying the limitations described in § 1.199A-1(d)(2)(iv). Trades or businesses may be aggregated only to the extent provided in this section, but aggregation by taxpayers is not required.

(b) Aggregation rules -

(1) General rule. Trades or businesses may be aggregated only if an individual or RPE can demonstrate that -

(i) The same person or group of persons, directly or by attribution under sections 267(b) or 707(b), owns 50 percent or more of each trade or business to be aggregated, meaning in the case of such trades or businesses owned by an S corporation, 50 percent or more of the issued and outstanding shares of the corporation, or, in the case of such trades or businesses owned by a partnership, 50 percent or more of the capital or profits in the partnership;

(ii) The ownership described in paragraph (b)(1)(i) of this section exists for a majority of the taxable year, including the last day of the taxable year, in which the items attributable to each trade or business to be aggregated are included in income;

(iii) All of the items attributable to each trade or business to be aggregated are reported on returns with the same taxable year, not taking into account short taxable years;

(iv) None of the trades or businesses to be aggregated is a specified service trade or business (SSTB) as defined in § 1.199A-5; and

(v) The trades or businesses to be aggregated satisfy at least two of the following factors (based on all of the facts and circumstances):

(A) The trades or businesses provide products, property, or services that are the same or customarily offered together.

(B) The trades or businesses share facilities or share significant centralized business elements, such as personnel, accounting, legal, manufacturing, purchasing, human resources, or information technology resources.

(C) The trades or businesses are operated in coordination with, or reliance upon, one or more of the businesses in the aggregated group (for example, supply chain interdependencies).

(2) Operating rules -

(i) Individuals. An individual may aggregate trades or businesses operated directly or through an RPE to the extent an aggregation is not inconsistent with the aggregation of an RPE. If an individual aggregates multiple trades or businesses under paragraph (b)(1) of this section, QBI, W-2 wages, and UBIA of qualified property must be combined for the aggregated trades or businesses for purposes of applying the W-2 wage and UBIA of qualified property limitations described in § 1.199A-1(d)(2)(iv). An individual may not subtract from the trades or businesses aggregated by an RPE but may aggregate additional trades or businesses with the RPE's aggregation if the rules of this section are otherwise satisfied.

(ii) RPEs. An RPE may aggregate trades or businesses operated directly or through a lower-tier RPE to the extent an aggregation is not inconsistent with the aggregation of a lower-tier RPE. If an RPE itself does not aggregate, multiple owners of an RPE need not aggregate in the same manner. If an RPE aggregates multiple trades or businesses under paragraph (b)(1) of this section, the RPE must compute and report QBI, W-2 wages, and UBIA of qualified property for the aggregated trade or business under the rules described in § 1.199A-6(b). An RPE may not subtract from the trades or businesses aggregated by a lower-tier RPE but may aggregate additional trades or businesses with a lower-tier RPE's aggregation if the rules of this section are otherwise satisfied.

(c) Reporting and consistency requirements -

(1) Individuals. Once an individual chooses to aggregate two or more trades or businesses, the individual must consistently report the aggregated trades or businesses in all subsequent taxable years. A failure to aggregate will not be considered to be an aggregation for purposes of this rule. An individual that fails to aggregate may not aggregate trades or businesses on an amended return (other than an amended return for the 2018 taxable year). However, an individual may add a newly created or newly acquired (including through non-recognition transfers) trade or business to an existing aggregated trade or business (including the aggregated trade or business of an RPE) if the requirements of paragraph (b)(1) of this section are satisfied. In a subsequent year, if there is a significant change in facts and circumstances such that an individual's prior aggregation of trades or businesses no longer qualifies for aggregation under the rules of this section, then the trades or businesses will no longer be aggregated within the meaning of this section, and the individual must reapply the rules in paragraph (b)(1) of this section to determine a new permissible aggregation (if any). An individual also must report aggregated trades or businesses of an RPE in which the individual holds a direct or indirect interest.

(2) Individual disclosure -

(i) Required annual disclosure. For each taxable year, individuals must attach a statement to their returns identifying each trade or business aggregated under paragraph (b)(1) of this section. The statement must contain -

(A) A description of each trade or business;

(B) The name and EIN of each entity in which a trade or business is operated;

(C) Information identifying any trade or business that was formed, ceased operations, was acquired, or was disposed of during the taxable year;

(D) Information identifying any aggregated trade or business of an RPE in which the individual holds an ownership interest; and

(E) Such other information as the Commissioner may require in forms, instructions, or other published guidance.

(ii) Failure to disclose. If an individual fails to attach the statement required in paragraph (c)(2)(i) of this section, the Commissioner may disaggregate the individual's trades or businesses. The individual may not aggregate trades or businesses that are disaggregated by the Commissioner for the subsequent three taxable years.

(3) RPEs. Once an RPE chooses to aggregate two or more trades or businesses, the RPE must consistently report the aggregated trades or businesses in all subsequent taxable years. A failure to aggregate will not be considered to be an aggregation for purposes of this rule. An RPE that fails to aggregate may not aggregate trades or businesses on an amended return (other than an amended return for the 2018 taxable year). However, an RPE may add a newly created or newly acquired (including through non-recognition transfers) trade or business to an existing aggregated trade or business (including the aggregated trade or business of a lower-tier RPE) if the requirements of paragraph (b)(1) of this section are satisfied. In a subsequent year, if there is a significant change in facts and circumstances such that an RPE's prior aggregation of trades or businesses no longer qualifies for aggregation under the rules of this section, then the trades or businesses will no longer be aggregated within the meaning of this section, and the RPE must reapply the rules in paragraph (b)(1) of this section to determine a new permissible aggregation (if any). An RPE also must report aggregated trades or businesses of a lower-tier RPE in which the RPE holds a direct or indirect interest.

(4) RPE disclosure -

(i) Required annual disclosure. For each taxable year, RPEs (including each RPE in a tiered structure) must attach a statement to each owner's Schedule K-1 identifying each trade or business aggregated under paragraph (b)(1) of this section. The statement must contain -

(A) A description of each trade or business;

(B) The name and EIN of each entity in which a trade or business is operated;

(C) Information identifying any trade or business that was formed, ceased operations, was acquired, or was disposed of during the taxable year;

(D) Information identifying any aggregated trade or business of an RPE in which the RPE holds an ownership interest; and

(E) Such other information as the Commissioner may require in forms, instructions, or other published guidance.

(ii) Failure to disclose. If an RPE fails to attach the statement required in paragraph (c)(4)(i) of this section, the Commissioner may disaggregate the RPE's trades or businesses. The RPE may not aggregate trades or businesses that are disaggregated by the Commissioner for the subsequent three taxable years.

(d) Examples. The following examples illustrate the principles of this section. For purposes of these examples, assume the taxpayer is a United States citizen, all individuals and RPEs use a calendar taxable year, there are no ownership changes during the taxable year, all trades or businesses satisfy the requirements under section 162, all tax items are effectively connected to a trade or business within the United States within the meaning of section 864(c), and none of the trades or businesses is an SSTB within the meaning of § 1.199A-5. Except as otherwise specified, a single capital letter denotes an individual taxpayer.

(1) Example 1 -

(i) Facts. A wholly owns and operates a catering business and a restaurant through separate disregarded entities. The catering business and the restaurant share centralized purchasing to obtain volume discounts and a centralized accounting office that performs all of the bookkeeping, tracks and issues statements on all of the receivables, and prepares the payroll for each business. A maintains a website and print advertising materials that reference both the catering business and the restaurant. A uses the restaurant kitchen to prepare food for the catering business. The catering business employs its own staff and owns equipment and trucks that are not used or associated with the restaurant.

(ii) Analysis. Because the restaurant and catering business are held in disregarded entities, A will be treated as operating each of these businesses directly and thereby satisfies paragraph (b)(1)(i) of this section. Under paragraph (b)(1)(v) of this section, A satisfies the following factors: Paragraph (b)(1)(v)(A) of this section is met as both businesses offer prepared food to customers; and paragraph (b)(1)(v)(B) of this section is met because the two businesses share the same kitchen facilities in addition to centralized purchasing, marketing, and accounting. Having satisfied paragraphs (b)(1)(i) through (v) of this section, A may treat the catering business and the restaurant as a single trade or business for purposes of applying § 1.199A-1(d).

(2) Example 2 -

(i) Facts. Assume the same facts as in Example 1 of paragraph (d)(1) of this section, but the catering and restaurant businesses are owned in separate partnerships and A, B, C, and D each own a 25% interest in each of the two partnerships. A, B, C, and D are unrelated.

(ii) Analysis. Because under paragraph (b)(1)(i) of this section A, B, C, and D together own more than 50% of each of the two partnerships, they may each treat the catering business and the restaurant as a single trade or business for purposes of applying § 1.199A-1(d).

(3) Example 3 -

(i) Facts. W owns a 75% interest in S1, an S corporation, and a 75% interest in PRS, a partnership. S1 manufactures clothing and PRS is a retail pet food store. W manages S1 and PRS.

(ii) Analysis. W owns more than 50% of the stock of S1 and more than 50% of PRS thereby satisfying paragraph (b)(1)(i) of this section. Although W manages both S1 and PRS, W is not able to satisfy the requirements of paragraph (b)(1)(v) of this section as the two businesses do not provide goods or services that are the same or customarily offered together; there are no significant centralized business elements; and no facts indicate that the businesses are operated in coordination with, or reliance upon, one another. W must treat S1 and PRS as separate trades or businesses for purposes of applying § 1.199A-1(d).

(4) Example 4 -

(i) Facts. E owns a 60% interest in each of four partnerships (PRS1, PRS2, PRS3, and PRS4). Each partnership operates a hardware store. A team of executives oversees the operations of all four of the businesses and controls the policy decisions involving the business as a whole. Human resources and accounting are centralized for the four businesses. E reports PRS1, PRS3, and PRS4 as an aggregated trade or business under paragraph (b)(1) of this section and reports PRS2 as a separate trade or business. Only PRS2 generates a net taxable loss.

(ii) Analysis. E owns more than 50% of each partnership thereby satisfying paragraph (b)(1)(i) of this section. Under paragraph (b)(1)(v) of this section, the following factors are satisfied: Paragraph (b)(1)(v)(A) of this section because each partnership operates a hardware store; and paragraph (b)(1)(v)(B) of this section because the businesses share accounting and human resource functions. E's decision to aggregate only PRS1, PRS3, and PRS4 into a single trade or business for purposes of applying § 1.199A-1(d) is permissible. The loss from PRS2 will be netted against the aggregate profits of PRS1, PRS3, and PRS4 pursuant to § 1.199A-1(d)(2)(iii).

(5) Example 5 -

(i) Facts. Assume the same facts as Example 4 of paragraph (d)(4) of this section, and that F owns a 10% interest in PRS1, PRS2, PRS3, and PRS4.

(ii) Analysis. Because under paragraph (b)(1)(i) of this section E owns more than 50% of the four partnerships, F may aggregate PRS 1, PRS2, PRS3, and PRS4 as a single trade or business for purposes of applying § 1.199A-1(d), provided that F can demonstrate that the ownership test is met by E.

(6) Example 6 -

(i) Facts. D owns 75% of the stock of S1, S2, and S3, each of which is an S corporation. Each S corporation operates a grocery store in a separate state. S1 and S2 share centralized purchasing functions to obtain volume discounts and a centralized accounting office that performs all of the bookkeeping, tracks and issues statements on all of the receivables, and prepares the payroll for each business. S3 is operated independently from the other businesses.

(ii) Analysis. D owns more than 50% of the stock of each S corporation thereby satisfying paragraph (b)(1)(i) of this section. Under paragraph (b)(1)(v) of this section, the grocery stores satisfy paragraph (b)(1)(v)(A) of this section because they are in the same trade or business. Only S1 and S2 satisfy paragraph (b)(1)(v)(B) of this section because of their centralized purchasing and accounting offices. D is only able to show that the requirements of paragraph (b)(1)(v)(B) of this section are satisfied for S1 and S2; therefore, D only may aggregate S1 and S2 into a single trade or business for purposes of § 1.199A-1(d). D must report S3 as a separate trade or business for purposes of applying § 1.199A-1(d).

(7) Example 7 -

(i) Facts. Assume the same facts as Example 6 of paragraph (d)(6) of this section except each store is independently operated and S1 and S2 do not have centralized purchasing or accounting functions.

(ii) Analysis. Although the stores provide the same products and services within the meaning of paragraph (b)(1)(v)(A) of this section, D cannot show that another factor under paragraph (b)(1)(v) of this section is present. Therefore, D must report S1, S2, and S3 as separate trades or businesses for purposes of applying § 1.199A-1(d).

(8) Example 8 -

(i) Facts. G owns 80% of the stock in S1, an S corporation and 80% of LLC1 and LLC2, each of which is a partnership for Federal tax purposes. LLC1 manufactures and supplies all of the widgets sold by LLC2. LLC2 operates a retail store that sells LLC1's widgets. S1 owns the real property leased to LLC1 and LLC2 for use by the factory and retail store. The entities share common advertising and management.

(ii) Analysis. G owns more than 50% of the stock of S1 and more than 50% of LLC1 and LLC2 thus satisfying paragraph (b)(1)(i) of this section. LLC1, LLC2, and S1 share significant centralized business elements and are operated in coordination with, or in reliance upon, one or more of the businesses in the aggregated group. G can treat the business operations of LLC1 and LLC2 as a single trade or business for purposes of applying § 1.199A-1(d). S1 is eligible to be included in the aggregated group because it leases property to a trade or business within the aggregated trade or business as described in § 1.199A-1(b)(14) and meets the requirements of paragraph (b)(1) of this section.

(9) Example 9 -

(i) Facts. Same facts as Example 8 of paragraph (d)(8) of this section, except G owns 80% of the stock in S1 and 20% of each of LLC1 and LLC2. B, G's son, owns a majority interest in LLC2, and M, G's mother, owns a majority interest in LLC1. B does not own an interest in S1 or LLC1, and M does not own an interest in S1 or LLC2.

(ii) Analysis. Under the rules in paragraph (b)(1) of this section, B and M's interest in LLC2 and LLC1, respectively, are attributable to G and G is treated as owning a majority interest in LLC2 and LLC1; G thus satisfies paragraph (b)(1)(i) of this section. G may aggregate his interests in LLC1, LLC2, and S1 as a single trade or business for purposes of applying § 1.199A-1(d). Under paragraph (b)(1) of this section, S1 is eligible to be included in the aggregated group because it leases property to a trade or business within the aggregated trade or business as described in § 1.199A-1(b)(14) and meets the requirements of paragraph (b)(1) of this section.

(10) Example 10 -

(i) Facts. F owns a 75% interest and G owns a 5% interest in five partnerships (PRS1-PRS5). H owns a 10% interest in PRS1 and PRS2. Each partnership operates a restaurant and each restaurant separately constitutes a trade or business for purposes of section 162. G is the executive chef of all of the restaurants and as such he creates the menus and orders the food supplies.

(ii) Analysis. F owns more than 50% of the partnerships thereby satisfying paragraph (b)(1)(i) of this section. Under paragraph (b)(1)(v) of this section, the restaurants satisfy paragraph (b)(1)(v)(A) of this section because they are in the same trade or business, and paragraph (b)(1)(v)(B) of this section is satisfied as G is the executive chef of all of the restaurants and the businesses share a centralized function for ordering food and supplies. F can show the requirements under paragraph (b)(1) of this section are satisfied as to all of the restaurants. Because F owns a majority interest in each of the partnerships, G can demonstrate that paragraph (b)(1)(i) of this section is satisfied. G can also aggregate all five restaurants into a single trade or business for purposes of applying § 1.199A-1(d). H, however, only owns an interest in PRS1 and PRS2. Like G, H satisfies paragraph (b)(1)(i) of this section because F owns a majority interest. H can, therefore, aggregate PRS1 and PRS2 into a single trade or business for purposes of applying § 1.199A-1(d).

(11) Example 11 -

(i) Facts. H, J, K, and L own interests in PRS1 and PRS2, each a partnership, and S1 and S2, each an S corporation. H, J, K, and L also own interests in C, an entity taxable as a C corporation. H owns 30%, J owns 20%, K owns 5%, and L owns 45% of each of the five entities. All of the entities satisfy 2 of the 3 factors under paragraph (b)(1)(v) of this section. For purposes of section 199A the taxpayers report the following aggregated trades or businesses: H aggregates PRS1 and S1 together and aggregates PRS2 and S2 together; J aggregates PRS1, S1 and S2 together and reports PRS2 separately; K aggregates PRS1 and PRS2 together and aggregates S1 and S2 together; and L aggregates S1, S2, and PRS2 together and reports PRS1 separately. C cannot be aggregated.

(ii) Analysis. Under paragraph (b)(1)(i) of this section, because H, J, and K together own a majority interest in PRS1, PRS2, S1, and S2, H, J, K, and L are permitted to aggregate under paragraph (b)(1) of this section. Further, the aggregations reported by the taxpayers are permitted, but not required for each of H, J, K, and L. C's income is not eligible for the section 199A deduction and it cannot be aggregated for purposes of applying § 1.199A-1(d).

(12) Example 12 -

(i) Facts. L owns 60% of PRS1, a partnership, a business that sells non-food items to grocery stores. L also owns 55% of PRS2, a partnership, which owns and operates a distribution trucking business. The predominant portion of PRS2's business is transporting goods for PRS1.

(ii) Analysis. L is able to meet paragraph (b)(1)(i) of this section as the majority owner of PRS1 and PRS2. Under paragraph (b)(1)(v) of this section, L is only able to show the operations of PRS1 and PRS2 are operated in reliance of one another under paragraph (b)(1)(v)(C) of this section. For purposes of applying § 1.199A-1(d), L must treat PRS1 and PRS2 as separate trades or businesses.

(13) Example 13 -

(i) Facts. C owns a majority interest in a sailboat racing team and also owns an interest in PRS1 which operates a marina. PRS1 is a trade or business under section 162, but the sailboat racing team is not a trade or business within the meaning of section 162.

(ii) Analysis. C has only one trade or business for purposes of section 199A and, therefore, cannot aggregate the interest in the racing team with PRS1 under paragraph (b)(1) of this section.

(14) Example 14 -

(i) Facts. Trust wholly owns LLC1, LLC2, and LLC3. LLC1 operates a trucking company that delivers lumber and other supplies sold by LLC2. LLC2 operates a lumber yard and supplies LLC3 with building materials. LLC3 operates a construction business. LLC1, LLC2, and LLC3 have a centralized human resources department, payroll, and accounting department.

(ii) Analysis. Because Trust owns 100% of the interests in LLC1, LLC2, and LLC3, Trust satisfies paragraph (b)(1)(i) of this section. Trust can also show that it satisfies paragraph (b)(1)(v)(B) of this section as the trades or businesses have a centralized human resources department, payroll, and accounting department. Trust also can show is meets paragraph (b)(1)(v)(C) of this section as the trades or businesses are operated in coordination, or reliance upon, one or more in the aggregated group. Trust can aggregate LLC1, LLC2, and LLC3 for purposes of applying § 1.199A-1(d).

(15) Example 15 -

(i) Facts. PRS1, a partnership, directly operates a food service trade or business and owns 60% of PRS2, which directly operates a movie theater trade or business and a food service trade or business. PRS2's movie theater and food service businesses operate in coordination with, or reliance upon, one another and share a centralized human resources department, payroll, and accounting department. PRS1's and PRS2's food service businesses provide products and services that are the same and share centralized purchasing and shipping to obtain volume discounts.

(ii) Analysis. PRS2 may aggregate its movie theater and food service businesses. Paragraph (b)(1)(v) of this section is satisfied because the businesses operate in coordination with one another and share centralized business elements. If PRS2 does aggregate the two businesses, PRS1 may not aggregate its food service business with PRS2's aggregated trades or businesses. Because PRS1 owns more than 50% of PRS2, thereby satisfying paragraph (b)(1)(i) of this section, PRS1 may aggregate its food service businesses with PRS2's food service business if PRS2 has not aggregated its movie theater and food service businesses. Paragraph (b)(1)(v) of this section is satisfied because the businesses provide the same products and services and share centralized business elements. Under either alternative, PRS1's food service business and PRS2's movie theater cannot be aggregated because there are no factors in paragraph (b)(1)(v) of this section present between the businesses.

(16) Example 16 -

(i) Facts. PRS1, a partnership, owns 60% of a commercial rental office building in state A, and 80% of a commercial rental office building in state B. Both commercial rental office building operations share centralized accounting, legal, and human resource functions. PRS1 treats the two commercial rental office buildings as an aggregated trade or business under paragraph (b)(1) of this section.

(ii) Analysis. PRS1 owns more than 50% of each trade or business thereby satisfying paragraph (b)(1)(i) of this section. Under paragraph (b)(1)(v) of this section, PRS1 may aggregate its commercial rental office buildings because the businesses provide the same type of property and share accounting, legal, and human resource functions.

(17) Example 17 -

(i) Facts. S, an S corporation owns 100% of the interests in a residential condominium building and 100% of the interests in a commercial rental office building. Both building operations share centralized accounting, legal, and human resource functions.

(ii) Analysis. S owns more than 50% of each trade or business thereby satisfying paragraph (b)(1)(i) of this section. Although both businesses share significant centralized business elements, S cannot show that another factor under paragraph (b)(1)(v) of this section is present because the two building operations are not of the same type of property. S must treat the residential condominium building and the commercial rental office building as separate trades or businesses for purposes of applying § 1.199A-1(d).

(18) Example 18 -

(i) Facts. M owns 75% of a residential apartment building. M also owns 80% of PRS2. PRS2 owns 80% of the interests in a residential condominium building and 80% of the interests in a residential apartment building. PRS2's residential condominium building and residential apartment building operations share centralized back office functions and management. M's residential apartment building and PRS2's residential condominium and apartment building operate in coordination with each other in renting apartments to tenants.

(ii) Analysis. PRS2 may aggregate its residential condominium and residential apartment building operations. PRS2 owns more than 50% of each trade or business thereby satisfying paragraph (b)(1)(i) of this section. Paragraph (b)(1)(v) of this section is satisfied because the businesses are of the same type of property and share centralized back office functions and management. M may also add its residential apartment building operations to PRS2's aggregated residential condominium and apartment building operations. M owns more than 50% of each trade or business thereby satisfying paragraph (b)(1)(i) of this section. Paragraph (b)(1)(v) of this section is also satisfied because the businesses operate in coordination with each other.

(e) Applicability date -

(1) General rule. Except as provided in paragraph (e)(2) of this section, the provisions of this section apply to taxable years ending after February 8, 2019.

(2) Exception for non-calendar year RPE. For purposes of determining QBI, W-2 wages, and UBIA of qualified property, and the aggregate amount of qualified REIT dividends and qualified PTP income, if an individual receives any of these items from an RPE with a taxable year that begins before January 1, 2018, and ends after December 31, 2017, such items are treated as having been incurred by the individual during the individual's taxable year in which or with which such RPE taxable year ends.

[T.D. 9847, 84 FR 3002, Feb. 8, 2019, as amended by T.D. 9847, 84 FR 15955, Apr. 17, 2019]