26 CFR § 1.355-8 - Definition of predecessor and successor and limitations on gain recognition under section 355(e) and section 355(f).

§ 1.355-8 Definition of predecessor and successor and limitations on gain recognition under section 355(e) and section 355(f).

(a) In general -

(1) Scope. For purposes of section 355(e), this section provides rules under section 355(e)(4)(D) to determine whether a corporation is treated as a predecessor or successor of a distributing corporation (Distributing) or a controlled corporation (Controlled) with respect to a distribution by Distributing of stock (or stock and securities) of Controlled that qualifies under section 355(a) (or so much of section 356 as relates to section 355) (Distribution). This section also provides rules limiting the amount of Distributing's gain recognized under section 355(e) on a Distribution if section 355(e) applies to an acquisition by one or more persons, as part of a Plan, of stock that in the aggregate represents a 50-percent or greater interest (Planned 50-percent Acquisition) of a Predecessor of Distributing, or a Planned 50-percent Acquisition of Distributing. In addition, this section provides rules regarding the application of section 336(e) to a Distribution to which this section applies. This section also provides rules regarding the application of section 355(f) to a Distribution in certain cases.

(2) Overview -

(i) Purposes and conceptual overview. Paragraph (a)(3) of this section summarizes the two principal purposes of this section and sets forth a brief conceptual overview of the scenarios in which a corporation may be a Predecessor of Distributing.

(ii) References to and definitions of terms used in this section. Paragraph (a)(4) of this section provides rules regarding references to the terms Distributing, Controlled,Distribution, Plan, and Plan Period for purposes of section 355(e), § 1.355-7, and this section. Paragraph (a)(5) of this section lists the terms used in this section and indicates where each term is defined. Paragraph (b) of this section defines the term Predecessor of Distributing and several related terms. Paragraph (c) of this section defines the terms Predecessor of Controlled, Successor (of Distributing or Controlled), and Section 381 Transaction.

(iii) Special rules and examples. Paragraph (d) of this section provides guidance with regard to acquisitions and deemed acquisitions of stock if there is a Predecessor of Distributing or a Successor of either Distributing or Controlled. Paragraph (e) of this section provides two rules that may limit the amount of Distributing's gain on a Distribution if there is a Predecessor of Distributing, as well as an overall gain limitation. Paragraph (e) of this section also provides guidance with respect to the application of section 336(e). Regardless of whether there is a Predecessor of Distributing, Predecessor of Controlled, or Successor of either Distributing or Controlled, paragraph (f) of this section provides a special rule relating to section 355(e)(2)(C), which provides that section 355(e) does not apply to certain transactions within an Expanded Affiliated Group. Paragraph (g) of this section provides rules coordinating the application of section 355(f) with the rules of this section. Paragraph (h) of this section contains examples that illustrate the rules of this section.

(3) Purposes of section; Predecessor of Distributing overview -

(i) Purposes. The rules in this section have two principal purposes. The first is to ensure that section 355(e) applies to a Distribution if, as part of a Plan, some of the assets of a Predecessor of Distributing are transferred directly or indirectly to Controlled without full recognition of gain, and the Distribution accomplishes a division of the assets of the Predecessor of Distributing. The second is to ensure that section 355(e) applies when there is a Planned 50-percent Acquisition of a Successor of Distributing or Successor of Controlled. The rules of this section must be interpreted and applied in a manner that is consistent with and reasonably carries out the purposes of this section.

(ii) Predecessor of Distributing overview. The term Predecessor of Distributing is defined in paragraph (b) of this section. Only a Potential Predecessor can be a Predecessor of Distributing. See paragraph (b)(1)(i) of this section. A Potential Predecessor can be a Predecessor of Distributing only if, as part of a Plan, the Distribution accomplishes a division of the assets of the Potential Predecessor. See paragraph (b)(1)(iii) of this section. Accordingly, in the absence of that Plan, a Predecessor of Distributing cannot exist for purposes of section 355(e). The detailed rules set forth in paragraph (b) of this section provide that a Potential Predecessor the assets of which are divided as part of a Plan may be a Predecessor of Distributing in either of the following two scenarios:

(A) Relevant Property transferred to Controlled. As part of the Plan, one or more of the Potential Predecessor's assets were transferred to Controlled in one or more tax-deferred transactions prior to the Distribution.

(B) Relevant Property includes Controlled Stock. The Potential Predecessor's assets included Controlled stock that, as part of the Plan, was transferred to Distributing in one or more tax-deferred transactions prior to the Distribution.

(4) References -

(i) References to Distributing or Controlled. For purposes of section 355(e), except as otherwise provided in this section, any reference to Distributing or Controlled includes, as the context may require, a reference to any Predecessor of Distributing or any Predecessor of Controlled, respectively, or any Successor of Distributing or Controlled, respectively. However, except as otherwise provided in this section, a reference to a Predecessor of Distributing or to a Successor of Distributing does not include a reference to Distributing, and a reference to a Predecessor of Controlled or to a Successor of Controlled does not include a reference to Controlled.

(ii) References to Plan or Distribution. Except as otherwise provided in this section, references to a Plan in this section are references to a plan within the meaning of § 1.355-7. References to a distribution in § 1.355-7 include a reference to a Distribution and other related pre-Distribution transactions that together effect a division of the assets of a Predecessor of Distributing. In determining whether a Distribution and a Planned 50-percent Acquisition of a Predecessor of Distributing, Distributing (including any Successor thereof), or Controlled (including any Successor thereof) are part of a Plan, the rules of § 1.355-7 apply. In applying those rules, references to Distributing or Controlled in § 1.355-7 generally include references to any Predecessor of Distributing and any Successor of Distributing, or any Successor of Controlled, as appropriate. However, with regard to any possible Planned 50-percent Acquisition of a Predecessor of Distributing, any agreement, understanding, arrangement, or substantial negotiations with regard to the acquisition of the stock of the Predecessor of Distributing is analyzed under § 1.355-7 with regard to the actions of officers or directors of Distributing or Controlled, controlling shareholders (as defined in § 1.355-7(h)(3)) of Distributing or Controlled, or a person acting with permission of one of those parties. For purposes of the preceding sentence, references in § 1.355-7 to Distributing do not include references to a Predecessor of Distributing. Therefore, the actions of officers, directors, or controlling shareholders of a Predecessor of Distributing, or of a person acting with the implicit or explicit permission of one of those parties, are not considered unless those parties otherwise would be treated as acting on behalf of Distributing or Controlled under § 1.355-7 (for example, if a Predecessor of Distributing is a controlling shareholder of Distributing).

(iii) Plan Period. For purposes of this section, the term Plan Period means the period that ends immediately after the Distribution and begins on the earliest date on which any pre-Distribution step that is part of the Plan is agreed to or understood, arranged, or substantially negotiated by one or more officers or directors acting on behalf of Distributing or Controlled, by controlling shareholders of Distributing or Controlled, or by another person or persons with the implicit or explicit permission of one or more of such officers, directors, or controlling shareholders. For purposes of the preceding sentence, references to Distributing and Controlled do not include references to any Predecessor of Distributing, Predecessor of Controlled, or Successor of Distributing or Controlled.

(5) List of definitions. This section uses the following terms, which are defined where indicated -

(i) Acquiring Owner. Paragraph (d)(1)(i) of this section.

(ii) Controlled. Paragraph (a)(1) of this section.

(iii) Distributing. Paragraph (a)(1) of this section.

(iv) Distributing Gain Limitation Rule. Paragraph (e)(1)(ii) of this section.

(v) Distribution. Paragraph (a)(1) of this section.

(vi) Division of Relevant Property Requirement. Paragraph (b)(1)(iii) of this section.

(vii) Expanded Affiliated Group. Paragraph (b)(2)(ii)(B) of this section.

(viii) Hypothetical Controlled. Paragraph (e)(2)(i) of this section.

(ix) Hypothetical D/355(e) Reorganization. Paragraph (e)(2)(i) of this section.

(x) Plan. Paragraph (a)(4)(ii) of this section.

(xi) Plan Period. Paragraph (a)(4)(iii) of this section.

(xii) Planned 50-percent Acquisition. Paragraph (a)(1) of this section.

(xiii) POD Gain Limitation Rule. Paragraph (e)(1)(ii) of this section.

(xiv) Potential Predecessor. Paragraph (b)(2)(ii)(A) of this section.

(xv) Predecessor of Controlled. Paragraph (c)(1) of this section.

(xvi) Predecessor of Distributing. Paragraph (b)(1) of this section.

(xvii) Reflection of Basis Requirement. Paragraph (b)(1)(ii)(B) of this section.

(xviii) Relevant Equity. Paragraph (b)(2)(iv)(A) of this section.

(xix) Relevant Property. Paragraph (b)(2)(iv)(A) of this section.

(xx) Relevant Property Requirement. Paragraph (b)(1)(ii)(A) of this section.

(xxi) Section 381 Transaction. Paragraph (c)(3) of this section.

(xxii) Separated Property. Paragraph (b)(2)(vii) of this section.

(xxiii) Statutory Recognition Amount. Paragraph (e)(1)(i) of this section.

(xxiv) Substitute Asset. Paragraph (b)(2)(vi)(A) of this section.

(xxv) Successor. Paragraph (c)(2)(i) of this section.

(xxvi) Successor Transaction. Paragraph (c)(2)(i) of this section.

(xxvii) Underlying Property. Paragraph (b)(2)(viii) of this section.

(b) Predecessor of Distributing -

(1) Definition -

(i) In general. For purposes of section 355(e), a Potential Predecessor is a predecessor of Distributing (Predecessor of Distributing) if, taking into account the special rules of paragraph (b)(2) of this section -

(A) Both pre-Distribution requirements of paragraph (b)(1)(ii) of this section are satisfied; and

(B) The post-Distribution requirement of paragraph (b)(1)(iii) of this section is satisfied.

(ii) Pre-Distribution requirements -

(A) Relevant Property requirement. The requirement set forth in this paragraph (b)(1)(ii)(A) (Relevant Property Requirement) is satisfied if, before the Distribution, and as part of a Plan, either -

(1) Any Controlled stock distributed in the Distribution was directly or indirectly acquired (or deemed acquired under the rules set forth in paragraph (b)(2)(x) of this section) by Distributing in exchange for any direct or indirect interest in Relevant Property -

(i) That is held directly or indirectly by Controlled immediately before the Distribution; and

(ii) The gain on which (if any) was not recognized in full at any point during the Plan Period; or

(2) Any Controlled stock that is distributed in the Distribution is Relevant Property of the Potential Predecessor.

(B) Reflection of basis requirement. The requirement set forth in this paragraph (b)(1)(ii)(B) (Reflection of Basis Requirement) is satisfied if any Controlled stock that satisfies the Relevant Property Requirement -

(1) Either -

(i) Had a basis prior to the Distribution that was determined in whole or in part by reference to the basis of any Separated Property; or

(ii) Is Relevant Property of the Potential Predecessor; and

(2) During the Plan Period prior to the Distribution, was neither distributed in a distribution to which section 355(e) applied nor transferred in a transaction in which the gain (if any) on that Controlled stock was recognized in full.

(iii) Post-Distribution requirement. The requirement set forth in this paragraph (b)(1)(iii) (Division of Relevant Property Requirement) is satisfied if, immediately after the Distribution, and as part of a Plan, direct or indirect ownership of the Potential Predecessor's Relevant Property has been divided between Controlled on the one hand, and Distributing or the Potential Predecessor (or a successor to the Potential Predecessor) on the other hand. For purposes of this paragraph (b)(1)(iii), if Controlled stock that is distributed in the Distribution is Relevant Property of a Potential Predecessor, then Controlled is deemed to have received Relevant Property of the Potential Predecessor.

(2) Additional definitions and rules related to paragraph (b)(1) of this section -

(i) References to Distributing and Controlled. For purposes of the Relevant Property Requirement, the Reflection of Basis Requirement, and the Division of Relevant Property Requirement, references to Distributing and Controlled do not include references to any Predecessor of Distributing, Predecessor of Controlled, or Successor of Distributing or Controlled.

(ii) Potential Predecessor -

(A) Potential Predecessor definition. The term Potential Predecessor means a corporation, other than Distributing or Controlled, if -

(1) As part of a Plan, the corporation transfers property to a Potential Predecessor, Distributing, or a member of the same Expanded Affiliated Group as Distributing in a Section 381 Transaction; or

(2) Immediately after completion of the Plan, the corporation is a member of the same Expanded Affiliated Group as Distributing.

(B) Expanded Affiliated Group definition. The term Expanded Affiliated Group means an affiliated group (as defined in section 1504 without regard to section 1504(b)).

(iii) Successors of Potential Predecessors. For purposes of the Division of Relevant Property Requirement, if a Potential Predecessor transfers property in a Section 381 Transaction to a corporation (other than Distributing or Controlled) during the Plan Period, the corporation is a successor to the Potential Predecessor.

(iv) Relevant Property; Relevant Equity -

(A) In general. Except as otherwise provided in this paragraph (b)(2)(iv) or in paragraph (b)(2)(v) of this section, the term Relevant Property means any property that was held, directly or indirectly, by the Potential Predecessor during the Plan Period. The term Relevant Equity means Relevant Property that is an equity interest in a corporation or a partnership.

(B) Property held by Distributing. Except as provided in paragraph (b)(2)(iv)(C) of this section, property held directly or indirectly by Distributing (including Controlled stock) is Relevant Property of a Potential Predecessor only to the extent that the property was transferred directly or indirectly to Distributing during the Plan Period, and it was Relevant Property of the Potential Predecessor before the direct or indirect transfer(s). For example, if during the Plan Period a subsidiary corporation of a Potential Predecessor merges into Controlled in a reorganization under section 368(a)(1)(A) and (2)(D), and, as a result, the Potential Predecessor directly or indirectly owns Distributing stock received in the merger, the subsidiary's assets held by Controlled are Relevant Property of that Potential Predecessor.

(C) F reorganizations. For purposes of paragraph (b)(2)(iv)(B) of this section, the transferor and transferee in any reorganization described in section 368(a)(1)(F) (F reorganization) are treated as a single corporation. Therefore, for example, Relevant Property acquired during the Plan Period by a corporation that is a transferor (as to a later F reorganization) is treated as having been acquired directly (and from the same source) by the transferee (as to the later F reorganization) during the Plan Period. In addition, any transfer (or deemed transfer) of assets to Distributing in an F reorganization will not cause the transferred assets to be treated as Relevant Property.

(v) Stock of Distributing as Relevant Property -

(A) In general. For purposes of the Division of Relevant Property Requirement, except as provided in paragraph (b)(2)(v)(B) of this section, stock of Distributing is not Relevant Property (and thus is not Relevant Equity) to the extent that the Potential Predecessor becomes, as part of a Plan, the direct or indirect owner of that stock as the result of the transfer to Distributing of direct or indirect interests in the Potential Predecessor's Relevant Property. For example, stock of Distributing is not Relevant Property if it is acquired by a Potential Predecessor as part of a Plan in an exchange to which section 351(a) applies.

(B) Certain reorganizations. For purposes of the Division of Relevant Property Requirement, stock of Distributing is Relevant Property (and thus Relevant Equity) to the extent that the Potential Predecessor becomes, as part of the Plan, the direct or indirect owner of that stock as the result of a transaction described in section 368(a)(1)(E).

(vi) Substitute Asset -

(A) In general. Subject to paragraph (b)(2)(vi)(B) of this section, the term Substitute Asset means any property that is held directly or indirectly by Distributing during the Plan Period and was received, during the Plan Period, in exchange for Relevant Property that was acquired directly or indirectly by Distributing if all gain on the transferred Relevant Property is not recognized on the exchange. For example, property received by Controlled in exchange for Relevant Property in a transaction qualifying under section 1031 is a Substitute Asset. In addition, stock received by Distributing in a distribution qualifying under section 305(a) or section 355(a) on Relevant Equity is a Substitute Asset.

(B) Controlled stock received by Distributing -

(1) In general. Except as provided in paragraph (b)(2)(vi)(B)(2) of this section, stock of Controlled received in exchange for a direct or indirect transfer of Relevant Property by Distributing is not a Substitute Asset.

(2) Exception. If the basis in Controlled stock received or deemed received in an exchange described in paragraph (b)(2)(vi)(B)(1) of this section is determined in whole or in part by reference to the basis of Relevant Equity the issuer of which ceases to exist for Federal income tax purposes under the Plan, that Controlled stock constitutes a Substitute Asset. See paragraph (b)(2)(x) of this section.

(C) Treatment as Relevant Property. For purposes of this section, a Substitute Asset is treated as Relevant Property with the same ownership and transfer history as the Relevant Property for which (or with respect to which) it was received.

(vii) Separated Property. The term Separated Property means each item of Relevant Property that is described in the Relevant Property Requirement (regardless of whether the fair market value of the Relevant Property exceeds its adjusted basis). However, if Relevant Equity is Separated Property, Underlying Property associated with that Relevant Equity is not treated as Separated Property. In addition, if Distributing directly or indirectly acquires Relevant Equity in a transaction in which gain is recognized in full, Underlying Property associated with that Relevant Equity is not treated as Separated Property.

(viii) Underlying Property. The term Underlying Property means property directly or indirectly held by a corporation or partnership any equity interest in which is Relevant Equity.

(ix) Multiple Predecessors of Distributing. If there are multiple Potential Predecessors that satisfy the pre-Distribution requirements and post-Distribution requirement of paragraph (b)(1) of this section, each of those Potential Predecessors is a Predecessor of Distributing. For example, a Potential Predecessor that transfers property to a Predecessor of Distributing without full recognition of gain (and that otherwise meets the requirements of paragraph (b)(1) of this section) is also a Predecessor of Distributing if the applicable transfer occurred as part of a Plan that existed at the time of such transfer.

(x) Deemed exchanges. For purposes of paragraph (b)(1)(ii) of this section (regarding the Relevant Property Requirement and the Reflection of Basis Requirement) and paragraph (b)(2)(vi) of this section (regarding Substitute Assets), Distributing is treated as acquiring Controlled stock in exchange for a direct or indirect interest in Relevant Property if the basis of Distributing in that Controlled stock, immediately after a transfer of the Relevant Property, is determined in whole or in part by reference to the basis of that Relevant Property immediately before the transfer. For example, if a corporation transfers Relevant Property to Controlled in exchange for Distributing stock in a transaction that qualifies as a reorganization under section 368(a)(1)(C), then, for purposes of paragraphs (b)(1)(ii) and (b)(2)(vi) of this section, Distributing is treated as acquiring Controlled stock in exchange for a direct or indirect interest in Relevant Property. See § 1.358-6(c)(1).

(c) Additional definitions -

(1) Predecessor of Controlled. Solely for purposes of applying paragraph (f) of this section, a corporation is a predecessor of Controlled (Predecessor of Controlled) if, before the Distribution, it transfers property to Controlled in a Section 381 Transaction as part of a Plan. Other than for the purpose described in the preceding sentence, no corporation can be a Predecessor of Controlled. If multiple corporations satisfy the requirements of this paragraph (c)(1), each of those corporations is a Predecessor of Controlled. For example, a corporation that transfers property to a Predecessor of Controlled in a Section 381 Transaction is also a Predecessor of Controlled if the Section 381 Transaction occurred as part of a Plan that existed at the time of such transaction.

(2) Successors -

(i) In general. For purposes of section 355(e), a successor (Successor) of Distributing or of Controlled is a corporation to which Distributing or Controlled, respectively, transfers property in a Section 381 Transaction after the Distribution (Successor Transaction).

(ii) Determination of Successor status. More than one corporation may be a Successor of Distributing or Controlled. For example, if Distributing transfers property to another corporation (X) in a Section 381 Transaction, and X transfers property to another corporation (Y) in a Section 381 Transaction, then each of X and Y is a Successor of Distributing. In this case, the determination of whether Y is a Successor of Distributing is made after the determination of whether X is a Successor of Distributing.

(3) Section 381 Transaction. The term Section 381 Transaction means a transaction to which section 381 applies.

(d) Special acquisition rules -

(1) Deemed acquisitions of stock in Section 381 Transactions -

(i) Rule. This paragraph (d)(1)(i) applies to each shareholder of the acquiring corporation immediately before a Section 381 Transaction (Acquiring Owner). Each Acquiring Owner is treated for purposes of this section as acquiring, in the Section 381 Transaction, stock representing an interest in the distributor or transferor corporation, to the extent that the Acquiring Owner's interest in the acquiring corporation immediately after the Section 381 Transaction exceeds the Acquiring Owner's direct or indirect interest in the distributor or transferor corporation immediately before the Section 381 Transaction.

(ii) Example. The example set forth in this paragraph (d)(1)(ii) illustrates the application of the deemed acquisition rule in paragraph (d)(1)(i) of this section. Assume that A held all of the stock of Distributing, Distributing held a 25-percent interest in a Predecessor of Distributing, and A held no direct interest, or other indirect interest, in the Predecessor of Distributing immediately before a Section 381 Transaction in which the Predecessor of Distributing transfers its assets to Distributing. In the Section 381 Transaction, the Predecessor of Distributing's shareholders (other than Distributing) collectively receive a 10-percent interest in Distributing (reducing A's interest in Distributing to 90 percent). Under paragraph (d)(1)(i) of this section, A is treated as acquiring in the Section 381 Transaction stock representing a 65-percent interest in the Predecessor of Distributing. This is because A's 90-percent interest in Distributing (the acquiring corporation in the Section 381 Transaction) immediately after the Section 381 Transaction exceeds A's 25-percent interest (held indirectly through Distributing) in the Predecessor of Distributing (the transferor corporation in the Section 381 Transaction) immediately before the Section 381 Transaction by 65 percent. Similarly, each Acquiring Owner of a Successor of Distributing is treated as acquiring, in the Successor Transaction, stock of Distributing, to the extent that the Acquiring Owner's interest in the Successor of Distributing immediately after the Successor Transaction exceeds the Acquiring Owner's direct or indirect interest in Distributing immediately before the Successor Transaction.

(2) Deemed acquisitions of stock after Section 381 Transactions. For purposes of this section, after a Section 381 Transaction (including a Successor Transaction), an acquisition of stock of an acquiring corporation (including a deemed stock acquisition under paragraph (d)(1)(i) of this section) is treated also as an acquisition of an interest in the stock of the distributor or transferor corporation. For example, an acquisition of the stock of Distributing that occurs after a Section 381 Transaction is treated not only as an acquisition of the stock of Distributing, but also as an acquisition of the stock of any Predecessor of Distributing whose assets were acquired by Distributing in the prior Section 381 Transaction. Similarly, an acquisition of the stock of a Successor of Distributing that occurs after the Successor Transaction is treated not only as an acquisition of the stock of the Successor of Distributing, but also as an acquisition of the stock of Distributing.

(3) Separate counting for Distributing and each Predecessor of Distributing. The measurement of whether one or more persons have acquired stock of any specific corporation in a Planned 50-percent Acquisition is made separately from the measurement of any potential Planned 50-percent Acquisition of any other corporation. Therefore, there may be a Planned 50-percent Acquisition of a Predecessor of Distributing even if there is no Planned 50-percent Acquisition of Distributing. Similarly, there may be a Planned 50-percent Acquisition of Distributing even if there is no Planned 50-percent Acquisition of a Predecessor of Distributing.

(e) Special rules for limiting gain recognition -

(1) Overview -

(i) Gain limitation. This paragraph (e) provides rules that limit the amount of gain that must be recognized by Distributing by reason of section 355(e) to an amount that is less than the amount that Distributing otherwise would be required to recognize under section 355(c)(2) or section 361(c)(2) (Statutory Recognition Amount) in certain cases involving one or more Predecessors of Distributing.

(ii) Multiple Planned 50-percent Acquisitions. If there are Planned 50-percent Acquisitions of multiple corporations (for example, two Predecessors of Distributing), Distributing must recognize the Statutory Recognition Amount with respect to each such corporation, subject to the limitations in paragraph (e)(2) of this section relating to a Planned 50-percent Acquisition of a Predecessor of Distributing (POD Gain Limitation Rule) and paragraph (e)(3) of this section relating to a Planned 50-percent Acquisition of Distributing (Distributing Gain Limitation Rule), if applicable. The POD Gain Limitation Rule and the Distributing Gain Limitation Rule are applied separately to the Planned 50-percent Acquisition of each such corporation to determine the amount of gain required to be recognized.

(iii) Statutory Recognition Amount limit; Section 336(e). Paragraph (e)(4) of this section sets forth an overall gain limitation based on the Statutory Recognition Amount. Paragraph (e)(5) of this section clarifies the availability of an election under section 336(e) with regard to certain Distributions.

(2) Planned 50-percent Acquisition of a Predecessor of Distributing -

(i) In general. If there is a Planned 50-percent Acquisition of a Predecessor of Distributing, the amount of gain recognized by Distributing by reason of section 355(e) as a result of the Planned 50-percent Acquisition is limited to the amount of gain, if any, that Distributing would have recognized if, immediately before the Distribution, Distributing had engaged in the following transaction: Distributing transferred all Separated Property received from the Predecessor of Distributing to a newly formed corporation ( Hypothetical Controlled) in exchange solely for stock of Hypothetical Controlled in a reorganization under section 368(a)(1)(D) and then distributed the stock of Hypothetical Controlled to the shareholders of Distributing in a transaction to which section 355(e) applied (Hypothetical D/355(e) Reorganization). The computation in this paragraph (e)(2)(i) is applied regardless of whether Distributing actually directly held the Separated Property.

(ii) Operating rules. For purposes of applying paragraph (e)(2)(i) of this section, the following rules apply:

(A) Separated Property other than Controlled stock. Each of the basis and the fair market value of Separated Property other than stock of Controlled treated as transferred by Distributing to a Hypothetical Controlled in a Hypothetical D/355(e) Reorganization equals the basis and the fair market value, respectively, of such property in the hands of Controlled immediately before the Distribution.

(B) Controlled stock that is Separated Property. Each of the basis and the fair market value of the stock of Controlled that is Separated Property treated as transferred by Distributing to a Hypothetical Controlled in a Hypothetical D/355(e) Reorganization equals the basis and the fair market value, respectively, of such stock in the hands of Distributing immediately before the Distribution.

(C) Anti-duplication rule. A Predecessor of Distributing's Separated Property is taken into account for purposes of applying this paragraph (e)(2) only to the extent such property was not taken into account by Distributing in a Hypothetical D/355(e) Reorganization with respect to another Predecessor of Distributing. Further, appropriate adjustments must be made to prevent other duplicative inclusions of section 355(e) gain under this paragraph (e) reflecting the same economic gain.

(3) Planned 50-percent Acquisition of Distributing. This paragraph (e)(3) applies if there is a Planned 50-percent Acquisition of Distributing. In that case, the amount of gain recognized by Distributing by reason of section 355(e) as a result of the Planned 50-percent Acquisition is limited to the excess, if any, of the Statutory Recognition Amount over the amount of gain, if any, that Distributing would have been required to recognize under paragraphs (e)(1)(ii) and (e)(2) of this section if there had been a Planned 50-percent Acquisition of every Predecessor of Distributing, but not of Distributing or Controlled. For purposes of this paragraph (e)(3), references to Distributing are not references to a Predecessor of Distributing.

(4) Gain recognition limited to Statutory Recognition Amount. The sum of the amounts required to be recognized by Distributing under section 355(e) (taking into account the POD Gain Limitation Rule and the Distributing Gain Limitation Rule) with regard to a single Distribution cannot exceed the Statutory Recognition Amount. In addition, Distributing may choose not to apply the POD Gain Limitation Rule or the Distributing Gain Limitation Rule to a Distribution, and instead may recognize the Statutory Recognition Amount. Distributing indicates its choice to apply the preceding sentence by reporting the Statutory Recognition Amount on its original or amended Federal income tax return for the year of the Distribution.

(5) Section 336(e) election. Distributing is not eligible to make a section 336(e) election (as defined in § 1.336-1(b)(11)) with respect to a Distribution to which this section applies unless Distributing would, absent the making of a section 336(e) election, recognize the Statutory Recognition Amount with respect to the Distribution (taking into account the POD Gain Limitation Rule and the Distributing Gain Limitation Rule) without regard to the final two sentences of paragraph (e)(4) of this section. See §§ 1.336-1 through 1.336-5 for additional requirements with regard to a section 336(e) election.

(f) Predecessor or Successor as a member of the affiliated group. For purposes of section 355(e)(2)(C), if a corporation transfers its assets to a member of the same Expanded Affiliated Group in a Section 381 Transaction, the transferor will be treated as continuing in existence within the same Expanded Affiliated Group.

(g) Inapplicability of section 355(f) to certain intra-group Distributions -

(1) In general. Section 355(f) does not apply to a Distribution if there is a Planned 50-percent Acquisition of a Predecessor of Distributing (but not of Distributing, Controlled, or their Successors), except as provided in paragraph (g)(2) of this section. Therefore, except as provided in paragraph (g)(2) of this section, section 355 (or so much of section 356 as relates to section 355) and the regulations under sections 355 and 356, including the POD Gain Limitation Rule, apply, without regard to section 355(f), to a Distribution within an affiliated group (as defined in section 1504(a)) if the Distribution and the Planned 50-percent Acquisition of the Predecessor of Distributing are part of a Plan. For purposes of this paragraph (g)(1), references to a Distribution (and Distributing and Controlled) include references to a distribution (and Distributing and Controlled) to which section 355 would apply but for the application of section 355(f).

(2) Alternative application of section 355(f). Distributing may choose not to apply paragraph (g)(1) of this section to each Distribution (that occurs under a Plan) to which section 355(f) would otherwise apply absent paragraph (g)(1) of this section. Instead, Distributing may apply section 355(f) to all such Distributions according to its terms, but only if all members of the same Expanded Affiliated Group report consistently the Federal income tax consequences of the Distributions that are part of the Plan (determined without regard to section 355(f)). In such a case, neither the POD Gain Limitation Rule nor the Distributing Gain Limitation Rule is available with regard to any applicable Distribution. Distributing indicates its choice to apply section 355(f) consistently to all applicable Distributions by reporting the Federal income tax consequences of each Distribution in accordance with section 355(f) on its Federal income tax return for the year of the Distribution.

(h) Examples. The following examples illustrate the principles of this section. Unless the facts indicate otherwise, assume throughout these examples that: Distributing (D) owns all the stock of Controlled (C), and none of the shares of C held by D has a built-in loss; D distributes the stock of C in a Distribution to which section 355(d) does not apply; X, Y, and Z are individuals; each of D, D1, C, P, P1, P2, and R is a corporation having one class of stock outstanding, and none is a member of a consolidated group; and each transaction that is part of a Plan defined in this section is respected as a separate transaction under general Federal income tax principles. No inference should be drawn from any example concerning whether any requirements of section 355 are satisfied other than those of section 355(e) or whether any general Federal income tax principles (including the step transaction doctrine) are implicated by the example:

(1) Example 1: Predecessor of D and Planned 50-Percent Acquisition of P -

(i) Facts. X owns 100% of the stock of P, which holds multiple assets. Y owns 100% of the stock of D. The following steps occur as part of a Plan: P merges into D in a reorganization under section 368(a)(1)(A). Immediately after the merger, X and Y own 10% and 90%, respectively, of the stock of D. D then contributes to C one of the assets (Asset 1) acquired from P in the merger. At the time of the contribution, Asset 1 has a basis of $40x and a fair market value of $110x. In exchange for Asset 1, D receives additional C stock and $10x. D distributes the stock of C (but not the cash) to X and Y, pro rata. The contribution and Distribution constitute a reorganization under section 368(a)(1)(D), and D recognizes $10x of gain under section 361(b) on the contribution. Immediately before the Distribution, taking into account the $10x of gain recognized by D on the contribution, Asset 1 has an adjusted basis of $50x under section 362(b) and a fair market value of $110x, and the stock of C held by D has a basis of $100x and a fair market value of $200x.

(ii) Analysis -

(A) P is a Predecessor of D. Under paragraph (b)(1) of this section, P is a Predecessor of D. First, P is a Potential Predecessor because, as part of a Plan, P transferred property to D in a Section 381 Transaction. See paragraph (b)(2)(ii)(A)(1) of this section. Second, both of the pre-Distribution requirements and the post-Distribution requirement are satisfied. The Relevant Property Requirement is satisfied because, immediately before the Distribution and as part of a Plan, C holds P Relevant Property (Asset 1) the gain on which was not recognized in full at any point during the Plan Period, and some of the C stock distributed in the Distribution was acquired by D in exchange for Asset 1. See paragraph (b)(1)(ii)(A)(1) of this section. The Reflection of Basis Requirement is satisfied because that C stock had a basis prior to the Distribution that was determined in whole or in part by reference to the basis of Separated Property (Asset 1), and was neither distributed in a distribution to which section 355(e) applied nor transferred in a transaction in which the gain on that C stock was recognized in full during the Plan Period prior to the Distribution. See paragraph (b)(1)(ii)(B) of this section. The Division of Relevant Property Requirement is satisfied because immediately after the Distribution, D continues to hold Relevant Property of P, and therefore, as part of a Plan, P's Relevant Property has been divided between C and D. See paragraph (b)(1)(iii) of this section.

(B) Planned 50-percent Acquisition of P. Under paragraph (d)(1)(i) of this section, Y is treated as acquiring stock representing 90% of the voting power and value of P as a result of the merger of P into D. Accordingly, there has been a Planned 50-percent Acquisition of P.

(C) Gain limited. Without regard to the limitations in paragraph (e) of this section, D would be required to recognize $100x of gain ($200x of aggregate fair market value minus $100x of aggregate basis of the C stock held by D), the Statutory Recognition Amount described in section 361(c)(2). However, under the POD Gain Limitation Rule, D's gain recognized by reason of the Planned 50-percent Acquisition of P will not exceed $60x, an amount equal to the amount of gain D would have recognized had D transferred Asset 1 (Separated Property) to a newly formed corporation (C1) solely for C1 stock and distributed the C1 stock to D's shareholders in a Hypothetical D/355(e) Reorganization. See paragraph (e)(2)(i) of this section. For purposes of the computation in this paragraph (h)(1)(ii)(C), the basis and fair market value of Asset 1 equal the basis and fair market value of Asset 1 in the hands of C immediately before the Distribution. See paragraph (e)(2)(ii)(A) of this section. Under section 361(c)(2), D would recognize $60x of gain, an amount equal to the gain in the hypothetical C1 stock (excess of the $110x fair market value over the $50x basis). Therefore, D recognizes $60x of gain (in addition to the $10x of gain recognized under section 361(b)).

(iii) Plan not in existence at time of acquisition of Potential Predecessor's property. The facts are the same as in paragraph (h)(1)(i) of this section (Example 1) except that the merger of P into D occurred before the existence of a Plan. Even though D transferred P property (Asset 1) to C, Asset 1 was not Relevant Property of P because P did not hold Asset 1 during the Plan Period. See paragraphs (b)(2)(iv) and (a)(4)(iii) of this section. Because Asset 1 is not Relevant Property, D did not receive C stock distributed in the Distribution in exchange for Relevant Property when it contributed Asset 1 to C, none of the distributed C stock had a basis prior to the Distribution that was determined in whole or in part by reference to the basis of Separated Property, and C did not hold Relevant Property immediately before the Distribution. Further, Relevant Property of P has not been divided. Therefore, P is not a Predecessor of D.

(2) Example 2: Planned 50-percent Acquisition of D, but not Predecessor of D -

(i) Facts. X owns 100% of the stock of P, which holds multiple assets. Y owns 100% of the stock of D. The following steps occur as part of a Plan: P merges into D in a reorganization under section 368(a)(1)(A). Immediately after the merger, X and Y own 90% and 10%, respectively, of the stock of D. D then contributes to C one of the assets (Asset 1) acquired from P in the merger. In exchange for Asset 1, D receives additional C stock. D distributes the stock of C to X and Y, pro rata. The contribution and Distribution constitute a reorganization under section 368(a)(1)(D). Immediately before the Distribution, Asset 1 has a basis of $50x and a fair market value of $110x, and the stock of C held by D has a basis of $120x and a fair market value of $200x.

(ii) Analysis -

(A) P is a Predecessor of D. Under paragraph (b)(1) of this section, P is a Predecessor of D. First, P is a Potential Predecessor because, as part of a Plan, P transferred property to D in a Section 381 Transaction. See paragraph (b)(2)(ii)(A)(1) of this section. Second, both of the pre-Distribution requirements and the post-Distribution requirement are satisfied. The Relevant Property Requirement is satisfied because, immediately before the Distribution and as part of a Plan, C holds P Relevant Property (Asset 1) the gain on which was not recognized in full at any point during the Plan Period, and some of the C stock distributed in the Distribution was acquired by D in exchange for Asset 1. See paragraph (b)(1)(ii)(A)(1) of this section. The Reflection of Basis Requirement is satisfied because that C stock had a basis prior to the Distribution that was determined in whole or in part by reference to the basis of Separated Property (Asset 1), and was neither distributed in a distribution to which section 355(e) applied nor transferred in a transaction in which the gain on that C stock was recognized in full during the Plan Period prior to the Distribution. See paragraph (b)(1)(ii)(B) of this section. The Division of Relevant Property Requirement is satisfied because immediately after the Distribution, D continues to hold Relevant Property of P, and therefore, as part of a Plan, P's Relevant Property has been divided between C and D. See paragraph (b)(1)(iii) of this section.

(B) Planned 50-percent Acquisition of D. Under paragraph (d)(1)(i) of this section, Y is treated as acquiring stock representing 10% of the voting power and value of P as a result of the merger of P into D. The 10% acquisition of P stock does not cause section 355(e) gain recognition or cause application of the POD Gain Limitation Rule because there has not been a Planned 50-percent Acquisition of P. X acquires 90% of the voting power and value of D as a result of the merger of P into D. Accordingly, there has been a Planned 50-percent Acquisition of D. This Planned 50-percent Acquisition implicates section 355(e) and results in gain recognition, subject to the rules of paragraph (e) of this section.

(C) Gain limited. Without regard to the limitations in paragraph (e) of this section, D would be required to recognize $80x of gain ($200x of fair market value minus $120x of basis of the C stock held by D), the Statutory Recognition Amount described in section 361(c)(2). However, under the Distributing Gain Limitation Rule, D's gain recognized by reason of the Planned 50-percent Acquisition of D will not exceed $20x, the excess of the Statutory Recognition Amount ($80x) over the amount of gain that D would have been required to recognize under the POD Gain Limitation Rule if there had been a Planned 50-percent Acquisition of P but not D or C ($60x). See paragraph (e)(3) of this section. The hypothetical gain limitation under the POD Gain Limitation Rule equals the amount D would have recognized had it transferred Asset 1 (Separated Property) to a newly formed corporation (C1) solely for stock and distributed the C1 stock in a Hypothetical D/355(e) Reorganization. See paragraph (e)(2)(i) of this section. Under section 361(c)(2), D would recognize $60x of gain, an amount equal to the gain in the hypothetical C1 stock (excess of the $110x fair market value over the $50x basis). Therefore, D recognizes $20x of gain ($80x−$60x).

(3) Example 3: Predecessor of D owns C stock -

(i) Facts. X owns 100% of the stock of P, which holds multiple assets, including Asset 2. Y owns 100% of the stock of D. P owns 35% of the stock of C (Block 1), and D owns the remaining 65% of the C stock (Block 2). The following steps occur as part of a Plan: P merges into D in a reorganization under section 368(a)(1)(A), and D immediately thereafter distributes all of the C stock to X and Y pro rata. Immediately after the merger, X and Y own 10% and 90%, respectively, of the D stock, and, prior to the Distribution, D owns Block 1 with a basis of $30x and a fair market value of $35x, and Block 2 with a basis of $10x and a fair market value of $65x. D continues to hold Asset 2.

(ii) Analysis -

(A) P is a Predecessor of D. Under paragraph (b)(1) of this section, P is a Predecessor of D. First, P is a Potential Predecessor because, as part of a Plan, P transferred property to D in a Section 381 Transaction. See paragraph (b)(2)(ii)(A)(1) of this section. Second, both of the pre-Distribution requirements and the post-Distribution requirement are satisfied. The Relevant Property Requirement is satisfied because some of the C stock distributed in the Distribution (Block 1) was Relevant Property of P. See paragraph (b)(1)(ii)(A)(2) of this section. The Reflection of Basis Requirement is satisfied because Block 1 of the C stock is Relevant Property of P, and was neither distributed in a distribution to which section 355(e) applied nor transferred in a transaction in which the gain on that C stock was recognized in full during the Plan Period prior to the Distribution. See paragraph (b)(1)(ii)(B) of this section. The Division of Relevant Property Requirement is satisfied because some of the C stock distributed in the Distribution was Relevant Property of P, and therefore C is deemed to have received Relevant Property of P, and D continues to hold Relevant Property of P immediately after the Distribution. See paragraph (b)(1)(iii) of this section. Therefore, as part of a Plan, P's Relevant Property has been divided between C and D.

(B) Planned 50-percent Acquisition of P. Under paragraph (d)(1)(i) of this section, Y is treated as acquiring stock representing 90% of the voting power and value of P as a result of the merger of P into D. Accordingly, there has been a Planned 50-percent Acquisition of P.

(C) Gain limited. Without regard to the limitations in paragraph (e) of this section, D would be required to recognize $60x of gain ($100x of fair market value minus $40x of basis of the C stock held by D), the Statutory Recognition Amount under section 355(c)(2). However, under the POD Gain Limitation Rule, D's gain recognized by reason of the Planned 50-percent Acquisition of P will not exceed $5x, an amount equal to the amount D would have recognized had it transferred Block 1 of the C stock (Separated Property) to a newly formed corporation (C1) solely for stock and distributed the C1 stock to D shareholders in a Hypothetical D/355(e) Reorganization. See paragraph (e)(2)(i) of this section. Because Relevant Equity (Block 1 of the C stock) is Separated Property, Underlying Property associated with that Relevant Equity is not treated as Separated Property. See paragraph (b)(2)(vii) of this section. For purposes of the computation in this paragraph (h)(3)(ii)(C), the basis and fair market value of the Block 1 C stock equal its basis and fair market value in the hands of D immediately before the Distribution. See paragraph (e)(2)(ii)(A) of this section. Under section 361(c)(2), D would recognize $5x of gain, an amount equal to the gain in the hypothetical C1 stock ($35x fair market value−$30x basis). Therefore, D recognizes $5x of gain.

(4) Example 4: C stock as Substitute Asset -

(i) Facts. X owns 100% of the stock of P, which owns multiple assets, including 100% of the stock of R and Asset 2. Y owns 100% of the stock of D. The following steps occur as part of a Plan: P merges into D in a reorganization under section 368(a)(1)(A) (P-D reorganization). Immediately after the merger, X and Y own 10% and 90%, respectively, of the stock of D. D then causes R to transfer all of its assets to C and liquidate in a reorganization under section 368(a)(1) (R-C reorganization). At the time of the P-D reorganization, the R stock has a basis of $40x and a fair market value of $110x. D distributes the stock of C to X and Y, pro rata. D continues to directly hold Asset 2. Immediately before the Distribution, the C stock held by D that was deemed received in the R-C reorganization (Block 1) has a basis of $40x and a fair market value of $110x, and all of the stock of C held by D has a basis of $100x and a fair market value of $200x.

(ii) Analysis -

(A) P is a Predecessor of D. Under paragraph (b)(1) of this section, P is a Predecessor of D. First, P is a Potential Predecessor because, as part of a Plan, P transferred property to D in a Section 381 Transaction. See paragraph (b)(2)(ii)(A)(1) of this section. Second, both pre-Distribution requirements and the post-Distribution requirement are satisfied. The Relevant Property Requirement is satisfied because, for the following two reasons, some of the C stock distributed in the Distribution (Block 1) was Relevant Property of P. D is treated as acquiring Block 1 of the C stock in exchange for a direct or indirect interest in R stock (that is, Relevant Property) in the R-C reorganization because the basis of D in that C stock immediately after a transfer of the R stock (in the liquidation of R) is determined in whole or in part by reference to the basis of the R stock immediately before the transfer. See paragraph (b)(2)(x) of this section. Further, because the basis in Block 1 of the C stock is determined in whole or in part by reference to the basis of Relevant Equity (the R stock) the issuer of which ceases to exist for Federal income tax purposes under the Plan, Block 1 of the C stock is a Substitute Asset, and is therefore treated as Relevant Property with the same ownership and transfer history as the R stock. See paragraph (b)(2)(vi)(B)(2) of this section. The Reflection of Basis Requirement is satisfied because Block 1 of the C stock is Relevant Property of P, and was neither distributed in a distribution to which section 355(e) applied nor transferred in a transaction in which the gain on that C stock was recognized in full during the Plan Period prior to the Distribution. See paragraph (b)(1)(ii)(B) of this section. The Division of Relevant Property Requirement is satisfied because some of the C stock distributed in the Distribution was Relevant Property of P, and therefore C is deemed to have received Relevant Property of P, and immediately after the Distribution, D continues to hold Asset 2, which is Relevant Property of P. See paragraph (b)(1)(iii) of this section. Therefore, as part of a Plan, P's Relevant Property has been divided between C and D.

(B) Planned 50-percent Acquisition of P. Under paragraph (d)(1)(i) of this section, Y is treated as acquiring stock representing 90% of the voting power and value of P as a result of the P-D reorganization. Accordingly, there has been a Planned 50-percent Acquisition of P.

(C) Gain limited. Without regard to the limitations in paragraph (e) of this section, D would be required to recognize $100x of gain ($200x of fair market value minus $100x of basis of all C stock held by D), the Statutory Recognition Amount described in section 355(c)(2). However, under the POD Gain Limitation Rule, D's gain recognized by reason of the Planned 50-percent Acquisition of P will not exceed $70x, an amount equal to the amount D would have recognized had it transferred Block 1 of the C stock (Separated Property) to a newly formed corporation (C1) solely for stock and distributed the C1 stock to D shareholders in a Hypothetical D/355(e) Reorganization. See paragraph (e)(2)(i) of this section. Because Relevant Equity (Block 1 of the C stock) is Separated Property, Underlying Property associated with that Relevant Equity is not treated as Separated Property. See paragraph (b)(2)(vii) of this section. Under section 361(c)(2), D would recognize $70x of gain, an amount equal to the gain in the hypothetical C1 stock (excess of the $110x fair market value over the $40x basis). Therefore, D recognizes $70x of gain.

(5) Example 5: Section 351 transaction -

(i) Facts. X owns 100% of the stock of P, which holds multiple assets, including Asset 1, Asset 2, and Asset 3. Y owns 100% of the stock of D. The following steps occur as part of a Plan: P transfers Asset 1 and Asset 2 to D and Y transfers property to D in an exchange qualifying under section 351. Immediately after the exchange, P and Y own 10% and 90%, respectively, of the stock of D. D then contributes Asset 1 to C in exchange for additional C stock. D distributes all of the stock of C to P and Y, pro rata. D continues to directly hold Asset 2, and P continues to directly hold Asset 3. The contribution and Distribution constitute a reorganization under section 368(a)(1)(D). Immediately before the Distribution, Asset 1 has a basis of $40x and a fair market value of $110x, and the stock of C held by D has a basis of $100x and a fair market value of $200x. Following the Distribution, and as part of the same Plan, Z acquires 51% of the P stock.

(ii) Analysis - P is not a Predecessor of D. Under paragraph (b)(1) of this section, P is not a Predecessor of D. P is not a Potential Predecessor because P did not transfer property to a Potential Predecessor, D, or a member of the same Expanded Affiliated Group as D in a Section 381 Transaction and P is not a member of the same Expanded Affiliated Group as D immediately after completion of the Plan. See paragraph (b)(2)(ii) of this section. Thus, P cannot be a Predecessor of D. See paragraph (b)(1)(i) of this section.

(6) Example 6: Section 351 transaction after an acquisition of P -

(i) Facts. X owns 100% of the stock of P, which holds multiple assets, including Asset 1 and Asset 2. Y owns 100% of the stock of D, D owns 100% of the stock of D1, and D1 owns 100% of the stock of C. D files a consolidated return for the affiliated group of which it is the common parent. The following steps occur as part of a Plan: D acquires 100% of the stock of P from X. P transfers Asset 1 and Asset 2 to D1 for D1 stock in an exchange qualifying under section 351. See § 1.1502-34. D1 contributes Asset 1 to C in exchange for additional C stock. D1 distributes all of the stock of C to D in exchange for D1 stock (First Distribution). D then distributes all of the stock of C to Y (Second Distribution). D1 continues to directly hold Asset 2. Immediately before the First Distribution, Asset 1 has a basis of $10x and a fair market value of $60x, and the stock of C held by D1 has a basis of $100x and a fair market value of $200x.

(ii) Analysis -

(A) P is a Predecessor of D1. Under paragraph (b)(1) of this section, P is a Predecessor of D1. First, P is a Potential Predecessor of D1 because P is a member of the same Expanded Affiliated Group as D1 immediately after completion of the Plan. See paragraph (b)(2)(ii)(A)(2) of this section. The Relevant Property Requirement is satisfied because, immediately before the First Distribution and as part of a Plan, C holds P Relevant Property (Asset 1) the gain on which was not recognized in full at any point during the Plan Period, and some of the C stock distributed in the First Distribution was acquired by D1 in exchange for Asset 1. See paragraph (b)(1)(ii)(A)(1) of this section. The Reflection of Basis Requirement is satisfied because that C stock had a basis prior to the First Distribution that was determined in whole or in part by reference to the basis of Separated Property (Asset 1), and was neither distributed in a distribution to which section 355(e) applied nor transferred in a transaction in which the gain on that C stock was recognized in full prior to the First Distribution. See paragraph (b)(1)(ii)(B) of this section. The Division of Relevant Property Requirement is satisfied because immediately after the First Distribution, each of C, on the one hand, and P or D1, on the other hand, continues to hold Relevant Property of P, and therefore, as part of a Plan, P's Relevant Property has been divided between C and D1. See paragraph (b)(1)(iii) of this section.

(B) Planned 50-percent Acquisition of P. D has acquired stock representing 100% of the voting power and value of P. Accordingly, there has been a Planned 50-percent Acquisition of P.

(C) Gain on First Distribution. Because there is a Planned 50-percent Acquisition of a Predecessor of Distributing (but not of Distributing, Controlled, or their Successors), section 355(f) will not apply to the First Distribution unless D and D1 choose to have section 355(f) apply. See paragraph (g) of this section. As a result, section 355, including the POD Gain Limitation Rule, will apply to the First Distribution. Under the POD Gain Limitation Rule, D1's gain recognized by reason of the Planned 50-percent Acquisition of P will not exceed $50x, an amount equal to the amount D1 would have recognized had it transferred Asset 1 (Separated Property) to a newly formed corporation (C1) solely for stock and distributed the C1 stock to D1 shareholders in a Hypothetical D/355(e) Reorganization. See paragraph (e)(2)(i) of this section. Under section 361(c)(2), D1 would recognize $50x of gain, an amount equal to the gain in the hypothetical C1 stock (excess of the $60x fair market value over the $10x basis). Therefore, D1 recognizes $50x of gain. Under paragraph (g)(2) of this section, however, D and D1 may choose to apply section 355(f) to the First Distribution as an exception to the general application of paragraph (g)(1) of this section. By application of section 355(f), section 355 (including the POD Gain Limitation Rule) would not apply to the First Distribution. Therefore, D1 would be required to recognize $100x of gain (excess of the $200x fair market value over the $100x basis of C stock held by D1) under section 311(b), and D would be treated under section 302(d) as receiving a distribution of $200x to which section 301 applies.

(D) P is not a Predecessor of D. Under paragraph (b)(1) of this section, P is not a Predecessor of D. First, P is a Potential Predecessor of D because P is a member of the same Expanded Affiliated Group as D immediately after completion of the Plan. See paragraph (b)(2)(ii)(A)(2) of this section. However, although the Relevant Property Requirement is satisfied, the Reflection of Basis Requirement is not satisfied. The Relevant Property Requirement is satisfied because, immediately before the Second Distribution and as part of a Plan, C holds P Relevant Property (Asset 1) the gain on which was not recognized in full at any point during the Plan Period, and some of the C stock distributed in the Second Distribution was indirectly acquired by D in exchange for Asset 1. See paragraph (b)(1)(ii)(A)(1) of this section. However, regardless of whether D and D1 choose under paragraph (g)(2) of this section to have section 355(f) apply to the First Distribution, the Reflection of Basis Requirement cannot be satisfied. If section 355(f) applies to the First Distribution, then all of the C stock will have been transferred in a transaction in which the gain on the C stock was recognized in full during the Plan Period prior to the Second Distribution. If section 355(f) does not apply to the First Distribution, then all of the C stock will have been transferred in a distribution to which section 355(e) applied during the Plan Period prior to the Second Distribution. Because not all of the pre-Distribution and post-Distribution requirements are satisfied, P cannot be a Predecessor of D.

(7) Example 7: Sequential Predecessors -

(i) Facts. X owns 100% of P1, which holds multiple assets, including Asset 1 and Asset 2. Y owns 100% of P2, which holds Asset 3, and Z owns 100% of D. The following steps occur as part of a Plan: P1 merges into P2 in a reorganization under 368(a)(1)(A) (P1-P2 reorganization). Immediately after the merger, X and Y own 10% and 90%, respectively, of the stock of P2. P2 then merges into D in a reorganization under 368(a)(1)(A) (P2-D reorganization). Immediately after the merger, X, Y, and Z own 1%, 9%, and 90%, respectively, of the stock of D. D then contributes Asset 1 to C in exchange for additional C stock, and retains Asset 2 and Asset 3. D distributes all of the stock of C to X, Y, and Z, pro rata. Immediately before the Distribution, Asset 1 has a basis of $40x and a fair market value of $100x, and the stock of C held by D has a basis of $100x and a fair market value of $200x.

(ii) Analysis -

(A) P2 is a Predecessor of D. Under paragraph (b)(1) of this section, P2 is a Predecessor of D. First, P2 is a Potential Predecessor because, as part of a Plan, P2 transferred property to D in a Section 381 Transaction. See paragraph (b)(2)(ii)(A)(1) of this section. Second, both pre-Distribution requirements and the post-Distribution requirement are satisfied. The Relevant Property Requirement is satisfied because, immediately before the Distribution and as part of a Plan, C holds P2 Relevant Property (Asset 1) the gain on which was not recognized in full at any point during the Plan Period, and some of the C stock distributed in the Distribution was acquired by D in exchange for Asset 1. See paragraph (b)(1)(ii)(A)(1) of this section. The Reflection of Basis Requirement is satisfied because that C stock had a basis prior to the Distribution that was determined in whole or in part by reference to the basis of Separated Property (Asset 1), and was neither distributed in a distribution to which section 355(e) applied nor transferred in a transaction in which the gain on that C stock was recognized in full during the Plan Period prior to the Distribution. See paragraph (b)(1)(ii)(B) of this section. The Division of Relevant Property Requirement is satisfied because immediately after the Distribution, D continues to hold P2 Relevant Property (Asset 2 and Asset 3), and therefore, as part of a Plan, P2's Relevant Property has been divided between C and D. See paragraph (b)(1)(iii) of this section.

(B) P1 is a Predecessor of D. Under paragraph (b)(1) of this section, P1 is a Predecessor of D. First, P1 is a Potential Predecessor because, as part of a Plan, P1 transferred property to a Potential Predecessor (P2) in a Section 381 Transaction. See paragraph (b)(2)(ii)(A)(1) of this section. Second, both pre-Distribution requirements and the post-Distribution requirement are satisfied. The Relevant Property Requirement is satisfied because, immediately before the Distribution and as part of a Plan, C holds P1 Relevant Property (Asset 1) the gain on which was not recognized in full at any point during the Plan Period, and some of the C stock distributed in the Distribution was acquired by D in exchange for Asset 1. See paragraph (b)(1)(ii)(A)(1) of this section. The Reflection of Basis Requirement is satisfied because that C stock had a basis prior to the Distribution that was determined in whole or in part by reference to the basis of Separated Property (Asset 1), and was neither distributed in a distribution to which section 355(e) applied nor transferred in a transaction in which the gain on that C stock was recognized in full during the Plan Period prior to the Distribution. See paragraph (b)(1)(ii)(B) of this section. The Division of Relevant Property Requirement is satisfied because immediately after the Distribution, D continues to hold Relevant Property of P1 (Asset 2), and therefore, as part of a Plan, P1's Relevant Property has been divided between C and D. See paragraph (b)(1)(iii) of this section.

(C) Planned 50-percent Acquisitions of P1 and P2. Under paragraph (d)(1)(i) of this section, Y is treated as acquiring stock representing 90% of the voting power and value of P1 as a result of the P1-P2 merger. In addition, under paragraph (d)(1)(i) of this section, Z is treated as acquiring stock representing 90% of the voting power and value of P2 in the P2-D merger. Accordingly, there have been Planned 50-percent Acquisitions of P1 and P2.

(D) Gain limited. Without regard to the limitations in paragraph (e) of this section, D would be required to recognize $100x of gain ($200x of aggregate fair market value minus $100x of aggregate basis of the C stock held by D), the Statutory Recognition Amount described in section 361(c)(2), because there have been Planned 50-percent Acquisitions of P1 and P2, both Predecessors of D. However, under paragraph (e) of this section, D's gain recognized by reason of the Planned 50-percent Acquisitions of P1 and P2 will not exceed $60x, an amount equal to the amount D would have recognized had it transferred Asset 1 (Separated Property) to a newly formed corporation (C1) solely for stock and distributed the C1 stock to D shareholders in a Hypothetical D/355(e) Reorganization. Under section 361(c)(2), D would recognize $60x, an amount equal to the gain in the hypothetical C1 stock (excess of the $100x fair market value over the $40x basis). Paragraph (e)(1)(ii) of this section provides that if there are Planned 50-percent Acquisitions of multiple corporations, Distributing must recognize the Statutory Recognition Amount with respect to each such corporation, subject to the POD Gain Limitation Rule and the Distributing Gain Limitation Rule, if applicable. In this case, the POD Gain Limitation Rule limits the amount of gain required to be recognized by D with respect to each of the Planned 50-percent Acquisitions of P1 and P2 to $60x. See paragraph (e)(2)(i) of this section. Ordinarily, each $60x limitation would be added together, and the total gain limitation provided by paragraph (e) of this section would be $120x. However, the anti-duplication rule set forth in paragraph (e)(2)(ii)(C) of this section provides that, for purposes of applying the POD Gain Limitation Rule, a Predecessor of Distributing's Separated Property is taken into account only to the extent such property was not taken into account with respect to another Predecessor of Distributing. Thus, Asset 1 may not be taken into account more than once in determining the total gain limitation. Therefore, D recognizes $60x of gain.

(8) Example 8: Multiple Predecessors of D -

(i) Facts. X owns 100% of the stock of P1, which holds multiple assets, including Asset 1 and Asset 3. Y owns 100% of the stock of P2, which holds multiple assets, including Asset 2 and Asset 4. Z owns 100% of the stock of D. The following steps occur as part of a Plan: Each of P1 and P2 merges into D in a reorganization under section 368(a)(1)(A). Immediately after the mergers, each of X and Y owns 10%, and Z owns 80%, of the stock of D. D then contributes to C Asset 1 (acquired from P1), and Asset 2 (acquired from P2). In exchange for Asset 1 and Asset 2, D receives additional C stock. D distributes the stock of C to X, Y, and Z, pro rata. D's contribution of Asset 1 and Asset 2 and the Distribution constitute a reorganization under section 368(a)(1)(D). D continues to hold Asset 3 and Asset 4. Immediately before the Distribution, Asset 1 has a basis of $50x and a fair market value of $110x, Asset 2 has a basis of $70x and a fair market value of $90x, and the stock of C held by D has a basis of $130x and a fair market value of $220x.

(ii) Analysis -

(A) P1 and P2 are Predecessors of D. Under paragraph (b)(1) of this section, each of P1 and P2 is a Predecessor of D. First, each of P1 and P2 is a Potential Predecessor because, as part of a Plan, each of P1 and P2 transferred property to D in a Section 381 Transaction. See paragraph (b)(2)(ii)(A)(1) of this section. Second, both pre-Distribution requirements and the post-Distribution requirement are satisfied. The Relevant Property Requirement is satisfied because, immediately before the Distribution and as part of a Plan, C holds P1 Relevant Property (Asset 1) and P2 Relevant Property (Asset 2), the gain on each of which was not recognized in full at any point during the Plan Period, and some of the C stock distributed in the Distribution was acquired by D in exchange for each of Asset 1 and Asset 2. See paragraph (b)(1)(ii)(A)(1) of this section. The Reflection of Basis Requirement is satisfied because that C stock had a basis prior to the Distribution that was determined in whole or in part by reference to the basis of Separated Property (Asset 1 and Asset 2, respectively), and was neither distributed in a distribution to which section 355(e) applied nor transferred in a transaction in which the gain on that C stock was recognized in full during the Plan Period prior to the Distribution. See paragraph (b)(1)(ii)(B) of this section. The Division of Relevant Property Requirement is satisfied because immediately after the Distribution, D continues to hold Relevant Property of P1 and P2, and therefore, as part of a Plan, each of P1's and P2's Relevant Property has been divided between C and D. See paragraph (b)(1)(iii) of this section.

(B) Planned 50-percent Acquisitions of P1 and P2. Under paragraph (d)(1)(i) of this section, Z is treated as acquiring stock representing 80% of the voting power and value of each of P1 and P2 as a result of the mergers of P1 and P2 into D. Accordingly, there have been Planned 50-percent Acquisitions of P1 and P2.

(C) Gain limited. Without regard to the limitations in paragraph (e) of this section, D would be required to recognize $90x of gain ($220x of fair market value minus $130x of basis of the C stock held by D), the Statutory Recognition Amount under section 361(c)(2). However, under the POD Gain Limitation Rule, D's gain recognized by reason of the Planned 50-percent Acquisition of P1 will not exceed $60x ($110x fair market value minus $50x basis), an amount equal to the amount D would have recognized had it transferred Asset 1 (Separated Property) to a newly formed corporation (C1) solely for stock and distributed the C1 stock to D shareholders in a Hypothetical D/355(e) Reorganization. See paragraph (e)(2)(i) of this section. In addition, under the POD Gain Limitation Rule, D's gain recognized by reason of the deemed acquisition of P2 stock will not exceed $20x ($90x fair market value minus $70x basis), an amount equal to the amount D would have recognized had it transferred Asset 2 (Separated Property) to a second newly formed corporation (C2) solely for stock and distributed the C2 stock to D shareholders in a Hypothetical D/355(e) Reorganization. See paragraph (e)(2)(i) of this section. Therefore, D recognizes $80x of gain ($60x + $20x). See paragraph (e)(1)(ii) of this section.

(9) Example 9: Successor of C -

(i) Facts. X owns 100% of the stock of each of D and R. The following steps occur as part of a Plan: D distributes all of its C stock to X. Immediately before the Distribution, D's C stock has a basis of $10x and a fair market value of $30x. C then merges into R in a reorganization under section 368(a)(1)(D). Immediately after the merger, X owns all of the R stock. As part of the same Plan, Z acquires 51% of the stock of R from X.

(ii) Analysis -

(A) R is a Successor of C. Under paragraph (c)(2)(i) of this section, R is a Successor of C because, after the Distribution, C transfers property to R in a Section 381 Transaction.

(B) Planned 50-percent Acquisition of C. Under paragraph (d)(2) of this section, Z's acquisition of stock of R is treated as an acquisition of stock of C. Therefore, Z is treated as acquiring 51% of the stock of C. Accordingly, there has been a Planned 50-percent Acquisition of C.

(C) Gain not limited. Section 355(e) applies to the Distribution because there has been a Planned 50-percent Acquisition of C. Neither the POD Gain Limitation Rule nor the Distributing Gain Limitation Rule applies because there has been no Planned 50-percent Acquisition of a Predecessor of D, and no Planned 50-percent Acquisition of D. Therefore, D recognizes $20x of gain ($30x fair market value minus $10x basis of the C stock held by D) under section 355(c)(2).

(10) Example 10: Multiple Successors -

(i) Facts. X owns 100% of the stock of both D and R. Y owns 100% of the stock of S. The following steps occur as part of a Plan: D distributes all of the C stock to X. Immediately after the Distribution, D merges into R in a reorganization under section 368(a)(1)(A) (D-R merger). Following the D-R merger, R merges into S in a reorganization under section 368(a)(1)(A) (R-S merger). Immediately after the R-S merger, X and Y own 10% and 90%, respectively, of the S stock. Immediately before the Distribution, D's C stock has a basis of $10x and a fair market value of $30x.

(ii) Analysis -

(A) R and S are Successors of D. Under paragraph (c)(2)(i) of this section, R is a Successor of D because, after the Distribution, D transfers property to R in a Section 381 Transaction. Under paragraph (c)(2)(ii) of this section, S is also a Successor of D because R (a Successor of D) transfers property to S in a Section 381 Transaction.

(B) Planned 50-percent Acquisition of D. Under paragraph (d)(1)(i) of this section, there is no deemed acquisition of D stock as a result of the D-R merger because X wholly owns the stock of D before the merger and wholly owns the stock of R after the merger. Under paragraph (d)(1)(i) of this section, Y is treated as acquiring stock representing 90% of the voting power and value of R (a Successor of D) as a result of the R-S merger. Under paragraph (d)(2) of this section, an acquisition of R stock is also treated as an acquisition of D stock. Accordingly, there has been a Planned 50-percent Acquisition of D.

(C) Gain not limited. Section 355(e) applies to the Distribution because there has been a Planned 50-percent Acquisition of D. The POD Gain Limitation Rule does not apply because there has been no Planned 50-percent Acquisition of a Predecessor of D. The Distributing Gain Limitation Rule applies because there has been a Planned 50-percent Acquisition of D. However, the gain limitation under the Distributing Gain Limitation Rule equals the Statutory Recognition Amount, because there is no Predecessor of D (and thus no Separated Property). Therefore, D recognizes $20x of gain ($30x fair market value minus $10x basis of the C stock held by D) under section 355(c)(2).

(i) Applicability date. This section applies to Distributions occurring after December 15, 2019. For Distributions occurring on or before December 15, 2019, see § 1.355-8T as contained in 26 CFR part 1 revised as of April 1, 2019.

[T.D. 9888, 84 FR 69317, Dec. 18, 2019; 85 FR 15060, Mar. 17, 2020]