26 CFR 1.414(r)-3 - Separate line of business.

§ 1.414(r)-3 Separate line of business.

(a)General rule. A separate line of business is a line of business (as determined under § 1.414(r)-2) that is organized and operated separately from the remainder of the employer. Paragraph (b) of this section sets forth the rules for determining whether a line of business is organized and operated separately from the remainder of the employer. Paragraph (c) of this section provides certain supplementary rules necessary to apply the requirements of paragraph (b) of this section, as well as examples illustrating the application of those requirements. Paragraph (d) of this section provides an optional rule for lines of business that are vertically integrated.

(b)Separate organization and operation -

(1)In general. A line of business is organized and operated separately from the remainder of the employer for a testing year only if it satisfies all the requirements of paragraphs (b)(2) through (b)(5) of this section for the testing year.

(2)Separate organizational unit. The line of business must be formally organized as a separate organizational unit or group of separate organizational units within the employer. For this purpose, an organizational unit is a corporation, partnership, division, or other unit having a similar degree of organizational formality. This requirement must be satisfied on every day of the testing year.

(3)Separate financial accountability. The line of business must be a separate profit center or group of separate profit centers within the employer. This requirement must be satisfied on every day of the testing year. In addition, the employer must maintain books and records that provide separate revenue and expense information that is used for internal planning and control with respect to each profit center comprising the line of business.

(4)Separate employee workforce. The line of business must have its own separate employee workforce. A line of business has its own separate workforce only if at least 90 percent of the employees who provide services to the line of business, and who are not substantial-service employees with respect to any other line of business, are substantial-service employees with respect to the line of business. See paragraph (c)(2) of this section to determine how the percentage in the preceding sentence is calculated for the testing year.

(5)Separate management. The line of business must have its own separate management. A line of business has its own separate management only if at least 80 percent of the employees who are top-paid employees with respect to the line of business are substantial-service employees with respect to the line of business. See paragraph (c)(3) of this section to determine how the percentage in the preceding sentence is calculated for the testing year.

(c)Supplementary rules -

(1)In general. This paragraph (c) provides certain supplementary rules necessary to apply the requirements of paragraph (b) of this section, as well as examples illustrating the application of those requirements.

(2)Determination of separate employee workforce. The percentage in paragraph (b)(4) of this section is the fraction (expressed as a percentage) -

(i) The numerator of which is the number of substantial-service employees with respect to the line of business within the meaning of § 1.414(r)-11(b)(2); and

(ii) The denominator of which is the total number of employees who provide services to the line of business within the meaning of paragraph (c)(5) of this section and who are not substantial-service employees with respect to any other line of business.

(3)Determination of separate management. The percentage in paragraph (b)(5) of this section is the fraction (expressed as a percentage) -

(i) The numerator of which is the number of employees who are both top-paid employees and substantial-service employees with respect to the line of business within the meaning of § 1.414(r)-11(b)(3) and (2), respectively; and

(ii) The denominator of which is the total number of top-paid employees with respect to the line of business within the meaning of § 1.414(r)-11(b)(3).

(4)Employees taken into account. For purposes of applying this paragraph (c), only employees who are employees on the first testing day are taken into account. For this purpose, there are no excludable employees except nonresident aliens described in section 410(b)(3)(C). Consequently, all other employees who are employees on the first testing day are taken into account, including collectively bargained employees. For the definition of first testing day, see § 1.414(r)-11(b)(7).

(5)Services taken into account -

(i)Provision of services to a line of business. An employee provides services to a line of business if more than a negligible portion of the employee's services contributes to providing the property or services provided by the line of business to customers of the employer. All of the services of each employee who provides services to the employer contribute, whether directly or indirectly, to the provision of property or services to customers of the employer, and therefore each employee who provides services to the employer must be treated as providing more than a negligible portion of the employee's services to one or more lines of business operated by the employer.

(ii)Period for which services are provided. Only services performed by an employee during the testing year that contribute to providing the property or services provided by a line of business to customers are taken into account. An employee's services during the testing year are considered to contribute to providing the property or services provided by a line of business to customers of the employer if -

(A) The employee's services during the testing year contribute to providing such property or services to customers of the employer during the testing year; or

(B) It is reasonably anticipated that the employee's services during the testing year will contribute to providing such property and services to customers of the employer after the close of the testing year.

(iii)Optional rule for employees who change status -

(A)In general. Solely for purposes of the separateness rules of this section and the assignment rules of § 1.414(r)-7, if an employee changes status as described in paragraph (c)(5)(iii)(B) of this section, an employer may, for up to three consecutive testing years after the base year (within the meaning of paragraph (c)(5)(iii)(B) (1) or (2) of this section), treat the employee as providing the same level of service to its lines of business as the employee provided in the base year.

(B)Change in employee's status. An employee changes status as described in this paragraph (c)(5)(iii)(B) if -

(1) For a testing year (the base year), the employee was a substantial-service employee with respect to a qualified separate line of business of the employer (prior line of business) and, for the immediately succeeding testing year, the employee is not a substantial-service employee with respect to that prior line of business; or

(2) For a testing year (the base year), the employee was a residual shared employee and, for the immediately succeeding testing year, the employee is a substantial-service employee with respect to a qualified separate line of business.

(6)Examples of the separate employee workforce requirement. The following examples illustrate the application of the separate employee workforce requirement in paragraph (b)(4) of this section and the supplementary rules of this paragraph (c). Unless otherwise specified, it is assumed that the employees and their services described in these examples are taken into account under paragraphs (c) (4) and (5) of this section for the testing year and that the employer does not use the option under § 1.414(r)-11(b)(2) to treat employees who provide less than 75 percent of their services to a line of business as substantial-service employees with respect to the line of business.

Example 1.
Employer A operates three lines of business as determined under § 1.414(r)-2. One of Employer A's lines of business manufactures and sells tires and other automotive products. Employee M is a tire press operator in Employer A's tire factory. Employee N is the manager of the tire factory. Under these facts, the services of Employees M and N contribute to providing tires to customers of Employer A. Both employees therefore provide services to Employer A's tire and automotive products line of business within the meaning of paragraph (c)(5) of this section.
Example 2.
The facts are the same as in Example 1. In addition, none of the services of Employees M and N that contribute to providing property or services to customers contribute to providing any property or service other than tires to customers of Employer A. Under these facts, Employees M and N provide at least 75 percent of their respective services to Employer A's tire and automotive products line of business. Therefore Employees M and N are substantial-service employees with respect to Employer A's tire and automotive products line of business within the meaning of § 1.414(r)-11(b)(2), and do not provide any services within the meaning of paragraph (c)(5) of this section to any of Employer A's other lines of business. Moreover, because Employees M and N provide at least 75 percent of their services to Employer A's tire and automotive products line of business and are substantial-service employees with respect to that line, they are disregarded in applying paragraph (b)(4) of this section to any other line of business, even if they provide services to the other line.
Example 3.
The facts are the same as in Example 2. Employer A's second line of business manufactures and sells construction machinery, and Employer A's third line of business manufactures and sells agricultural equipment. As part of these lines of business, Employer A operates a construction machinery factory and an agricultural equipment factory on the same site as the tire factory described in Example 2. Employer A's facilities at the site include a health clinic and a fitness center that serve the employees of the construction machinery factory, the agricultural equipment factory, and the tire factory. Employee O is a nurse in the health clinic, and Employee P is a fitness instructor in the fitness center. Both employees therefore provide services within the meaning of paragraph (c)(5) of this section to Employer A's tire and automotive products line of business, construction machinery line of business, and agricultural equipment line of business. In addition, under these facts, Employer A determines that approximately 33 percent of the services of Employees O and P are provided to each of Employer A's three lines of business. As a result, neither Employee O or P provide at least 75 percent of their respective services to any of Employer A's lines of business. Therefore, Employees O and P are not substantial-service employees with respect to any of Employer A's three lines of business within the meaning of § 1.414(r)-11(b)(2).
Example 4.
The facts are the same as in Example 3. Employee Q is the president and chief executive officer of Employer A and is responsible for reviewing the performance of all Employer A's lines of business. Under these facts, the services of Employee Q contributes to providing property and services to customers of each of Employer A's three lines of business. Employee Q therefore provides services to each of these three lines of business. Employer A determines that Employee Q provides the following percentages of his services to Employer A's three lines of business: tire and automotive products - 40 percent; construction machinery - 40 percent, and agricultural equipment - 20 percent. Employee Q does not provide at least 75 percent of his services to any of Employer A's lines of business. Therefore, Employee Q is not a substantial-service employee with respect to any of Employer A's three lines of business within the meaning of § 1.414(r)-11(b)(2).
Example 5.
The facts are the same as in Example 4, except that Employer A also owns 75 percent of Corporation X. Corporation X is not treated as part of Employer A within the meaning of § 1.410(b)-9. Employee R is an accountant in the accounting department of Employer A. Employee R devotes all of his time to maintaining the accounting books and records of the tire and automotive products line of business of Employer A and the accounting books and records of Corporation X. Employer A determines that Employee R provides 40 percent of his services directly to the tire and automotive products line of business. Employer A also determines that Employee R provides the following percentages of the remainder of Employee R's services (i.e., his provision of services of maintaining the accounting books and records of Corporation X) indirectly to Employer A's three lines of business by virtue of the services he provides to Corporation X: tire and automotive products - 25 percent; construction machinery - 20 percent, and agricultural equipment - 15 percent. Therefore, Employee R provides 65 percent of his services to the tire and automotive products line of business of Employer A (i.e., 40 percent directly and 25 percent indirectly). Under the definition of substantial-service employee in § 1.414(r)-11(b)(2), Employer A may treat Employee R as a substantial-service employee with respect to the tire and automotive products line of business because Employee R provides at least 50 percent of his services to that line. In that case, Employee R would be disregarded in applying paragraph (b)(4) of this section to the construction machinery and agricultural equipment lines of business.
Example 6.
The facts are the same as in Example 5. Employee S is a lawyer in the legal department located at the headquarters who devotes all her time to product liability suits filed against the construction machinery line of business. Under these facts, the services of Employee S contribute to providing property and services to customers of Employer A in the construction machinery line of business, and therefore Employee S provides services to that line of business. Because Employee S's services do not contribute to providing property or services in any other of Employer A's lines of business within the meaning of paragraph (c)(5) of this section, Employee S provides more than 75 percent of her services to the construction machinery line of business and therefore is a substantial-service employee with respect to Employer A's construction machinery line of business within the meaning of § 1.414(r)-11(b)(2).
Example 7.
The facts are the same as in Example 6. Employer A also maintains a separate facility that houses a centralized procurement, marketing, and billing operation for all of its lines of business. None of the procurement, marketing, or billing employees specializes in any particular line of business. Under these facts, the services of the procurement, marketing, and billing employees contribute to providing property and services to customers of Employer A in each of Employer A's three lines of business. Employer A determines that each of the procurement, marketing, and billing employees provides approximately an equal proportion of their services to each of Employer A's three lines of business. These employees therefore provide services to all of Employer A's lines of business within the meaning of paragraph (c)(5) of this section. However, none of them provides at least 75 percent of his services to any line of business. Therefore, these employees are not substantial-service employees with respect to any of Employer A's three lines of business within the meaning of § 1.414(r)-11(b)(2).
Example 8.
The facts are the same as in Example 7. Employee T works for the construction machinery line of business. During the testing year, he is temporarily detailed to the agricultural equipment line of business. His temporary detail lasts for one week, after which he returns to his regular duties with the construction machinery line of business. Under these facts, Employee T does not provide more than a negligible portion of his services during the testing year to the agricultural equipment line of business. Accordingly, Employee T does not provide services to the agricultural equipment line of business within the meaning of paragraph (c)(5) of this section. In addition, because Employee T provides at least 75 percent of his services to the construction machinery line of business, Employee T is a substantial-service employee with respect to Employer A's agricultural equipment line of business within the meaning of § 1.414(r)-11(b)(2).
Example 9.
The facts are the same as in Example 8, except that, during the testing year but before the first testing day, Employee T retires from employment with Employer A. Under paragraph (c)(5)(ii) of this section, Employee T is not taken into account in determining whether Employer A's construction machinery line of business has its own separate employee workforce within the meaning of paragraph (b)(4) of this section.
Example 10.
Employer B is a multinational controlled group of corporations that engages in the exploration, production, refining, and marketing of petrochemical products. Employer B operates two lines of business as determined under § 1.414(r)-2. The first line of business (the “exploration, production, and refining line of business”) provides lubricating oil, gasoline, and other petrochemical products to wholesale customers of Employer B as well as to the second line of business. The wholesale customers of Employer B include independent jobbers, independent franchisees that operate retail filling stations under Employer B's trademark and tradename, as well as chemical and plastics manufacturers. The second line of business (the “retail marketing line of business”) provides lubricating oil and gasoline products to retail customers of Employer B through filling stations owned and operated by Employer B. Employee U is an attendant at a filling station owned and operated by Employer B. Employee U performs no other services for Employer B, Under these facts, Employee U provides at least 75 percent of his services to Employer B's retail marketing line of business and therefore is a substantial-service employee with respect to that line of business within the meaning of § 1.414(r)-11(b)(2), and does not provide any services within the meaning of paragraph (c)(5) of this section to any of Employer B's other lines of business.
Example 11.
The facts are the same as in Example 10. Employer B operates a refinery that produces lubricating oil, gasoline, and other petrochemical products. Employee V is an operating engineer at the refinery who is involved at a stage in the refining process before lubricating oil and gasoline products have been separated from other types of petrochemical products. Employee V performs no other services for Employer B. Under these facts, Employee V's services contribute to providing property and services to customers of Employer B in both the exploration, production, and refining line of business and the retail marketing line of business. Employee V therefore provides services to both lines of business within the meaning of paragraph (c)(5) of this section. See paragraph (d) of this section, however, for an optional rule for vertically integrated lines of business.
Example 12.
The facts are the same as in Example 11. Employee W is a petroleum engineer who conducts geological studies of potential future drilling sites. Although Employee W's services during the testing year will not contribute to providing lubricating oil, gasoline, and other petrochemical products to customers of Employer B during the testing year, it is reasonably anticipated (in accordance with paragraph (c)(5)(ii)(B) of this section) that her services during the testing year will contribute to providing such products to customers of Employer B after the close of the testing year. Under these facts, Employee W provides her services to both of Employer B's lines of business within the meaning of paragraph (c)(5) of this section.

(7)Examples of the separate management requirement. The following examples illustrate the application of the separate management requirement in paragraph (b)(5) of this section and the supplementary rules of this paragraph (c). Unless otherwise specified, it is assumed that employees who provide services to a line of business are not substantial-service employees with respect to any other line of business and that, in determining the top-paid employees with respect to a line of business, the employer is using the option under § 1.414(r)-11(b)(3) to disregard all employees who provide less than 25 percent of their services to that line of business.

Example 1.
(a) Employer C operates three lines of business as determined under § 1.414(r)-2. One of its lines of business is the operation of a chain of athletic equipment and apparel stores. Of Employer C's total workforce, 12,000 employees provide more than a negligible amount of the services they provide to Employer C to the athletic equipment and apparel stores line of business, within the meaning of paragraph (c)(5) of this section. Of the 1,200 employees who constitute the top ten percent by compensation of those 12,000 employees, 930 are substantial-service employees with respect to that line of business. Because 930 is 77.5 percent of 1,200, less than 80 percent of the top-paid employees with respect to the line of business are substantial-service employees with respect to that line of business. Therefore, Employer C's athletic equipment and apparel stores line of business does not have its own separate management under paragraph (b)(5) of this section.

(b) Assume that, in determining the top-paid employees with respect to the athletic equipment and apparel stores line of business, Employer C chooses to disregard all employees who provide less than 25 percent of their services to the line of business as permitted under the definition in § 1.414(r)-11(b)(3). Of the 12,000 employees who provide more than a negligible amount of their services to the athletic equipment and apparel stores line of business, 10,000 provide at least 25 percent of their services to that line. Of the 1,000 employees who constitute the top ten percent by compensation of those 10,000 employees, 930 are substantial-service employees with respect to the athletic equipment and apparel stores line of business. Because 930 is 93 percent of 1,000, at least 80 percent of the top-paid employees with respect to the line of business are substantial-service employees with respect to that line of business. Therefore, Employer C's athletic equipment and apparel stores line of business has its own separate management and satisfies the requirement of paragraph (b)(5) of this section.

Example 2.
The facts are the same as in Example 1. Employee X is a vice president of the accounting department located at the headquarters, who devotes all of his time supervising the staff of Employer C's accounting department. Employer C determines that 10 percent of Employee X's services contribute to providing property and services to customers of Employer C's athletic equipment and apparel stores line of business and 45 percent of Employee X's services contribute to providing property and services to customers to each of Employer C's other two lines of business. Because Employee X does not provide at least 25 percent of his services to Employer C's athletic equipment and apparel stores line of business, Employee X is not one of the 10,000 employees described in Example 1 and therefore cannot be a top-paid employee within the meaning of § 1.414(r)-11(b)(3) with respect to the athletic equipment and apparel stores line of business. Therefore, Employee X is not taken into account in determining whether the athletic equipment and apparel stores line of business satisfies the separate management requirement of paragraph (b)(5) of this section.
Example 3.
The facts are the same as in Example 2 except that Employee X provides 60 percent of his services to Employer C's second line of business, an athletic equipment factory, and 30 percent of his service to Employer C's third line of business, a fast-food chain. Because Employee X provides at least 50 percent of his services to the athletic equipment factory line of business, Employer C chooses to treat him as a substantial- service employee with respect to that line of business, as permitted under § 1.414(r)-11(b)(2). Thus, Employee X is taken into account as a substantial-service employee with respect to the athletic equipment factory line of business and is disregarded in applying the separate workforce and separate management requirements under paragraphs (b) (4) and (5) to the fast-food chain line of business.
Example 4.
Employer D operates four lines of business as determined under § 1.414(r)-2. One of its lines of business is a machine tool shop. Sixty of Employer D's employees provide at least 25 percent of their services to the machine tool shop line of business. Of the six employees who constitute the top 10 percent by compensation of those 60 employees, four are substantial-service employees with respect to the line of business. Because four is 67 percent of six, 80 percent of the top-paid employees with respect to the machine tool shop line of business are not substantial-service employees with respect to that line of business. Therefore the machine tool shop line of business does not satisfy the separate management requirement of paragraph (b)(5) of this section.
Example 5.
The facts are the same as in Example 4, except that, in addition, another of Employer D's lines of business is an automotive repair shop, and 80 of Employer D's employees provide at least 25 percent of their services to that line of business. Employer D combines the machine shop line of business with the automotive repair shop line of business and treats them as a single line of business. As a result, Employer D has three lines of business as determined under § 1.414(r)-2. Assume that 150 of Employer D's employees provide more than 25 percent of their services to the machine tool shop/automotive repair shop line of business within the meaning of paragraph (c)(5) of this section. Of the 15 employees who constitute the top 10 percent by compensation of these 150 employees, 12 are substantial-service employees with respect to that line of business. Because 12 is 80 percent of 15, at least 80 percent of the top-paid employees with respect to the machine tool shop/automotive repair shop line of business are substantial-service employees with respect to that line of business. Therefore, the machine tool shop/automotive repair shop line of business satisfies the separate management requirement of paragraph (b)(5) of this section.

(d)Optional rule for vertically integrated lines of business -

(1)In general. If two lines of business satisfy the requirements of this paragraph (d) with respect to a type of property or service for a testing year, the employer is permitted to apply the optional rule in this paragraph (d) for the testing year.

(2)Requirements. Two lines of business satisfy the requirements of this paragraph (d) with respect to a type of property or service only if -

(i) One of the lines of business (the upstream line of business) provides a type of property or service to the other line of business (the downstream line of business);

(ii) The downstream line of business either -

(A) Uses, consumes, or substantially modifies the property or service in the course of itself providing property or services to customers of the employer; or

(B) Provides the same property or service to customers of the employer at a different level in the chain of commercial distribution from the upstream line of business (e.g., retail versus wholesale); and

(iii) The upstream line of business either -

(A) Provides the same type of property or service to customers of the employer, and at least 25 percent of the total number of units of the same type of property or service provided by the upstream line of business to all persons (including customers of the employer, the downstream line of business, and all other lines of business of the employer) are provided to customers of the employer by the upstream line of business, when measured on a uniform basis; or

(B) Provides to the downstream line of business property consisting primarily of a type of tangible property (i.e., goods, not services) that it produces or manufactures, and some entities outside the employer's controlled group that are engaged in a similar business as the upstream line of business provide the same type of tangible property to unrelated customers (i.e., customers outside those entities' respective controlled groups).

(3)Optional rule -

(i)Treatment of employees. For purposes of determining the lines of business to which an employee provides services under paragraph (c)(5) of this section, an employee is not treated as providing services to the downstream line of business if -

(A) The employee is considered to provide services to the downstream line of business under paragraph (c)(5) of this section (applied without regard to the optional rule in this paragraph (d)); and

(B) The employee is so considered solely because the employee's services contribute to providing the property or service from the upstream line of business to the downstream line of business.

(ii)Purposes for which optional rule applies. If an employee applies the optional rule in this paragraph (d), the treatment specified in paragraphs (d)(3)(i) (A) and (B) of this section applies for all the following purposes and only for the following purposes -

(A) The separate employee workforce and separate management requirements of paragraphs (b)(4) and (b)(5) of this section;

(B) The 50-employee requirement of § 1.414(r)-4(b); and

(C) The determination of the employees of a qualified separate line of business under § 1.414(r)-7.

(4)Examples. The following examples illustrate the application of the optional rule in this paragraph (d).

Example 1.
Employer E operates two lines of business as determined under § 1.414(r)-2, one engaged in upholstery textile manufacturing and the other in furniture manufacturing. During the testing year, the upholstery textile line of business provides its entire output of upholstery textiles to the furniture line of business. The furniture line of business uses the upholstery textiles in the manufacture of upholstered furniture for sale to customers of Employer E. The furniture line of business thus substantially modifies the upholstery textiles provided to it by the upholstery textile line of business in providing upholstered furniture products to customers of Employer E. In addition, although the upholstery textile line of business does not provide upholstery textiles to customers of Employer E, some entities engaged in upholstery textile manufacturing provide upholstery textiles to customers outside their controlled groups. Under these facts, Employer E's two lines of business satisfy the requirements of this paragraph (d) with respect to upholstery textiles for the testing year.
Example 2.
Employer B is a multinational controlled group of corporations that engages in the exploration, production, refining, and marketing of petrochemical products. See Example 10 under paragraph (c)(7) of this section. Employer B operates two lines of business as determined under § 1.414(r)-(2). The first line of business (“the exploration, production, and refining line of business”) provides lubricating oil, gasoline, and other petrochemical products to wholesale customers of Employee B as well as the second line of business. The wholesale customers of Employee B include independent jobbers, independent franchisees that operate retail filling stations under Employee B's trademark and tradename, as well as chemical and plastics manufacturers. The second line of business (the “retail marketing line of business”) provides lubricating oil and gasoline products to retail customers of Employee B through filing stations owned and operated by Employee B. During the testing year, the exploration, production and refining line of business provides 25,000 gallons of lubricating oil, 100,000 gallons of unleaded and 150,000 gallons of leaded gasoline to the retail marketing line of business, and 75,000 gallons of lubricating oil, 500,000 gallons of unleaded gasoline and 15,000 gallons of leaded gasoline to wholesale customers of Employer B. Thus, the exploration, production, and refining line of business provides 75 percent of its output of lubricating oil during the testing year to wholesale customers of Employer B. In addition, because unleaded and leaded gasoline is the same type of property (i.e., gasoline), the exploration, production, and refining line of business provides 67 percent of its output of gasoline products during the testing year to wholesale customers of Employer B. Furthermore, the retail line of business provides lubricating oil and gasoline products to customers of Employer B at different levels in the chain of commercial distribution than the exploration, production, and refining line of business. Under these facts, Employer B's two lines of business satisfy the requirements of this paragraph (d) with respect to both lubricating oil and gasoline products for the testing year.
Example 3.
The facts are the same as in Example 2. Employer B operates a refinery that produces lubricating oil, gasoline, and other petrochemical products. Employee V is an operating engineer at the refinery who is involved at a stage in the refining process before lubricating oil and gasoline products have been separated from other types of petrochemical products. Employee V performs no other services for Employer B. Absent application of the optional rule in this paragraph (d), Employee V would be considered to provide services to both of Employer B's lines of business. See Example 11 under paragraph (c)(7) of this section. However, because Employee V's services to the retail marketing line of business contribute solely to providing lubricating oil and gasoline products from the exploration, production, and refining line of business to the retail marketing line of business, under the optional rule in paragraph (d)(3)(i) of this section Employee V is not treated as providing services to the retail marketing line of business.
Example 4.
The facts are the same as in Example 3. Employee W is a petroleum engineer who conducts geological studies of potential future drilling sites. Employee W performs no other services for Employer B. Absent application of the optional rule in this paragraph (d), Employee W would be considered to provide services to both of Employer B's lines of business. See Example 12 under paragraph (c)(7) of this Section. However, because Employee W's services to the retail marketing line of business contribute solely to providing lubricating oil and gasoline products from the exploration, production, and refining line of business to the retail marketing line of business, under the optional rule in paragraph (d)(3)(i) of this section Employee W is not treated as providing services to the retail marketing line of business.
Example 5.
The facts are the same as in Example 4. Employee Y is a vice president in Employer B's home office. As part of his senior management responsibilities, Employee Y helps to set the rate of production at Employer B's refineries in the United States and also helps to set the price charged at the pump at the retail filling stations owned and operated by Employer B in this country. Absent application of the optional rule in this paragraph (d), Employee X would be considered to provide services to both of Employer B's lines of business within the meaning of paragraph (c)(5) of this section for purposes of satisfying the separate workforce requirement of paragraph (b)(4) of this section. Because Employee X helps to set the price charged at the pump by Employer B's retail marketing line of business, Employee X's services to the retail marketing line of business are not limited to contributing solely to providing lubricating oil and gasoline products from the exploration, production, and refining line of business to the retail marketing line of business, as required under paragraph (d)(3)(i)(B) of this section. Accordingly, even though Employer B's two lines of business satisfy the requirements of this paragraph (d) with respect to both lubricating oil and gasoline products for the testing year, and even though Employer B applies the optional rule in this paragraph (d), Employee X is still considered to provide services to both of Employer B's lines of business.
[T.D. 8376, 56 FR 63442, Dec. 4, 1991, as amended by T.D. 8548, 59 FR 32917, June 27, 1994]

This is a list of United States Code sections, Statutes at Large, Public Laws, and Presidential Documents, which provide rulemaking authority for this CFR Part.

This list is taken from the Parallel Table of Authorities and Rules provided by GPO [Government Printing Office].

It is not guaranteed to be accurate or up-to-date, though we do refresh the database weekly. More limitations on accuracy are described at the GPO site.


United States Code
U.S. Code: Title 26 - INTERNAL REVENUE CODE

§ 1 - Tax imposed

§ 21 - Expenses for household and dependent care services necessary for gainful employment

§ 23 - Adoption expenses

§ 25 - Interest on certain home mortgages

§ 25A - Hope and Lifetime Learning credits

§ 28 - Renumbered § 45C]

§ 30 - Repealed. Pub. L. 113–295, div. A, title II, § 221(a)(2)(A), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 4037]

§ 36B - Refundable credit for coverage under a qualified health plan

§ 38 - General business credit

§ 40 - Alcohol, etc., used as fuel

§ 41 - Credit for increasing research activities

§ 42 - Low-income housing credit

§ 43 - Enhanced oil recovery credit

§ 45D - New markets tax credit

§ 46 - Amount of credit

§ 47 - Rehabilitation credit

§ 52 - Special rules

§ 56 - Adjustments in computing alternative minimum taxable income

§ 58 - Denial of certain losses

§ 61 - Gross income defined

§ 62 - Adjusted gross income defined

§ 66 - Treatment of community income

§ 67 - 2-percent floor on miscellaneous itemized deductions

§ 72 - Annuities; certain proceeds of endowment and life insurance contracts

§ 101 - Certain death benefits

§ 103 - Interest on State and local bonds

§ 103A - Repealed. Pub. L. 99–514, title XIII, § 1301(j)(1), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2657]

§ 108 - Income from discharge of indebtedness

§ 110 - Qualified lessee construction allowances for short-term leases

§ 129 - Dependent care assistance programs

§ 132 - Certain fringe benefits

§ 148 - Arbitrage

§ 149 - Bonds must be registered to be tax exempt; other requirements

§ 150 - Definitions and special rules

§ 152 - Dependent defined

§ 162 - Trade or business expenses

§ 163 - Interest

§ 165 - Losses

§ 166 - Bad debts

§ 168 - Accelerated cost recovery system

§ 170 - Charitable, etc., contributions and gifts

§ 171 - Amortizable bond premium

§ 179 - Election to expense certain depreciable business assets

§ 179A - Repealed. Pub. L. 113–295, div. A, title II, § 221(a)(34)(A), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 4042]

§ 197 - Amortization of goodwill and certain other intangibles

§ 199 - Income attributable to domestic production activities

§ 216 - Deduction of taxes, interest, and business depreciation by cooperative housing corporation tenant-stockholder

§ 221 - Interest on education loans

§ 263A - Capitalization and inclusion in inventory costs of certain expenses

§ 267 - Losses, expenses, and interest with respect to transactions between related taxpayers

§ 274 - Disallowance of certain entertainment, etc., expenses

§ 280C - Certain expenses for which credits are allowable

§ 280F - Limitation on depreciation for luxury automobiles; limitation where certain property used for personal purposes

§ 280G - Golden parachute payments

§ 301 - Distributions of property

§ 304 - Redemption through use of related corporations

§ 305 - Distributions of stock and stock rights

§ 324

§ 336 - Gain or loss recognized on property distributed in complete liquidation

§ 337 - Nonrecognition for property distributed to parent in complete liquidation of subsidiary

§ 338 - Certain stock purchases treated as asset acquisitions

§ 351 - Transfer to corporation controlled by transferor

§ 355 - Distribution of stock and securities of a controlled corporation

§ 357 - Assumption of liability

§ 358 - Basis to distributees

§ 362 - Basis to corporations

§ 367 - Foreign corporations

§ 382 - Limitation on net operating loss carryforwards and certain built-in losses following ownership change

§ 383 - Special limitations on certain excess credits, etc.

§ 401 - Qualified pension, profit-sharing, and stock bonus plans

§ 401 note - Qualified pension, profit-sharing, and stock bonus plans

§ 402A - Optional treatment of elective deferrals as Roth contributions

§ 403 - Taxation of employee annuities

§ 404 - Deduction for contributions of an employer to an employees’ trust or annuity plan and compensation under a deferred-payment plan

§ 408 - Individual retirement accounts

§ 408A - Roth IRAs

§ 409 - Qualifications for tax credit employee stock ownership plans

§ 410 - Minimum participation standards

§ 411 - Minimum vesting standards

§ 414 - Definitions and special rules

§ 417 - Definitions and special rules for purposes of minimum survivor annuity requirements

§ 419A - Qualified asset account; limitation on additions to account

§ 420 - Transfers of excess pension assets to retiree health accounts

§ 441 - Period for computation of taxable income

§ 442 - Change of annual accounting period

§ 444 - Election of taxable year other than required taxable year

§ 446 - General rule for methods of accounting

§ 453 - Installment method

§ 453A - Special rules for nondealers

§ 458 - Magazines, paperbacks, and records returned after the close of the taxable year

§ 460 - Special rules for long-term contracts

§ 461 - General rule for taxable year of deduction

§ 465 - Deductions limited to amount at risk

§ 466 - Repealed. Pub. L. 99–514, title VIII, § 823(a), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2373]

§ 467 - Certain payments for the use of property or services

§ 468A - Special rules for nuclear decommissioning costs

§ 468B - Special rules for designated settlement funds

§ 469 - Passive activity losses and credits limited

§ 471 - General rule for inventories

§ 472 - Last-in, first-out inventories

§ 475 - Mark to market accounting method for dealers in securities

§ 481 - Adjustments required by changes in method of accounting

§ 482 - Allocation of income and deductions among taxpayers

§ 483 - Interest on certain deferred payments

§ 493

§ 504 - Status after organization ceases to qualify for exemption under section 501(c)(3) because of substantial lobbying or because of political activities

§ 514 - Unrelated debt-financed income

§ 527 - Political organizations

§ 585 - Reserves for losses on loans of banks

§ 597 - Treatment of transactions in which Federal financial assistance provided

§ 642 - Special rules for credits and deductions

§ 643 - Definitions applicable to subparts A, B, C, and D

§ 645 - Certain revocable trusts treated as part of estate

§ 663 - Special rules applicable to sections 661 and 662

§ 664 - Charitable remainder trusts

§ 672 - Definitions and rules

§ 679 - Foreign trusts having one or more United States beneficiaries

§ 701 - Partners, not partnership, subject to tax

§ 702 - Income and credits of partner

§ 703 - Partnership computations

§ 704 - Partner’s distributive share

§ 705 - Determination of basis of partner’s interest

§ 706 - Taxable years of partner and partnership

§ 707 - Transactions between partner and partnership

§ 708 - Continuation of partnership

§ 709 - Treatment of organization and syndication fees

§ 721 - Nonrecognition of gain or loss on contribution

§ 722 - Basis of contributing partner’s interest

§ 723 - Basis of property contributed to partnership

§ 724 - Character of gain or loss on contributed unrealized receivables, inventory items, and capital loss property

§ 731 - Extent of recognition of gain or loss on distribution

§ 732 - Basis of distributed property other than money

§ 733 - Basis of distributee partner’s interest

§ 734 - Adjustment to basis of undistributed partnership property where section 754 election or substantial basis reduction

§ 735 - Character of gain or loss on disposition of distributed property

§ 736 - Payments to a retiring partner or a deceased partner’s successor in interest

§ 737 - Recognition of precontribution gain in case of certain distributions to contributing partner

§ 741 - Recognition and character of gain or loss on sale or exchange

§ 742 - Basis of transferee partner’s interest

§ 743 - Special rules where section 754 election or substantial built-in loss

§ 751 - Unrealized receivables and inventory items

§ 752 - Treatment of certain liabilities

§ 753 - Partner receiving income in respect of decedent

§ 754 - Manner of electing optional adjustment to basis of partnership property

§ 755 - Rules for allocation of basis

§ 761 - Terms defined

§ 809 - Repealed. Pub. L. 108–218, title II, § 205(a), Apr. 10, 2004, 118 Stat. 610]

§ 817A - Special rules for modified guaranteed contracts

§ 832 - Insurance company taxable income

§ 845 - Certain reinsurance agreements

§ 846 - Discounted unpaid losses defined

§ 848 - Capitalization of certain policy acquisition expenses

§ 852 - Taxation of regulated investment companies and their shareholders

§ 860E - Treatment of income in excess of daily accruals on residual interests

§ 860G - Other definitions and special rules

§ 863 - Special rules for determining source

§ 864 - Definitions and special rules

§ 865 - Source rules for personal property sales

§ 874 - Allowance of deductions and credits

§ 882 - Tax on income of foreign corporations connected with United States business

§ 883 - Exclusions from gross income

§ 884 - Branch profits tax

§ 892 - Income of foreign governments and of international organizations

§ 894 - Income affected by treaty

§ 897 - Disposition of investment in United States real property

§ 901 - Taxes of foreign countries and of possessions of United States

§ 902 - Deemed paid credit where domestic corporation owns 10 percent or more of voting stock of foreign corporation

§ 904 - Limitation on credit

§ 907 - Special rules in case of foreign oil and gas income

§ 911 - Citizens or residents of the United States living abroad

§ 924

§ 925

§ 927

§ 934 - Limitation on reduction in income tax liability incurred to the Virgin Islands

§ 936 - Puerto Rico and possession tax credit

§ 937 - Residence and source rules involving possessions

§ 954 - Foreign base company income

§ 956 - Investment of earnings in United States property

§ 957 - Controlled foreign corporations; United States persons

§ 960 - Special rules for foreign tax credit

§ 963 - Repealed. Pub. L. 94–12, title VI, § 602(a)(1), Mar. 29, 1975, 89 Stat. 58]

§ 985 - Functional currency

§ 987 - Branch transactions

§ 988 - Treatment of certain foreign currency transactions

§ 989 - Other definitions and special rules

§ 1017 - Discharge of indebtedness

§ 1032 - Exchange of stock for property

§ 1059 - Corporate shareholder’s basis in stock reduced by nontaxed portion of extraordinary dividends

§ 1060 - Special allocation rules for certain asset acquisitions

§ 1092 - Straddles

§ 1202 - Partial exclusion for gain from certain small business stock

§ 1221 - Capital asset defined

§ 1244 - Losses on small business stock

§ 1248 - Gain from certain sales or exchanges of stock in certain foreign corporations

§ 1254 - Gain from disposition of interest in oil, gas, geothermal, or other mineral properties

§ 1275 - Other definitions and special rules

§ 1286 - Tax treatment of stripped bonds

§ 1291 - Interest on tax deferral

§ 1293 - Current taxation of income from qualified electing funds

§ 1294 - Election to extend time for payment of tax on undistributed earnings

§ 1295 - Qualified electing fund

§ 1296 - Election of mark to market for marketable stock

§ 1297 - Passive foreign investment company

§ 1298 - Special rules

§ 1301 - Averaging of farm income

§ 1361 - S corporation defined

§ 1368 - Distributions

§ 1374 - Tax imposed on certain built-in gains

§ 1377 - Definitions and special rule

§ 1378 - Taxable year of S corporation

§ 1397D - Qualified zone property defined

§ 1397E - Credit to holders of qualified zone academy bonds

§ 1402 - Definitions

§ 1441 - Withholding of tax on nonresident aliens

§ 1443 - Foreign tax-exempt organizations

§ 1445 - Withholding of tax on dispositions of United States real property interests

§ 1471 - Withholdable payments to foreign financial institutions

§ 1472 - Withholdable payments to other foreign entities

§ 1473 - Definitions

§ 1474 - Special rules

§ 1502 - Regulations

§ 1503 - Computation and payment of tax

§ 1504 - Definitions

§ 1561 - Limitations on certain multiple tax benefits in the case of certain controlled corporations

§ 3401 - Definitions

§ 5000 - Certain group health plans

§ 5000A - Requirement to maintain minimum essential coverage

§ 6001 - Notice or regulations requiring records, statements, and special returns

§ 6011 - General requirement of return, statement, or list

§ 6015 - Relief from joint and several liability on joint return

§ 6033 - Returns by exempt organizations

§ 6035 - Basis information to persons acquiring property from decedent

§ 6038 - Information reporting with respect to certain foreign corporations and partnerships

§ 6038A - Information with respect to certain foreign-owned corporations

§ 6038B - Notice of certain transfers to foreign persons

§ 6038D - Information with respect to foreign financial assets

§ 6039I - Returns and records with respect to employer-owned life insurance contracts

§ 6041 - Information at source

§ 6043 - Liquidating, etc., transactions

§ 6045 - Returns of brokers

§ 6046A - Returns as to interests in foreign partnerships

§ 6049 - Returns regarding payments of interest

§ 6050E - State and local income tax refunds

§ 6050H - Returns relating to mortgage interest received in trade or business from individuals

§ 6050I-1

§ 6050K - Returns relating to exchanges of certain partnership interests

§ 6050M - Returns relating to persons receiving contracts from Federal executive agencies

§ 6050P - Returns relating to the cancellation of indebtedness by certain entities

§ 6050S - Returns relating to higher education tuition and related expenses

§ 6060 - Information returns of tax return preparers

§ 6061 - Signing of returns and other documents

§ 6065 - Verification of returns

§ 6081 - Extension of time for filing returns

§ 6103 - Confidentiality and disclosure of returns and return information

§ 6109 - Identifying numbers

§ 6302 - Mode or time of collection

§ 6402 - Authority to make credits or refunds

§ 6411 - Tentative carryback and refund adjustments

§ 6655 - Failure by corporation to pay estimated income tax

§ 6662 - Imposition of accuracy-related penalty on underpayments

§ 6695 - Other assessable penalties with respect to the preparation of tax returns for other persons

§ 6851 - Termination assessments of income tax

§ 7520 - Valuation tables

§ 7654 - Coordination of United States and certain possession individual income taxes

§ 7701 - Definitions

§ 7702 - Life insurance contract defined

§ 7805 - Rules and regulations

§ 7872 - Treatment of loans with below-market interest rates

§ 7874 - Rules relating to expatriated entities and their foreign parents

U.S. Code: Title 29 - LABOR
Statutes at Large
Public Laws
Presidential Documents

Reorganization ... 1978 Plan No. 4

Title 26 published on 16-Jun-2017 03:58

The following are ALL rules, proposed rules, and notices (chronologically) published in the Federal Register relating to 26 CFR Part 1 after this date.

  • 2017-06-30; vol. 82 # 125 - Friday, June 30, 2017
    1. 82 FR 29719 - Regulations Regarding Withholding of Tax on Certain U.S. Source Income Paid to Foreign Persons, Information Reporting and Backup Withholding on Payments Made to Certain U.S. Persons, and Portfolio Interest Treatment; Correction
      GPO FDSys XML | Text
      DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY, Internal Revenue Service
      Correcting amendment.
        Effective Date: These corrections are effective June 30, 2017. Applicability Date: The corrections to §§ 1.1441-0; 1.1441-1(b)(7)(ii)(B), (e)(3)(iv)(B) and (C), (e)(4)(ii)(B)( 11 ), (e)(4)(ix)(D), (e)(5)(ii) through (e)(5)(ii)(B), (e)(5)(ii)(D) through (e)(5)(v)(B)( 3 ), (e)(5)(v)(B)( 5 ) through (e)(5)(v)(D), and (f) through (f)(4); 1.1441-1T; 1.1441-3(d)(1); 1.1441-4; 1.6045-1(m)(2)(ii) and (n)(12)(ii); and 1.6049-5(c)(1) through (c)(4) are applicable on January 6, 2017.
      26 CFR Part 1

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