26 CFR § 1.430(a)-1 - Determination of minimum required contribution.

§ 1.430(a)-1 Determination of minimum required contribution.

(a)In general -

(1)Overview. This section sets forth rules for determining a plan's minimum required contribution for a plan year under section 430(a). Section 430 and this section apply to single-employer defined benefit plans (including multiple employer plans as defined in section 413(c)) that are subject to section 412 but do not apply to multiemployer plans (as defined in section 414(f)). Paragraph (b) of this section defines a plan's minimum required contribution for a plan year. Paragraph (c) of this section provides rules for determining shortfall amortization installments. Paragraph (d) of this section provides rules for determining waiver amortization installments. Paragraph (e) of this section provides for early deemed amortization of shortfall and waiver amortization bases for fully funded plans. Paragraph (f) of this section provides definitions that apply for purposes of this section. Paragraph (g) of this section provides examples that illustrate the application of this section. Paragraph (h) of this section provides effective/applicability dates and transition rules.

(2)Special rules for multiple employer plans -

(i)In general. In the case of a multiple employer plan to which section 413(c)(4)(A) applies, the rules of section 430 and this section are applied separately for each employer under the plan, as if each employer maintained a separate plan. Thus, the minimum required contribution is computed separately for each employer under such a multiple employer plan. In the case of a multiple employer plan to which section 413(c)(4)(A) does not apply (that is, a plan described in section 413(c)(4)(B) that has not made the election for section 413(c)(4)(A) to apply), the rules of section 430 and this section are applied as if all participants in the plan were employed by a single employer.

(ii)CSEC plans. A CSEC plan (that is, a plan that fits within the definition of a CSEC plan in section 414(y) for plan years beginning on or after January 1, 2014 and for which the election under section 414(y)(3)(A) has not been made) is not subject to the rules of section 430. See section 433 for the minimum funding rules that apply to CSEC plans.

(b)Definition of minimum required contribution -

(1)In general. In the case of a defined benefit plan that is subject to section 430, except as offset under section 430(f) and § 1.430(f) 1, the minimum required contribution for a plan year is determined as the applicable amount determined under paragraph (b)(2) of this section or paragraph (b)(3) of this section, reduced by the amount of any funding waiver under section 412(c) that is granted for the plan year. See paragraph (b)(4) of this section for special rules for a plan maintained by a commercial passenger airline (or other eligible employer) for which an election under section 402 of the Pension Protection Act of 2006, Public Law 109-280 (120 Stat. 780), as amended (PPA '06), has been made, and see section 430(j) and § 1.430(j) 1(b) for rules regarding the required interest adjustment for a contribution that is paid on a date other than the valuation date for the plan year. See also § 1.430(j)-1(d)(3)(iv)(B) for rules regarding an increase to the minimum required contribution in certain circumstances for a plan with an unpaid liquidity amount.

(2)Plan assets less than funding target -

(i)General rule. For any plan year in which the value of plan assets (as reduced to reflect the subtraction of certain funding balances as provided under § 1.430(f)-1(c), but not below zero) is less than the funding target for the plan year, the minimum required contribution for that plan year is equal to the sum of -

(A) The target normal cost for the plan year;

(B) The total (not less than zero) of the shortfall amortization installments as described in paragraph (c) of this section determined with respect to any shortfall amortization base for the plan year and for each preceding plan year for which the shortfall amortization base has not been fully taken into account (generally, the 6 preceding plan years); and

(C) The total of the waiver amortization installments as described in paragraph (d) of this section determined with respect to any waiver amortization base for all preceding plan years for which the waiver amortization base has not been fully taken into account (generally, the 5 preceding plan years).

(ii)Special rule for short plan years -

(A)Proration of amortization installments. In determining the minimum required contribution in the case of a plan year that is shorter than 12 months (and is not a 52-week plan year of a plan that uses a 52-53 week plan year), the shortfall amortization installments and waiver amortization installments that are taken into account under paragraphs (b)(2)(i)(B) and (C) of this section are determined by multiplying the amount of those installments that would be taken into account for a 12-month plan year by a fraction, the numerator of which is the duration of the short plan year and the denominator of which is 1 year.

(B)Effect on subsequent years. In plan years after the short plan year, installments with respect to a shortfall amortization base or waiver amortization base continue to be taken into account under paragraphs (b)(2)(i)(B) and (C) of this section until the total amount of those installments, as originally determined when the base was established, has been taken into account. Thus, in the case of a plan that has a short plan year, an additional partial installment will be taken into account under paragraphs (b)(2)(i)(B) and (C) of this section for the plan year that ends after the end of the original amortization period (generally 7 years for shortfall amortization bases and 5 years for waiver amortization bases) in an amount determined so that the total of the amortization installments (including the prorated installment payable for the short plan year and the additional partial installment) is equal to the total of the amortization installments as originally determined.

(3)Plan assets equal or exceed funding target. For any plan year in which the value of plan assets (as reduced to reflect the subtraction of certain funding balances as provided under § 1.430(f)-1(c), but not below zero) equals or exceeds the funding target for the plan year, the minimum required contribution for that plan year is equal to the target normal cost for the plan year reduced (but not below zero) by that excess.

(4)Special rules for commercial passenger airlines -

(i)In general. This paragraph (b)(4) provides special rules for a plan maintained by a commercial passenger airline (or an employer whose principal business is providing catering services to a commercial passenger airline) for which an election under section 402(a)(1) of PPA '06 has been made. See paragraph (c)(4) of this section for special rules for a plan maintained by a commercial passenger airline (or an employer whose principal business is providing catering services to a commercial passenger airline) for which an election under section 402(a)(2) of PPA '06 has been made.

(ii)Determinations during 17-year amortization period. If an election described in section 402(a)(1) of PPA '06 applies for the plan year with respect to an eligible plan described in section 402(c)(1) of PPA '06, then the plan's minimum required contribution for purposes of section 430 of the Internal Revenue Code (Code) for the plan year is equal to the amount necessary to amortize (at an interest rate of 8.85 percent) the unfunded liability of the plan in equal installments over the remaining amortization period. For this purpose, the unfunded liability means the excess of the accrued liability under the plan determined using the unit credit funding method and an interest rate of 8.85 percent over the value of assets (as determined under section 430(g)(3) and § 1.430(g)-1(c)), and the remaining amortization period is the 17-plan-year period beginning with the first plan year for which the election was made, reduced by 1 year for each plan year after the first plan year for which the election was made. In addition, the section 430(f)(3) election to apply funding balances against the minimum required contribution does not apply to a plan to which the election described in section 402(a)(1) of PPA '06 applies for the plan year.

(iii)Determinations following the election period. If an election described in section 402(a)(1) of PPA '06 applied to the plan for any preceding plan year but does not apply for the current plan year, then the plan's minimum required contribution for purposes of section 430 of the Code for the plan year is determined without regard to that election. For the first plan year for which that election no longer applies to the plan, any prefunding balance or funding standard carryover balance is reduced to zero.

(5)Terminated plans -

(i)Short plan year. If a plan's termination date occurs during a plan year but before the last day of a plan year, then, for purposes of section 430, the plan is treated as having a short plan year that ends on the termination date.

(ii)Valuation date. If a plan's termination date is before the date that would otherwise have been the valuation date for a plan year, then the valuation date for the plan year must be changed so that it falls within the short plan year pursuant to § 1.430(g)-1(b)(2)(i). See § 1.430(g)-1(b)(2)(iv) for a rule providing automatic approval of changes in the valuation date that are required by section 430.

(c)Shortfall amortization installments -

(1)In general. Except as otherwise provided in paragraphs (c)(3) and (4) of this section, the shortfall amortization installments with respect to a shortfall amortization base established for a plan year are the annual amounts necessary to amortize that shortfall amortization base in level annual installments over the 7-year period beginning with that plan year. See § 1.430(h)(2)-1(e) and (f) for rules regarding interest rates used for determining shortfall amortization installments and the date within each plan year on which the installments are assumed to be paid. The shortfall amortization installments are determined using the interest rates that apply for the plan year for which the shortfall amortization base is established and are not redetermined in subsequent plan years to reflect any changes in the valuation date or changes in interest rates under section 430(h)(2) for those subsequent plan years.

(2)Shortfall amortization base -

(i)In general. Unless the value of plan assets (as reduced to reflect the subtraction of certain funding balances as provided under § 1.430(f)-1(c)(2), but not below zero) is equal to or greater than the funding target for the plan year, a shortfall amortization base is established for the plan year equal to -

(A) The funding shortfall for the plan year; minus

(B) The amount attributable to future installments determined under paragraph (c)(2)(ii) of this section.

(ii)Amount attributable to future installments. The amount attributable to future installments is equal to the sum of the present values (determined in accordance with § 1.430(h)(2)-1(e) and (f) using the interest rates that apply for the current plan year) of -

(A) The shortfall amortization installments that have been determined for the plan year and any succeeding plan year with respect to the shortfall amortization bases for any plan year preceding the plan year; and

(B) The waiver amortization installments that have been determined for the plan year and any succeeding plan year with respect to the waiver amortization bases for any plan year preceding the plan year.

(iii)Timing assumption for installments after change in valuation date. For purposes of determining the present value in paragraph (c)(2)(ii) of this section, the shortfall amortization installments and waiver amortization installments are assumed to be paid on the valuation date for the current plan year and anniversaries thereof even if the valuation date for a subsequent plan year is not the same as the valuation date for the plan year for which a shortfall amortization base or waiver amortization base was established. For example, assume that a plan has a July 1 to June 30 plan year and a valuation date that is the first day of the plan year, and that the plan year for the plan is changed to the calendar year, so that the plan has a short plan year beginning July 1, 2017 and ending December 31, 2017 and a calendar plan year thereafter. In this case -

(A) For the July 1, 2017 actuarial valuation, the shortfall amortization payments with respect to shortfall amortization bases established for all prior plan years are assumed to be paid on July 1, 2017 and anniversaries thereof; and

(B) For the January 1, 2018 actuarial valuation, the shortfall amortization payments with respect to shortfall amortization bases established for all prior plan years are assumed to be paid on January 1, 2018 and anniversaries thereof.

(iv)Transition rule. See paragraph (h)(4) of this section for a transition rule under which only a portion of the funding target is taken into account in determining whether a shortfall amortization base is established under this paragraph (c)(2).

(3)Election of funding relief for certain plans -

(i)Funding relief under the Preservation of Access to Care for Medicare Beneficiaries and Pension Relief Act of 2010. See section 430(c)(2)(D) and section 430(c)(7) for special rules that apply to determine the amount of shortfall amortization installments with respect to shortfall amortization bases established for plan years ending on or after October 10, 2009 and beginning before January 1, 2012, for which the relief under section 430(c)(2)(D) is elected.

(ii)Funding relief related to eligible charity plans. See section 104(d)(3)(B) through (F) of PPA '06, which reflects amendments made by section 103(b)(2) of the Cooperative and Small Employer Charity Pension Flexibility Act of 2014, Public Law 113-97 (128 Stat. 1137), for special rules that apply to determine the amount of shortfall amortization installments with respect to plan years beginning on or after January 1, 2014, in the case of an eligible charity plan for which the relief under section 104(d)(3)(A) of PPA '06 is elected.

(iii)Election by commercial passenger airline under section 402(a)(2) of PPA '06. If an election described in section 402(a)(2) of PPA '06 has been made for an eligible plan described in section 402(c)(1) of PPA '06, then the minimum required contribution for purposes of section 430 is determined under generally applicable rules, except that the shortfall amortization base for the first plan year for which section 430 applies to the plan is amortized over 10 years (rather than over 7 years as provided in paragraph (c)(1) of this section) in accordance with § 1.430(h)(2)-1(e) and (f) using the interest rates that apply for purposes of determining the target normal cost for the first plan year for which section 430 applies to the plan. In such a case, the shortfall amortization installments with respect to the shortfall amortization base for that plan year will continue to be included in determining the minimum required contribution for 10 years rather than 7 years. See also § 1.430(h)(2)-1(b)(6) for a special rule for determining the funding target in the case of a plan for which an election under section 402(a)(2) of PPA '06 has been made.

(d)Waiver amortization installments -

(1)In general. For purposes of this section, the waiver amortization installments with respect to a waiver amortization base established for a plan year are the annual amounts necessary to amortize that waiver amortization base in level annual installments over the 5-year period beginning with the following plan year. See § 1.430(h)(2)-1(e) and (f) for rules regarding interest rates used for determining waiver amortization installments and the date within each plan year on which the installments are assumed to be paid. The waiver amortization installments established with respect to a waiver amortization base are determined using the interest rates that apply for the plan year for which the waiver is granted (even though the first installment with respect to the waiver amortization base is not due until the subsequent plan year) and are not redetermined in subsequent plan years to reflect any changes in the valuation date or changes in interest rates under section 430(h)(2) for those subsequent plan years.

(2)Waiver amortization base -

(i)In general. For purposes of this section, a waiver amortization base is established for each plan year for which a waiver of the minimum funding standard has been granted in accordance with section 412(c). The amount of the waiver amortization base is equal to the waived funding deficiency under section 412(c)(3) for the plan year.

(ii)Transition rule. See paragraph (h)(3) of this section for the treatment of funding waivers granted for plan years beginning before 2008.

(e)Early deemed amortization upon attainment of funding target. In any case in which the funding shortfall for a plan year is zero, for purposes of determining the minimum required contribution for that plan year and subsequent plan years -

(1) The shortfall amortization bases for all preceding plan years (and all shortfall amortization installments determined with respect to those bases) are reduced to zero; and

(2) The waiver amortization bases for all preceding plan years (and all waiver amortization installments determined with respect to those bases) are reduced to zero.

(f)Definitions -

(1)In general. The definitions set forth in this paragraph (f) apply for purposes of this section.

(2)Funding shortfall. The term funding shortfall means the excess (if any) of -

(i) The funding target for a plan year; over

(ii) The value of plan assets for the plan year (as reduced to reflect the subtraction of the funding standard carryover balance and prefunding balance to the extent provided under § 1.430(f)-1(c), but not below zero).

(3)Funding target. The term funding target means the plan's funding target for a plan year determined under § 1.430(d)-1(b)(2), § 1.430(i)-1(c), or § 1.430(i)-1(e)(1), whichever applies to the plan for the plan year.

(4)Target normal cost. The term target normal cost means the plan's target normal cost for a plan year determined under § 1.430(d)-1(b)(1), § 1.430(i)-1(d), or § 1.430(i)-1(e)(2), whichever applies to the plan for the plan year.

(5)Termination date -

(i)Plans subject to Title IV of ERISA. In the case of a plan subject to Title IV of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, as amended (ERISA), the termination date means the plan's termination date established under section 4048(a) of ERISA.

(ii)Other plans -

(A)In general. In the case of a plan not subject to Title IV of ERISA, the termination date means the plan's termination date established by the plan administrator, provided that the termination date may be no earlier than the date on which all actions necessary to effect the plan termination (other than the distribution of plan assets) are taken.

(B)Requirement for prompt distribution. A plan is not treated as terminated on the applicable date described in paragraph (f)(5)(ii)(A) of this section if the assets are not distributed as soon as administratively feasible after that date. Whether distribution of plan assets is made as soon as administratively feasible is to be determined under all the relevant facts and circumstances. In general, distribution of plan assets is deemed to have been made as soon as administratively feasible to the extent that any delay in distribution was because of circumstances outside the control of the plan administrator. However, distribution of plan assets that was delayed merely for the purpose of obtaining a higher value than current market value is generally not deemed to have been made as soon as administratively feasible.

(C)Presumption applicable to prompt distribution requirement. Except as provided in paragraph (f)(5)(ii)(D) of this section, distribution of plan assets which is not completed within one year following the applicable date described in paragraph (f)(5)(ii)(A) of this section is presumed not to have been made as soon as administratively feasible.

(D)Exception to prompt distribution presumption for obtaining determination letter from Commissioner. A plan is not treated as failing to meet the requirement to distribute plan assets as soon as administratively feasible after the proposed termination date if the delay is attributable to the period of time necessary to obtain a determination letter from the Commissioner on the plan's qualified status upon its termination, provided that the request for a determination letter is timely and the distribution of plan assets is made as soon as administratively feasible after the letter is obtained.

(6)Transition funding shortfall -

(i)In general. The term transition funding shortfall means the excess, if any, of -

(A) The applicable percentage of the funding target for a plan year; over

(B) The value of plan assets for the plan year (as reduced to reflect the subtraction of the funding standard carryover balance and prefunding balance to the extent provided under § 1.430(f)-1(c), but not below zero).

(ii)Applicable percentage. For purposes of this paragraph (f)(6), the applicable percentage is determined in accordance with the following table:

Calendar year in which the plan year begins Applicable percentage
2008 92
2009 94
2010 96

(g)Examples. The following examples illustrate the rules of this section. Unless otherwise indicated, these examples are based on the following assumptions: Section 430 applies to determine the minimum required contribution for plan years beginning on or after January 1, 2008; the plan year is the calendar year; the valuation date is January 1; the plan's prefunding balance and funding standard carryover balance are equal to $0; the plan sponsor did not elect any funding relief under section 430(c)(2)(D) for any plan year; and the plan has not received any funding waivers for any relevant time periods.

Example 1.
(i) Plan A has a funding target of $2,500,000 and assets totaling $1,800,000 as of January 1, 2016. For purposes of this example, the segment interest rates used for the January 1, 2016 valuation are assumed to be 5.26% for the first segment interest rate and 5.82% for the second segment interest rate. No shortfall or waiver amortization bases have been established for prior plan years.

(ii) A $700,000 shortfall amortization base is established for 2016, which is equal to the $2,500,000 funding target less $1,800,000 of assets.

(iii) With respect to the new shortfall amortization base of $700,000, there is a shortfall amortization installment of $116,852 (which is the amount necessary to amortize the $700,000 shortfall amortization base over 7 years) for each year from 2016 through 2022. The amount of this shortfall amortization installment is determined by discounting the first five installments using the first segment interest rate of 5.26%, and by discounting the sixth and seventh installments using the second segment rate of 5.82%.

Example 2.
The facts are the same as in Example 1, except that the plan was granted a funding waiver for 2014, resulting in five annual waiver amortization installments of $70,000 each, beginning with the 2015 plan year.

As of January 1, 2016, the present value of the remaining waiver amortization installments is $259,702, which is determined by discounting the remaining four waiver amortization installments of $70,000 each to January 1, 2016, using the first segment rate of 5.26%. See paragraph (c)(2)(ii) of this section.

A $440,298 shortfall amortization base is established for 2016, which is equal to the $2,500,000 funding target, less $1,800,000 of assets, less $259,702 (which is the present value of the remaining four waiver amortization installments).

(iv) With respect to this shortfall amortization base of $440,298, there is a shortfall amortization installment of $73,500 (which is equal to the $440,298 shortfall amortization base amortized over 7 years) for each year from 2016 through 2022.

Example 3.
The facts are the same as in Example 2. Plan A has a $100,000 target normal cost for the 2016 plan year and was granted a funding waiver for 2016 to the largest extent permitted under section 412(c).

If the funding waiver for 2016 had not been granted, the minimum required contribution for 2016 would have been $243,500. This is equal to the $100,000 target normal cost, plus the $70,000 waiver amortization installment from the 2014 waiver, plus the $73,500 January 1, 2016 shortfall amortization installment.

In accordance with section 412(c)(1)(C), the portion of the minimum required contribution attributable to the amortization of the 2014 funding waiver cannot be waived. Therefore, the maximum amount of the January 1, 2016 minimum required contribution that can be waived is $173,500.

In accordance with paragraph (d) of this section, a waiver amortization base of $173,500 is established as of January 1, 2016 to be amortized over 5 years beginning with the 2017 plan year. Although the waiver amortization installments for the 2016 funding waiver are not included in the minimum required contribution until 2017, the amount of those installments is determined based on the interest rates used for the 2016 plan year.

(v) The waiver amortization installments with respect to the 2016 funding waiver are calculated using the first segment interest rate of 5.26% for the first four installments (calculated as of January 1, 2017 through January 1, 2020) and the second segment interest rate of 5.82% for the final installment payable as of January 1, 2021. Accordingly, the waiver amortization installments with respect to the 2016 funding waiver are $40,554 each, payable beginning January 1, 2017.

Example 4.
The facts are the same as in Example 3. As of January 1, 2017, Plan A has a funding target of $2,750,000 and assets totaling $1,900,000. For purposes of this example, the first segment rate used for the 2017 valuation is assumed to be 5.50%, the second segment rate is assumed to be 6.00%, and the third segment rate is assumed to be 6.50%.

As of January 1, 2017, the present value of the remaining three waiver amortization installments with respect to the 2014 waiver is $199,242, which is determined using the first segment rate of 5.50%.

As of January 1, 2017, the present value of the remaining five waiver amortization installments with respect to the 2016 waiver is $182,701, which is determined using the first segment rate of 5.50%.

As of January 1, 2017, the present value of the remaining six shortfall amortization installments with respect to the 2016 shortfall amortization base is $386,052, which is determined using the first segment rate of 5.50% for the first five installments and the second segment rate of 6.00% for the sixth installment.

A shortfall amortization base of $82,005 is established for 2017, which is equal to the $2,750,000 funding target, reduced by the sum of $1,900,000 of assets, $199,242 (the present value of the remaining waiver amortization installments with respect to the 2014 waiver), $182,701 (the present value of the remaining waiver amortization installments with respect to the 2016 waiver), and $386,052 (the present value of the remaining installments with respect to the 2016 shortfall amortization base).

(vi) With respect to this shortfall amortization base of $82,005, there is a shortfall amortization installment of $13,766 (which is the amount necessary to amortize the $82,005 shortfall amortization base over 7 years) for each year from 2017 through 2023.

Example 5.
As of January 1, 2016, a plan has a funding target of $2,500,000, a target normal cost of $175,000, and assets totaling $2,450,000. As of January 1, 2016, there are six remaining installments of $60,000 each with respect to the only shortfall amortization base for the plan, which was established for the 2015 plan year. Also as of January 1, 2016, there are five remaining installments of $25,000 each with respect to the only waiver amortization base for the plan, which was established for the 2015 plan year. For purposes of this example, the segment interest rates used for the January 1, 2016, valuation are assumed to be 5.26% for the first segment interest rate and 5.82% for the second segment interest rate.

A shortfall amortization base of −$379,812 is established for 2016, which is equal to the $2,500,000 funding target, reduced by the sum of $2,450,000 of assets, $316,696 (the present value of the remaining installments with respect to the 2015 shortfall amortization base) and $113,116 (the present value of the remaining installments with respect to the 2015 funding waiver).

The shortfall amortization installment for the 2016 shortfall amortization base is −$63,403, which is the amount necessary to amortize the −$379,812 shortfall amortization base over seven years. The first five shortfall amortization installments are discounted using the first segment rate of 5.26% and the sixth and seventh shortfall amortization installments are discounted using the second segment rate of 5.82%.

The sum of the shortfall amortization installments is equal to −$3,403 ($60,000 plus −$63,403). However, in accordance with paragraph (b)(2)(i)(B) of this section, for purposes of determining the minimum required contribution for a plan year, the total of the shortfall amortization installments for a plan year is limited so that it is not less than zero.

The minimum required contribution as of January 1, 2016 is $200,000. This is equal to the sum of the target normal cost of $175,000, the total of the shortfall amortization installments (as limited) of $0, and the waiver amortization installment of $25,000.

The shortfall amortization bases are not set to zero as of January 1, 2016, even though the sum of the shortfall amortization installments was set to zero for the 2016 plan year. Therefore, as of January 1, 2017 (unless the plan has a funding shortfall of zero as of that date), the shortfall amortization base established as of January 1, 2015 will have five remaining installments of $60,000 each and the shortfall amortization base established as of January 1, 2016 will have six remaining installments of −$ 63,403 each. Similarly, the waiver amortization base will have four remaining installments of $25,000 each.

Example 6.
The facts are the same as in Example 5, except that Plan A has assets totaling $2,550,000 as of January 1, 2016.

Because the assets of $2,550,000 exceed the funding target of $2,500,000, no new shortfall amortization base is established under paragraph (c)(2) of this section.

Furthermore, under paragraph (e) of this section, all shortfall amortization bases and waiver amortization bases (and all shortfall amortization installments and waiver amortization installments associated with those bases) are reduced to zero as of January 1, 2016.

The minimum required contribution for the 2016 plan year is $125,000, which is equal to the $175,000 target normal cost less the excess of the assets over the funding target ($2,550,000 minus $2,500,000).

Example 7.
The actuarial valuation for Plan B as of January 1, 2016, based on a 12-month plan year, results in a target normal cost of $110,000 and a shortfall amortization installment for 2016 of $185,000, attributable to a shortfall amortization base established January 1, 2016. There are no other shortfall or waiver amortization bases for Plan B as of January 1, 2016. The plan year for Plan B is changed to April 1 through March 31, effective April 1, 2016, resulting in a short plan year beginning January 1, 2016 and ending March 31, 2016.

The target normal cost for the short plan year is redetermined in order to reflect the fact that there is a short plan year. An actuarial valuation shows that the target normal cost is $25,000 for the short plan year based on the accruals for that short plan year (determined in accordance with 29 CFR 2530.204-2(e)).

In accordance with paragraph (b)(2)(ii)(A) of this section, the shortfall amortization base is prorated to reflect the three months covered by the short plan year. Accordingly, the shortfall amortization installment for the short plan year is $46,250 (that is, $185,000 multiplied by 3/12).

The total minimum required contribution for the short plan year is $71,250 (that is, the sum of the target normal cost of $25,000 plus the shortfall amortization installment of $46,250).

Example 8.
The facts are the same as in Example 7. For purposes of this example, assume that the first segment rate for the plan year beginning April 1, 2016 is 5.30%, and the second segment rate is 5.80%.

The present value of the remaining shortfall amortization installments with respect to the January 1, 2016 shortfall amortization base is equal to $1,074,937. This is determined by discounting the remaining installments (6 full-year installments of $185,000 each due April 1, 2016 through April 1, 2021, and a final 9-month installment of $138,750 due April 1, 2022) using the first segment rate of 5.30% for the first five installments and the second segment rate of 5.80% for the remaining installments.

Example 9.
As of January 1, 2016, Plan C has a funding target of $1,100,000, a target normal cost of $20,000, and an actuarial value of assets of $1,150,000. Prior to establishing any shortfall amortization base for 2016, the total of the shortfall amortization installments for 2016 is $30,000 and the present value of the remaining shortfall amortization installments (including installments for the 2016 plan year) is $150,000. Based on the segment rates used for the 2016 plan year, the 7-year amortization factor for any shortfall amortization base established for 2016 is 5.9887. The funding standard carryover balance as of January 1, 2016 is $40,000 and the prefunding balance is $60,000. The plan sponsor intends to use both balances to offset the minimum required contribution for 2016.

In accordance with sections 430(c) and 430(f)(4)(A), the test to determine whether Plan C is exempt from establishing a new shortfall amortization base for 2016 is initially applied based on assets reduced by the prefunding balance, because the plan sponsor intends to use the prefunding balance to offset the minimum required contribution. Therefore, the actuarial value of assets used for this purpose is $1,150,000 minus $60,000, or $1,090,000. This is less than the funding target of $1,100,000, so a new shortfall amortization base is established for 2016.

The funding shortfall as of January 1, 2016 is the difference between the funding target and the actuarial value of assets, where the actuarial value of assets is reduced by both the funding standard carryover balance and the prefunding balance. Accordingly, the value of assets used for this calculation is $1,050,000 (that is, $1,150,000 − $40,000 − $60,000), and the funding shortfall is $50,000 (that is, $1,100,000 − $1,050,000).

The shortfall amortization base established as of January 1, 2016 is the difference between the funding shortfall of $50,000 and the $150,000 present value of remaining shortfall amortization installments for bases established in prior years (that is, −$100,000). The shortfall amortization installment attributable to this base is −$100,000 ÷ 5.9887, or −$16,698.

The preliminary minimum required contribution is the sum of the target normal cost, the shortfall amortization installments for bases established prior to 2016, and the shortfall amortization installment for the new base established for 2016, or $33,302 (that is, $20,000 + $30,000−$16,698). However, this amount is less than the funding standard carryover balance. Because section 430(f)(3)(B) and § 1.430(f)-1(d)(2) require that the funding standard carryover balance be used before using the prefunding balance, this means that the full minimum required contribution will be offset without using the prefunding balance. Accordingly, the plan sponsor will not be electing to use any portion of the prefunding balance to offset the minimum required contribution for 2016.

Because the plan sponsor is not using the prefunding balance to offset the minimum required contribution, the test to determine whether Plan C is exempt from establishing a new shortfall amortization base for 2016 must be applied without subtracting the prefunding balance from the actuarial value of plan assets. Because the full actuarial value of assets of $1,150,000 is higher than the funding target of $1,100,000, the plan is exempt from establishing a new shortfall amortization base for 2016. However, the actuarial value of plan assets is reduced by both balances when determining the funding shortfall, which is used to determine whether the shortfall amortization bases established prior to 2016 are reduced to zero. Because the funding shortfall is greater than zero as of January 1, 2016 (as calculated in paragraph (iii) of this Example 9), the shortfall amortization bases established before the 2016 plan year are retained.

(vii) The minimum required contribution for 2016 is the sum of the target normal cost and the shortfall amortization installments, or $50,000 ($20,000 + $30,000). Because this is larger than the funding standard account carryover balance of $40,000, the plan sponsor can only offset $40,000 of the minimum required contribution and must contribute $10,000 to meet the minimum funding requirements. The prefunding balance cannot be used to offset the remaining $10,000 minimum funding requirement because doing so would require recalculating the minimum required contribution as illustrated in paragraphs (ii) through (v) of this Example 9 and the minimum required contribution would be too small to use the prefunding balance.

Example 10.
The facts are the same as in Example 9, except that, in lieu of making the cash contribution required in Example 9, the plan sponsor elects to reduce the funding standard carryover balance by $9,000.

Because the plan sponsor intends to use the prefunding balance to offset the minimum required contribution, the test to determine whether Plan C is exempt from establishing a shortfall amortization base for 2016 is based on the actuarial value of assets reduced by the prefunding balance. The actuarial value of assets reduced for the prefunding balance ($1,090,000) is less than the funding target ($1,100,000), so a new shortfall amortization base is established for 2016.

The remaining funding standard carryover balance is $31,000 (that is, $40,000 minus the elected reduction of $9,000). The funding shortfall as of January 1, 2016 is the difference between the funding target and the actuarial value of assets, where the actuarial value of assets is reduced by both the remaining funding standard carryover balance and the prefunding balance. Accordingly, the value of assets used for this calculation is $1,059,000 (that is, $1,150,000−$31,000−$60,000), and the funding shortfall is $41,000 (that is, $1,100,000−$1,059,000).

The shortfall amortization base established as of January 1, 2016 is the difference between the funding shortfall of $41,000 and the $150,000 present value of remaining shortfall amortization installments for bases established in prior years (that is, −$109,000). The shortfall amortization installment attributable to this base is −$109,000 ÷ 5.9887, or −$18,201.

The minimum required contribution is the sum of the target normal cost, the shortfall amortization installments for bases established prior to 2016, and the shortfall amortization installment for the new base established for 2016, or $31,799 (that is, $20,000 + $30,000−$18,201). This amount is larger than the remaining funding standard carryover balance of $31,000. Therefore, the plan sponsor can offset the full minimum required contribution using the remaining $31,000 of the funding standard carryover balance and $799 of the prefunding balance. Because a portion of the prefunding balance is used to offset the minimum required contribution, the test under section 430(c)(5) is applied by subtracting the prefunding balance from the actuarial value of assets as illustrated in paragraph (ii) of this Example 10, and no further adjustments are required to the minimum required contribution.

Example 11.
An amendment to Plan D was adopted during 2015, scheduled to be effective February 1, 2016. The actuary determines that, as of January 1, 2016, the amendment would increase Plan D's funding target by $300,000, if the amendment is permitted to take effect. As of February 1, 2016, prior to taking into account the amendment, the presumed adjusted funding target attainment percentage (AFTAP) for Plan D is less than 80% but not less than 60%. Plan D's sponsor makes a section 436 contribution (under section 436(c)(2)(A)) of $300,000, adjusted for interest as required under § 1.436-1(f)(2)(i)(A)(2), to allow the amendment to take effect.

Because the plan amendment was adopted prior to the valuation date for 2016 and becomes effective during the 2016 plan year, under § 1.430(d)-1(d)(1)(i), the plan amendment must be taken into account in the funding target as of January 1, 2016. However, because the section 436 contribution is made for the 2016 plan year, it is not included in Plan D's actuarial value of assets as of January 1, 2016.

The funding shortfall as of January 1, 2016 is calculated as the amount of the funding target (taking into account the plan amendment) minus the actuarial value of assets, where the value of assets is reduced by any funding standard carryover balance and prefunding balance as of that date. Because the funding target takes into account the increase of $300,000 attributable to the plan amendment but the actuarial value of assets does not include the section 436 contribution, the funding shortfall is $300,000 higher than it would have been had the plan amendment not been allowed to take effect.

The funding shortfall as of January 1, 2017 will reflect both the cost of the plan amendment and the value of the section 436 contribution made during 2016. Therefore, in the absence of any other factors affecting the shortfall amortization base, it is expected that a negative shortfall amortization base will be established as of January 1, 2017 as a result of the section 436 contribution made during 2016.

Example 12.
Plan E has a calendar year plan year and in 2015 had 97 participants. Plan E has a valuation date of July 1. A shortfall amortization base of $300,000 was established with the July 1, 2016 valuation. The plan had no other shortfall or waiver amortization bases. For purposes of this example, assume that the first segment rate for the 2016 plan year is 5.50% and the second segment rate is 6.00%. Accordingly, the shortfall amortization installments are determined as seven annual installments of $50,358 each, payable as of each July 1 beginning July 1, 2016.

Sometime after January 1, 2016, the number of participants in Plan E increased to over 100 during 2016, and therefore the valuation date was changed to January 1 effective with the 2017 plan year. As of January 1, 2017, Plan E has a funding target of $2,000,000, plan assets of $1,600,000, and a zero funding standard carryover balance and prefunding balance. For purposes of this example, assume that as of January 1, 2017, the first segment rate is 5.75% and the second segment rate is 6.25%.

In accordance with paragraph (c)(1) of this section, the amount of the shortfall amortization installments for the base established July 1, 2016 is not adjusted for the change in valuation date. As of January 1, 2017, the outstanding balance of the shortfall amortization base established as of July 1, 2016 is $263,047, determined as the present value of the remaining shortfall amortization installments, calculated as if the shortfall amortization installments of $50,358 are payable annually on January 1 instead of July 1.

A new shortfall amortization base of $136,953 is established effective January 1, 2017 equal to the difference between the funding shortfall of $400,000 and the outstanding balance of the shortfall amortization base established as of July 1, 2016 ($263,047). The shortfall amortization installment for this base is calculated as $23,139.

The total shortfall amortization installment for the 2017 plan year is $73,497, equal to the sum of the installments for the shortfall amortization base established July 1, 2016 ($50,358) and the base established January 1, 2017 ($23,139). The total amortization installment is determined as an amount payable as of January 1 regardless of the fact that the installment for the first base was initially calculated as an amount payable on July 1.

Example 13.
A funding waiver of $300,000 was granted for Plan F for the 2006 plan year. The valuation interest rate for the January 1, 2007 actuarial valuation is 8.50% (which exceeds 150% of the applicable federal mid-term rate). The first segment rate for the January 1, 2008 valuation of Plan F is 5.26%.

The waiver amortization charge for the plan year beginning January 1, 2007 is $70,166, which is equal to the $300,000 funding waiver base amortized over 5 years at the valuation interest rate of 8.50%.

The annual waiver amortization installment for 2008 and later years is equal to the amortization charge for the 2007 plan year, or $70,166. As of January 1, 2008, the present value of the remaining waiver amortization installments is $260,318, which is determined by discounting the remaining four waiver amortization installments of $70,166 to January 1, 2008, using the first segment rate of 5.26%.

Example 14.
As of January 1, 2008, Plan G has a funding target of $2,500,000, plan assets of $1,800,000 and a funding standard carryover balance of $100,000. Plan G has not received a funding waiver for any past plan year. Plan G was in existence during 2007, and in the 2007 plan year was not subject to the deficit reduction contribution in section 412(l) of the Code as it existed prior to PPA '06.

Plan G qualifies for the transition rule in section 430(c)(5) of the Code (as in effect prior to amendments made by the Tax Increase Prevention Act of 2014, Public Law 113-295, 128 Stat. 4010) and paragraph (h)(4) of this section. Because Plan G's assets are less than 92% of its funding target, a shortfall amortization base must be established as of January 1, 2008.

Under the transition rule in paragraph (h)(4) of this section, the shortfall amortization base for 2008 is determined using only 92% of Plan G's funding target, or $2,300,000. For purposes of this calculation, the value of assets is reduced by the funding standard carryover balance for a net asset figure of $1,700,000 (that is, $1,800,000 minus $100,000). Accordingly, the shortfall amortization base as of January 1, 2008 is equal to $600,000.

(h)Effective/applicability dates and transition rules -

(1)Statutory effective date/applicability date. Section 430 generally applies to plan years beginning on or after January 1, 2008. The applicability of section 430 for purposes of determining the minimum required contribution is delayed for certain plans in accordance with sections 104 through 106 of PPA '06.

(2)Effective date/applicability date of regulations. This section applies to plan years beginning on or after January 1, 2016. For plan years beginning before January 1, 2016, plans are permitted to rely on the provisions set forth in this section for purposes of satisfying the requirements of section 430(a).

(3)Treatment of pre-PPA '06 funding waivers. In the case of a plan that has received a funding waiver under section 412 for a plan year for which section 430 was not yet effective with respect to the plan for purposes of determining the minimum required contribution, the waiver is treated as giving rise to a waiver amortization base and the amortization charges with respect to that funding waiver are treated as waiver amortization installments as described in paragraph (d) of this section. With respect to such a pre-existing funding waiver, the amount of the waiver amortization installment is equal to the amortization charge with respect to that waiver determined using the interest rate or rates that applied for the pre-effective plan year.

(4)Transition rule for determining shortfall amortization base -

(i)In general. Except as provided in paragraph (h)(4)(ii) of this section, in the case of plan years beginning after December 31, 2007 and before January 1, 2011, for purposes of applying the rules of paragraph (c)(2) of this section -

(A) The applicable percentage (as described in paragraph (f)(6)(ii) of this section) of the funding target is substituted for the funding target; and

(B) The transition funding shortfall is substituted for the funding shortfall.

(ii)Transition rule not available for new plans or deficit reduction plans. The transition rule of paragraph (h)(4)(i) of this section does not apply to a plan -

(A) That was not in effect for a plan year beginning in 2007; or

(B) That was subject to section 412(l) for the last plan year beginning during 2007, determined after the application of sections 412(l)(6) and (9) (regardless of whether the deficit reduction contribution for that plan year was equal to zero).

(5)Pre-effective plan year -

(i)In general. For purposes of this section, the pre-effective plan year for a plan is the last plan year beginning before section 430 applies to the plan to determine the minimum required contribution. Thus, except for plans with a delayed effective date as described in paragraph (h)(1) of this section, the pre-effective plan year for a plan is the last plan year beginning before January 1, 2008.

(ii)Eligible charity plans. An eligible charity plan (as described in section 104(d) of PPA '06, which reflects amendments made by section 202(b)(2) of PRA 2010, Public Law 111-192, 124 Stat. 1280 (June 25, 2010)) that applies section 430 to the first plan year beginning on or after January 1, 2008 has a pre-effective plan year that is the last plan year beginning before January 1, 2008 and a second pre-effective plan year that is the last plan year that precedes the plan year for which section 430 again applies to the plan. (Section 430 does not apply to such a plan for plan years beginning on or after January 1, 2009 and before January 1, 2017, unless the plan ceases to be an eligible charity plan, or an election under section 104(d)(2) or 104(d)(4) of PPA '06 is made for the plan not to be treated as an eligible charity plan, as of an earlier date.)

[T.D. 9732, 80 FR 54383, Sept. 9, 2015]