26 CFR § 1.451-3 - Timing of income inclusion for taxpayers with an applicable financial statement using an accrual method of accounting.

§ 1.451-3 Timing of income inclusion for taxpayers with an applicable financial statement using an accrual method of accounting.

(a) Definitions. The following definitions apply for this section:

(1) AFS income inclusion amount. The term AFS income inclusion amount means the amount of an item of gross income that is required to be included in gross income under the AFS income inclusion rule in paragraph (b)(1) of this section.

(2) AFS income inclusion rule. The term AFS income inclusion rule has the meaning provided in paragraph (b)(1) of this section.

(3) AFS inventory inclusion amount. The term AFS inventory inclusion amount has the meaning provided in paragraph (c)(2)(i)(A) of this section.

(4) AFS revenue. The term AFS revenue means revenue reported in the taxpayer's AFS. The characterization of an amount in the AFS is not determinative of whether the amount is AFS revenue. For example, AFS revenue can include amounts reported as other comprehensive income or adjustments to retained earnings in an AFS. See paragraph (b) of this section for adjustments to AFS revenue that may need to be made to apply the rules of this section.

(5) Applicable financial statement (AFS). Subject to the rules in paragraph (a)(5)(iv) of this section, the terms applicable financial statement and AFS are synonymous and mean the taxpayer's financial statement listed in paragraph (a)(5)(i) through (iii) of this section that has the highest priority, including priority within paragraphs (a)(5)(i)(B) and (a)(5)(ii)(B) of this section. The financial statements are, in order of descending priority:

(i) GAAP statements. A financial statement that is certified as being prepared in accordance with United States generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) and is:

(A) A Form 10-K (or successor form), or annual statement to shareholders, filed with the United States Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC);

(B) An audited financial statement of the taxpayer that is used for:

(1) Credit purposes;

(2) Reporting to shareholders, partners, or other proprietors, or to beneficiaries; or

(3) Any other substantial non-tax purpose; or

(C) A financial statement, other than a tax return, filed with the Federal Government or any Federal agency, other than the SEC or the Internal Revenue Service (IRS);

(ii) IFRS statements. A financial statement that is certified as being prepared in accordance with international financial reporting standards (IFRS) and is:

(A) Filed by the taxpayer with an agency of a foreign government that is equivalent to the SEC, and has financial reporting standards not less stringent than the standards required by the SEC;

(B) An audited financial statement of the taxpayer that is used for:

(1) Credit purposes;

(2) Reporting to shareholders, partners, or other proprietors, or to beneficiaries; or

(3) Any other substantial non-tax purpose; or

(C) A financial statement, other than a tax return, filed with the Federal Government, Federal agency, a foreign government, or agency of a foreign government, other than the SEC, IRS, or an agency that is equivalent to the SEC or the IRS; or

(iii) Other statements. A financial statement, other than a tax return, filed with the Federal Government or any Federal agency, a state government or state agency, or a self-regulatory organization including, for example, a financial statement filed with a state agency that regulates insurance companies or the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority. Additional financial statements beyond those included in this paragraph (a)(5)(iii) may be provided in guidance published in the Internal Revenue Bulletin (see § 601.601(d) of this chapter).

(iv) Additional rules for determining priority. If a taxpayer restates AFS revenue for a taxable year prior to the date that the taxpayer files its Federal income tax return for such taxable year, the restated AFS must be used instead of the original AFS. If using the restated AFS revenue results in a change in method of accounting, the preceding sentence applies only if the taxpayer receives permission to change its method of accounting to use the restated AFS revenue. In addition, if a taxpayer with different financial accounting and taxable years is required to file both annual financial statements and periodic financial statements covering less than a year with a government or government agency, the taxpayer must prioritize the annual financial statement in accordance with this paragraph (a)(5).

(6) Cost of goods. The term cost of goods means the costs that are properly capitalized and included in inventory under sections 471 and 263A or any other applicable provision of the Internal Revenue Code (Code) and that are allocable to an item of inventory for which an AFS inventory inclusion amount is calculated. See paragraph (c)(5)(iii) of this section for specific rules for taxpayers using simplified methods under section 263A.

(7) Cost of goods in progress offset. The term cost of goods in progress offset has the meaning provided in paragraph (c)(3) of this section.

(8) Cumulative cost of goods in progress offset. The term cumulative cost of goods in progress offset means the cumulative cost of goods in progress offset amounts under paragraph (c) of this section for a specific item of inventory that have reduced an AFS inventory inclusion amount attributable to such item of inventory in prior taxable years.

(9) Enforceable right. The term enforceable right means any right that a taxpayer has under the terms of a contract or under applicable Federal, state, or international law, including rights to amounts recoverable in equity and liquidated damages. A contract can include, but is not limited to, a statement of work, purchase order, or invoice.

(10) Equity method. The term equity method means a method of accounting for financial accounting purposes under which an investment is initially recorded at cost and subsequently increased or decreased in carrying value by the investor's proportionate share of income and losses and such income or losses are reported as separate items on the investor's statement of income.

(11) Performance obligation. The term performance obligation means a promise in a contract with a customer to transfer to the customer a distinct good, service, or right; or a series of distinct goods, services, or rights, or a combination thereof, that are substantially the same and that have the same pattern of transfer to the customer. A performance obligation includes a promise to grant or transfer a right to use or access intangible property. Performance obligations in a contract are identified by applying the accounting standards the taxpayer uses to prepare its AFS. Additionally, to the extent the contract with the customer provides the taxpayer with an enforceable right to payment, the revenue from which is not allocated to a performance obligation described in the first two sentences of this paragraph (a)(11) in the taxpayer's AFS but is accounted for as a separate source of revenue in the taxpayer's AFS, such right shall be treated as a separate performance obligation under this section. A fee described in paragraph (j)(2) of this section is an example of an enforceable right that is treated as a separate performance obligation.

(12) Prior income inclusion amounts. The term prior income inclusion amounts means amounts of an item of gross income that were required to be included in the taxpayer's gross income under this section or § 1.451-8 in prior taxable years.

(13) Special method of accounting. The term special method of accounting means a method of accounting expressly permitted or required under any provision of the Code, the regulations in this part, or other guidance published in the Internal Revenue Bulletin (see § 601.601(d) of this chapter) under which the time for taking an item of gross income into account in a taxable year is not determined under the all events test in § 1.451-1(a). See, however, paragraph (j) of this section relating to certain items of income for debt instruments. The term special method of accounting does not include any method of accounting expressly permitted or required under this section. The following are examples of special methods of accounting to which the AFS income inclusion rule does not apply:

(i) The crop method of accounting under sections 61 and 162;

(ii) Methods of accounting provided in sections 453 through 460;

(iii) Methods of accounting for notional principal contracts under § 1.446-3;

(iv) Methods of accounting for hedging transactions under § 1.446-4;

(v) Methods of accounting for REMIC inducement fees under § 1.446-6;

(vi) Methods of accounting for gain on shares in a money market fund under § 1.446-7;

(vii) Methods of accounting for certain rental payments under section 467;

(viii) The mark-to-market method of accounting under section 475;

(ix) Timing rules for income and gain associated with a transaction that is integrated under § 1.988-5, and income and gain under the nonfunctional currency contingent payment debt instrument rules in § 1.988-6;

(x) Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (j) of this section, timing rules for original issue discount (OID) under section 811(b)(3) or 1272 (and the regulations in this part under section 1272 of the Code), income under the contingent payment debt instrument rules in § 1.1275-4, income under the variable rate debt instrument rules in § 1.1275-5, income and gain associated with a transaction that is integrated under § 1.1275-6, and income under the inflation-indexed debt instrument rules in § 1.1275-7;

(xi) Timing rules for de minimis OID under § 1.1273-1(d) and for de minimis market discount (as defined in section 1278(a)(2)(C));

(xii) Timing rules for accrued market discount under sections 1276 and 1278(b);

(xiii) Timing rules for short-term obligations under sections 1281 through 1283;

(xiv) Timing rules for stripped bonds under section 1286; and

(xv) Methods of accounting provided in sections 1502 and 1503 and the regulations thereunder, including the method of accounting relating to intercompany transactions under § 1.1502-13.

(14) Transaction price amount. The term transaction price amount means the total amount of consideration to which a taxpayer is, or expects to be, entitled from all performance obligations under a contract. The transaction price amount is determined under the standards the taxpayer uses to prepare its AFS.

(b) AFS income inclusion rule -

(1) In general. Except as otherwise provided in this section, if a taxpayer uses an accrual method of accounting for Federal income tax purposes and has an AFS, the all events test under § 1.451-1(a) for any item of gross income, or portion thereof, is met no later than when that item, or portion thereof, is taken into account as AFS revenue (AFS income inclusion rule). See paragraph (b)(2) of this section for rules regarding when an item of gross income, or portion thereof, is treated as taken into account as AFS revenue under the AFS income inclusion rule. See paragraph (c) of this section for optional rules to determine the AFS income inclusion amount for an item of gross income from the sale of inventory. See paragraph (d) of this section for rules regarding the allocation of the transaction price amount to multiple items of gross income. See paragraph (e) of this section for rules to determine the AFS income inclusion amount for an item of gross income from a multi-year contract. See paragraphs (f) and (g) of this section for limitations of the AFS income inclusion rule. See paragraph (h) of this section for special rules that may affect the determination of AFS revenue under the AFS income inclusion rule. See paragraph (j) of this section for special ordering rules for certain items of income with respect to debt instruments.

(2) Amounts taken into account as AFS revenue -

(i) General rule. Unless the taxpayer uses the alternative AFS revenue method described in paragraph (b)(2)(ii) of this section, the amount of the item of gross income that is treated as taken into account as AFS revenue under paragraph (b)(1) of this section is determined by making adjustments to AFS revenue for the amounts described in paragraphs (b)(2)(i)(A) through (D) of this section.

(A) If AFS revenue reflects a reduction for amounts described in paragraph (b)(2)(i)(A)(1) or (2) of this section, AFS revenue is increased by the amount of the reduction.

(1) Cost of goods sold and liabilities that are required to be accounted for under other provisions of the Code such as section 461, including liabilities for allowances, rebates, chargebacks, rewards issued in credit card transactions and other reward programs, and refunds, regardless of when any amount described in this paragraph (b)(2)(i)(A)(1) is incurred.

(2) Amounts anticipated to be in dispute or anticipated to be uncollectable.

(B) If AFS revenue includes an amount the taxpayer does not have an enforceable right to recover if the customer were to terminate the contract on the last day of the taxable year (regardless of whether the customer actually terminates the contract), AFS revenue is reduced by such amount.

(C) If the transaction price was increased because a significant financing component is deemed to exist under the standards the taxpayer uses to prepare its AFS, then any AFS revenue attributable to such increase is disregarded.

(D) AFS revenue may be increased or reduced by additional amounts as provided in guidance published in the Internal Revenue Bulletin (see § 601.601(d) of this chapter).

(ii) Alternative AFS revenue method. A taxpayer that chooses to apply the AFS income inclusion rule by using the alternative AFS revenue method described in this paragraph (b)(2)(ii) in lieu of the rules in paragraph (b)(2)(i) of this section, determines the amount of the item of gross income that is treated as taken into account as AFS revenue under paragraph (b)(1) of this section by making adjustments to AFS revenue for only the amounts described in paragraphs (b)(2)(i)(A), (C), and (D) of this section. A taxpayer that uses the alternative AFS revenue method for a trade or business must apply the method to all items of gross income in the trade or business that are subject to the AFS income inclusion rule.

(3) Exceptions. The AFS income inclusion rule in paragraph (b)(1) of this section does not apply to:

(i) Any item of gross income, or portion thereof, if the timing of income inclusion for that item, or portion thereof, is determined using a special method of accounting;

(ii) Any item of gross income, or portion thereof, in connection with a mortgage servicing contract; or

(iii) Any taxable year that is not covered for the entire year by one or more AFS.

(4) Examples. The following examples illustrate the provisions of paragraph (b) of this section. Unless the facts specifically state otherwise, the taxpayer has an AFS, is on a calendar year for Federal income tax purposes and AFS purposes, and uses an accrual method of accounting for Federal income tax purposes. Further, the taxpayer does not use the alternative AFS revenue method under paragraph (b)(2)(ii) of this section or the AFS cost offset method under paragraph (d) of this section, and does not use a special method of accounting:

(i) Example 1: Provision of installation services -

(A) Facts. In 2021, B enters into a 2-year service contract with a customer to install the customer's manufacturing equipment for $100,000. Throughout the term of the contract, the customer retains control of the equipment. B begins providing the installation services in 2021 and completes the installation services in 2022. Under the contract, B bills the customer $55,000 in 2021 when installation begins, but does not have a fixed right to receive the remaining $45,000 until installation is complete and approved by the customer. However, if the customer were to terminate the contract prior to completion, B would have an enforceable right to payment for all services performed prior to the termination date. For its AFS, B reports $60,000 of AFS revenue for 2021 and $40,000 of AFS revenue for 2022, in accordance with the services performed in each respective year.

(B) Analysis. Under the all events test in § 1.451-1(a), B is required to include $55,000 in gross income in 2021 as B has a fixed right to receive $55,000 as of the end of 2021. However, under the AFS income inclusion rule, because B has an enforceable right to recover the entire $60,000 that was reported in AFS revenue for 2021 had the customer terminated the contract on the last day of 2021, the entire $60,000 is treated as taken into account as AFS revenue in 2021. Accordingly, the all events test is met for the $60,000 of gross income no later than the end of 2021 and B is required to include $60,000 in gross income in 2021.

(ii) Example 2: Provision of goods included in AFS with enforceable right -

(A) Facts. In November 2021, C enters into a contract with a customer to provide 50 customized computers for $80,000. Under the contract, C can bill $80,000 after the customer accepts delivery of the computers. However, the contract provides that C has an enforceable right to be paid for work performed to date if the customer were to terminate the contract prior to delivery. C produces and ships all of the computers in 2021. In 2022, the customer accepts delivery of the computers and C bills the customer. For its AFS, C reports $80,000 of AFS revenue for 2021.

(B) Analysis. Under the all events test in § 1.451-1(a), C does not have a fixed right to receive the $80,000 until the customer accepts delivery of the computers in 2022. However, under the AFS income inclusion rule, because C has an enforceable right to recover the entire $80,000 of AFS revenue that was reported for 2021 had the customer terminated the contract on the last day of 2021, the entire $80,000 is treated as “taken into account as AFS revenue” in 2021. Accordingly, the all events test is met for the $80,000 no later than in 2021 and C is required to include $80,000 in gross income in 2021.

(iii) Example 3: Provision of services included in AFS with enforceable right -

(A) Facts. In 2021, D, an engineering services provider, enters into a 4-year contract with a customer to provide services for a total of $100x. Under the contract, D bills and receives $25x for each year of the contract. If the customer were to terminate the contract prior to completion, D has an enforceable right to only the billed amounts. For its AFS, D reports $60x, $0, $20x, and $20x of AFS revenue from the contract for 2021, 2022, 2023, and 2024, respectively.

(B) Analysis. Under the all events test in § 1.451-1(a), D is required to include $25x in gross income in 2021 as D has a fixed right to receive $25x as of the end of 2021. Although D reports $60x of AFS revenue from the provision of services for 2021, D has an enforceable right to recover only $25x if the customer were to terminate the contract on the last day of 2021. Accordingly, pursuant to paragraph (b)(2)(i)(B) of this section, of the $60x of AFS revenue reported for 2021, only $25x is treated as “taken into account as AFS revenue” under the AFS income inclusion rule. As a result, D is required to include only $25x in gross income in 2021. Similarly, in 2022, 2023 and 2024, D includes in gross income only the yearly $25x contract payments under the all events test as only the billed amounts are treated as “taken into account as AFS revenue” under the AFS income inclusion rule.

(iv) Example 4: Sale of good under cost-plus contract -

(A) Facts. In 2021, E, a manufacturer, enters into a contract with Fire Department for the manufacture and delivery of a fire truck. The fire truck takes 10 months to manufacture at an estimated cost of $60,000. The contract provides E with an enforceable right to recover costs incurred in manufacturing the fire truck regardless of whether the Fire Department accepts delivery of the fire truck or terminates the contract, and an enforceable right to an additional $20,000 if the fire truck is accepted by the Fire Department. E does not have an enforceable right to recover any portion of the additional $20,000 if the Fire Department were to terminate the contract before it accepts the fire truck. E has an obligation to cure any defects if the customer rejects the fire truck. In August 2021, E begins manufacturing the fire truck ordered by Fire Department and incurs $30,000 of costs for materials and labor for the contract. For its AFS, E reports $40,000 of AFS revenue for 2021 ($30,000 costs plus $10,000 expected profit on the sale of the fire truck).

(B) Analysis for 2021 taxable year. Under the all events test in § 1.451-1(a), E is required to include $30,000 in gross income in 2021 as E has a fixed right to receive $30,000 as of the end of 2021. Although E reports $40,000 of AFS revenue for 2021, E has an enforceable right to recover only $30,000 if the Fire Department were to terminate the contract on the last day of 2021. Accordingly, pursuant to paragraph (b)(2)(i)(B) of this section, of the $40,000 of AFS revenue reported for 2021, only $30,000 is treated as “taken into account as AFS revenue” under the AFS income inclusion rule. As a result, E is required to include only $30,000 in gross income in 2021.

(v) Example 5: Sale of goods with AFS revenue adjustments -

(A) Facts. In July 2021, F, a manufacturer of automobile parts, enters into a contract to sell 1,000 parts to a customer for $10 per part, for a total of $10,000 (1,000 × $10). The contract also provides that F will receive a $200 bonus if it delivers all the parts to the customer by February 1, 2022. F delivers 500 non-defective parts to the customer on December 31, 2021 and schedules the remaining 500 parts for delivery to the customer on January 1, 2022. F does not have an enforceable right to recover any portion of the $200 bonus if the customer were to terminate the contract before all 1,000 parts are delivered. F expects to earn the $200 bonus and have 5% of the non-defective parts returned. For its AFS, F reports $4,850 ($5,000 + $100−$250) of AFS revenue for 2021, which includes a $100 (50% × $200) adjustment to increase AFS revenue for the expected bonus and a $250 (5% × $5,000) adjustment to decrease AFS revenue for anticipated returns.

(B) Analysis. Under the all events test in § 1.451-1(a), F is required to include $5,000, less the corresponding cost of goods sold under sections 263A and 471 as applicable, in gross income in 2021 as F has a fixed right to receive $5,000 from the delivery of 500 parts to the customer in 2021. However, F does not have a fixed right to receive any portion of the $200 delivery bonus as of the end of 2021 as the remaining 500 parts had yet to be delivered. Under the AFS income inclusion rule and, specifically, paragraphs (b)(2)(i)(A)(1) and (b)(2)(i)(B) of this section, the amount treated as “taken into account as AFS revenue” for 2021 is also $5,000, calculated as $4,850 of AFS revenue that was reported for 2021, decreased by $100 for the expected delivery bonus that F does not have an enforceable right to recover if the customer were to terminate the contract as of the end of 2021 and increased by $250 for anticipated return liabilities that are accounted for under section 461 ($4,850−$100 + $250 = $5,000). Accordingly, F is required to include $5,000, less the corresponding cost of goods sold determined under sections 263A and 471 as applicable, in gross income in 2021.

(vi) Example 6: Chargebacks -

(A) Facts. In November 2021, G, a pharmaceutical manufacturer, enters into a contract to sell 1,000 units to W, a wholesaler, for $10 per unit, totaling $10,000 (1,000 × $10). The contract also provides that G will credit or pay W $4 per unit (a 40% “chargeback”) for sales W makes to certain qualifying customers. G delivers 600 units to W on December 31, 2021, and bills W $6,000 under the contract. W does not make any sales to qualifying customers in 2021. For its AFS, G reports $3,600 ($6,000−$2,400) of AFS revenue for 2021, which includes a reduction of the $6,000 of sales revenue by $2,400 (40% × $6,000) for anticipated chargebacks.

(B) Analysis. Under the all events test in § 1.451-1(a), G is required to include $6,000, less the corresponding cost of goods sold under sections 263A and 471 as applicable, in gross income in 2021 as G has a fixed right to receive $6,000 from the delivery of 600 units to W in 2021. The anticipated chargebacks are liabilities that are accounted for under section 461. Under the AFS income inclusion rule and, specifically, paragraph (b)(2)(i)(A)(1) of this section, the amount treated as “taken into account as AFS revenue” for 2021 is also $6,000, calculated as $3,600 of AFS revenue reported for 2021, increased by $2,400 of anticipated chargeback liabilities that are accounted for under section 461 ($3,600 + $2,400 = $6,000). Accordingly, G is required to include $6,000, less the corresponding cost of goods sold under sections 263A and 471 as applicable, in gross income in 2021.

(vii) Example 7: Sale of property using a special method of accounting. In 2021, H, a financial services provider, sells a building for $100,000, payable in five annual payments of $20,000 together with adequate stated interest, starting in 2021. For its AFS, H reports $100,000 of AFS revenue for 2021 from the sale of the building. For Federal income tax purposes, H uses the installment method under section 453 for the sale of the building. Because the installment method under section 453 is a special method of accounting under paragraphs (a)(13)(ii) and (b)(3)(i) of this section, the AFS income inclusion rule does not apply to H's sale of the building. Accordingly, the gain from the sale is included in income as prescribed in section 453.

(viii) Example 8: Insurance contract renewals -

(A) Facts. J, an insurance agent, is engaged by an insurance carrier to sell insurance. Pursuant to the contract between J and the insurance carrier, J is entitled to receive a $50 commission from the insurance carrier at the time a policy is sold to a customer. The contract also provides that J is entitled to receive an additional $25 commission each time a policy is renewed. J does not have an enforceable right to a renewal commission if the insurance carrier terminates the contract before a policy is renewed. J sells 1,000 one-year policies in 2021, of which 800 are expected to be renewed in 2022 and 700 are expected to be renewed in 2023. J does not have any ongoing obligation to provide additional services to the insurance carrier or the customers after the initial sale of the policy. For its AFS, J reports $87,500 of AFS revenue for 2021, which includes $50,000 ($50 × 1,000) of commission income for policies sold in 2021 and an estimate of $37,500 ($25 × 1,500) of commission income for the policies expected to be renewed in 2022 and 2023.

(B) Analysis. Under the all events test in § 1.451-1(a), J is required to include $50,000 in gross income in 2021 as J has a fixed right to receive $50,000 of commission income for the policies it sold during 2021. However, as of the end of 2021, J does not have a fixed right to receive any commission income from anticipated policy renewals. Under the AFS income inclusion rule, although J reports $87,500 of AFS revenue for 2021, J does not have an enforceable right to recover the $37,500 of anticipated commission income from future policy renewals if the insurance carrier were to terminate the contract on the last day of 2021. Accordingly, pursuant to paragraph (b)(2)(i)(B) of this section, of the $87,500 of AFS revenue reported for 2021, only $50,000 is treated as “taken into account as AFS revenue” under the AFS income inclusion rule. As a result, J is required to include $50,000 in gross income in 2021. Alternatively, if J uses the alternative AFS revenue method in paragraph (b)(2)(ii) of this section, all $87,500 of AFS revenue reported for 2021 would be treated as “taken into account as AFS revenue” under the AFS income inclusion rule and J would be required to include $87,500 of commission income in gross income in 2021.

(ix) Example 9: Escalating rents -

(A) Facts.

(1) K is a landlord in the business of leasing office space. On January 1, 2021, K enters into a 5-year lease with a tenant that provides for annual rent of $30,000 for 2021 and increases by 5% each year over the lease term. The annual rents are due at the end of each year. Accordingly, the rent for each year (rounded to the nearest dollar) is as follows:

Table 1 to Paragraph (b)(4)(ix)(A)

Year Calculation Total rent
2021 $30,000 $30,000
2022 30,000 * 1.05 31,500
2023 31,500 * 1.05 33,075
2024 33,075 * 1.05 34,729
2025 34,729 * 1.05 36,465
Total Rent for Five Years 165,769

(2) The lease is not a section 467 rental agreement as defined under section 467(d). If the tenant terminates the lease early, the tenant must pay K the balance of the rent due for the remainder of the termination year. On its AFS, K reports AFS revenue from rents on a straight-line basis over the term of the lease, or approximately $33,154 per year ($165,769 total rent/5 years). Accordingly, for its AFS, K reports $33,154 of AFS revenue for 2021.

(B) Analysis. Under the all events test in § 1.451-1(a), K is required to include $30,000 in gross income in 2021 as K has a fixed right to receive $30,000 for the 2021 rental period under the terms of the lease agreement. Under the AFS income inclusion rule, although K reports $33,154 of AFS revenue for 2021, K has an enforceable right to recover only $30,000 if the tenant were to cancel the lease on the last day of 2021. Accordingly, pursuant to paragraph (b)(2)(i)(B) of this section, of the $33,154 of AFS revenue reported for 2021, only $30,000 is treated as “taken into account in AFS revenue” under the AFS income inclusion rule. As a result, K is required to include $30,000 in gross income in 2021.

(x) Example 10: Licensing income from digital services -

(A) Facts. M is engaged in the business of licensing media entertainment content packages. M licenses content packages to customers by entering into subscription plans with customers. In January 2021, M enters into a two-year subscription plan with Customer. M charges Customer $40 per month billed monthly in arrears. If Customer terminates the plan prior to the two-year term, it must pay the balance of the subscription fee for the remaining term of the contract. For its AFS, M reports $960 ($40 × 24 months) of AFS revenue for 2021.

(B) Analysis. Under the all events test in § 1.451-1(a), M is required to include $480 in gross income in 2021 as M has a fixed right to receive $480 ($40 × 12) for the 12 months of media content licensed to Customer in 2021. M does not have a fixed right to receive any portion of the 2022 subscription fee as of the end of 2021 as such fee is not due under the terms of the subscription agreement until 2022 and M has yet to provide the media content for the 2022 subscription period. However, under the AFS income inclusion rule, because M has an enforceable right to recover all $960 of AFS revenue reported for 2021 if Customer were to terminate the contract at the end of 2021, all $960 is treated as “taken into account as AFS revenue” in 2021. Accordingly, M is required to include $960 in gross income in 2021.

(c) Cost offsets -

(1) In general. This paragraph (c) provides an optional method of accounting that may be used to determine the AFS income inclusion amount for an item of gross income from the sale of inventory (AFS cost offset method). A taxpayer that uses the AFS cost offset method for a trade or business must apply this method to all items of gross income in the trade or business that meet the criteria in this paragraph (c). Additionally, a taxpayer that uses this method for a trade or business must also use the advance payment cost offset method described in § 1.451-8(e) to account for all advance payments received by such trade or business that meet the criteria in § 1.451-8(e), if applicable. A taxpayer that uses the AFS cost offset method to account for gross income from the sale of an item of inventory, but not the advance payment cost offset method because it does not receive any advance payments for such item, determines the corresponding AFS income inclusion amount for a taxable year by following the rules in paragraph (c)(2) of this section. A taxpayer that uses the AFS cost offset method and the advance payment cost offset method to account for gross income, including advance payments, from the sale of an item of inventory, determines the corresponding AFS income inclusion amount and the advance payment income inclusion amount, as defined in § 1.451-8(a)(2), for a taxable year by following the rules in paragraph (c)(2) of this section rather than the rules under § 1.451-8(e). However, if all payments received for the sale of an item of inventory meet the definition of an advance payment under § 1.451-8(a)(1), a taxpayer that uses the advance payment cost offset method determines the corresponding advance payment income inclusion amount for a taxable year by following the rules in § 1.451-8(e).

(2) AFS cost offset method. A taxpayer that uses the AFS cost offset method and, if applicable, the advance payment cost offset method, to account for gross income from the sale of an item of inventory determines the AFS income inclusion amount, or, if applicable, the advance payment income inclusion amount, for a taxable year prior to the taxable year in which ownership of the item of inventory is transferred to the customer by following the rules in paragraph (c)(2)(i) of this section, subject to the additional rules and limitations in paragraphs (c)(4) through (6) of this section. Such taxpayer determines the AFS income inclusion amount or, if applicable, the advance payment income inclusion amount, for the taxable year in which ownership of the item of inventory is transferred to the customer by following the rules in paragraph (c)(2)(ii) of this section. A taxpayer described in this paragraph (c)(2) that receives advance payments for the sale of the item of inventory may be required to include in gross income for a taxable year an amount that is comprised of both an AFS income inclusion amount and an advance payment income inclusion amount. In such case, it is not necessary to determine the portion of the total inclusion that is comprised of the AFS income inclusion amount and the portion of the total inclusion that is comprised of the advance payment income inclusion amount.

(i) Determining gross income for a year prior to the year of sale. To determine the amount required to be included in gross income from the sale of an item of inventory for a taxable year prior to the taxable year in which ownership of the item of inventory is transferred to the customer, a taxpayer must first determine the AFS inventory inclusion amount for such item for such year by applying the steps in paragraph (c)(2)(i)(A) of this section. This AFS inventory inclusion amount is then reduced by the cost of goods in progress offset for the taxable year, as determined under paragraphs (c)(3) through (5) of this section. This net amount is required to be included in gross income for the taxable year.

(A) AFS inventory inclusion amount for a taxable year. To determine the AFS inventory inclusion amount for an item of inventory for a taxable year:

(1) The taxpayer first takes the greater of the amount described in paragraph (c)(2)(i)(A)(1)(i) of this section, or the amount described in paragraph (c)(2)(i)(A)(1)(ii) of this section (or if the two amounts are equal, the equal amount).

(i) The cumulative amount of revenue from the item of inventory that satisfies the all events test under § 1.451-1(a) through the last day of the taxable year, less any advance payment inventory inclusion amount, as defined in § 1.451-8(a)(3), with respect to a subsequent taxable year.

(ii) The cumulative amount of revenue from the item of inventory that is treated as “taken into account as AFS revenue” under paragraph (b)(2) of this section through the last day of the taxable year.

(2) The taxpayer then reduces the amount determined under paragraph (c)(2)(i)(A)(1) of this section by the amount computed under paragraph (c)(2)(i)(A)(1) of this section for that item of inventory for the immediately preceding taxable year.

(B) [Reserved]

(ii) Determining the gross income for the year of sale. To determine the amount required to be included in gross income from the sale of an item of inventory for the taxable year in which ownership of the item of inventory is transferred to the customer:

(A) The taxpayer first takes the greater of the amount described in paragraph (c)(2)(ii)(A)(1) of this section, or the amount described in paragraph (c)(2)(ii)(A)(2) of this section (or if the two amounts are equal, the equal amount).

(1) The cumulative amount of revenue from the item of inventory that satisfies the all events test under § 1.451-1(a) through the last day of the taxable year, including the full amount of any advance payment received for the item of inventory.

(2) The cumulative amount of revenue from the item of inventory that is treated as “taken into account as AFS revenue” under paragraph (b)(2) of this section through the last day of the taxable year.

(B) The taxpayer then reduces such amount by any prior income inclusion amounts with respect to such item of inventory. This net amount is required to be included in gross income for the taxable year. The taxpayer does not further reduce such amount by a cost of goods in progress offset under paragraph (c)(3) of this section. However, the taxpayer is entitled to recover the costs capitalized to the item of inventory as cost of goods sold in accordance with sections 471 and 263A or any other applicable provision of the Internal Revenue Code. See § 1.61-3.

(3) Cost of goods in progress offset for a taxable year. The cost of goods in progress offset for the taxable year is calculated as:

(i) The cost of goods allocable to the item of inventory through the last day of the taxable year; reduced by

(ii) The cumulative cost of goods in progress offset attributable to the item of inventory, if any.

(4) Limitations to the cost of goods in progress offset. The cost of goods in progress offset is determined separately for each item of inventory. Further, the cost of goods in progress offset attributable to one item of inventory cannot reduce the AFS inventory inclusion amount attributable to a separate item of inventory. The cost of goods in progress offset cannot reduce the AFS inventory inclusion amount for the taxable year below zero.

(5) Inventory methods -

(i) Inventory costs not affected by cost of goods in progress offset. The cost of goods comprising the cost of goods in progress offset does not reduce the costs that are capitalized to the items of inventory produced or items of inventory acquired for resale by the taxpayer. While the cost of goods in progress offset reduces the AFS inventory inclusion amount, the cost of goods in progress offset does not affect how and when costs are capitalized to inventory under sections 471 and 263A or any other applicable provision of the Internal Revenue Code or when those capitalized costs will be recovered.

(ii) Consistency between inventory methods and AFS cost offset method. The costs of goods comprising the cost of goods in progress offset must be determined by applying the taxpayer's method of accounting for inventory for Federal income tax purposes. A taxpayer using the AFS cost offset method and, if applicable, the advance payment cost offset method must calculate its cost of goods in progress offset by reference to all costs that the taxpayer has permissibly capitalized and allocated to items of inventory under its method of accounting for inventory for Federal income tax purposes, but including no more costs than what the taxpayer has permissibly capitalized and allocated to items of inventory.

(iii) Allocation of “additional section 263A costs” for taxpayers using simplified methods. If a taxpayer uses the simplified production method as defined under § 1.263A-2(b), the modified simplified production method as defined under § 1.263A-2(c), or the simplified resale method as defined under § 1.263A-3(d) to determine the amount of its additional section 263A costs, as defined under § 1.263A-1(d)(3), to be included in ending inventory, then solely to compute the cost of goods in progress offset, the taxpayer must determine the portion of additional section 263A costs allocable to an item of inventory by multiplying its total additional section 263A costs accounted for under the simplified method for all items of inventory subject to the simplified method by the following ratio:

Section 471 costs allocable to the specific item of inventory

Total section 471 costs for all items of inventory subject to the simplified method

(6) Acceleration of gross income. A taxpayer that uses the AFS cost offset method or the advance payment cost offset method must include in gross income for a taxable year prior to the taxable year in which an item of inventory is transferred to the customer, all payments received for the item of inventory that were not previously included in gross income:

(i) If, in that taxable year, the taxpayer either dies or ceases to exist in a transaction other than a transaction to which section 381(a) applies; or

(ii) If, and to the extent that, in that taxable year, the taxpayer's obligation to the customer with respect to the item of inventory ends other than in:

(A) A transaction to which section 381(a) applies; or

(B) A section 351(a) transfer that is part of a section 351 transaction in which:

(1) Substantially all assets of the trade or business, including the item of inventory, are transferred;

(2) The transferee adopts or uses, in the year of the transfer, the same methods of accounting for the item of inventory under this section and § 1.451-8 as those used by the transferor; and

(3) The transferee and the transferor are members of the same consolidated group, as defined in § 1.1502-1(h).

(7) Additional procedural guidance. The IRS may publish procedural guidance in the Internal Revenue Bulletin (see § 601.601(d) of this chapter) that provides alternative procedures for complying with the rules under this paragraph (c), including alternative methods of accounting for cost offsets.

(8) Examples. The following examples illustrate the AFS cost offset method. Unless the facts specifically state otherwise, the taxpayer has an AFS, is on a calendar year for both Federal income tax purposes and AFS purposes, uses an accrual method of accounting for Federal income tax purposes, and does not use a special method of accounting. Further, the taxpayer properly applies its inventory accounting method, uses the AFS cost offset method under paragraph (c) of this section, and, except as otherwise provided, does not receive advance payments. Lastly, the taxpayer does not produce unique items, as described in § 1.460-2(a)(1) and (b), or any item that normally requires more than 12 calendar months to complete, as determined under § 1.460-2(a)(2) and (c). Any production period that exceeds 12 calendar months is due to unforeseen production delays.

(i) Example 1 -

(A) Facts. During 2021, A enters into a contract with Customer to manufacture and deliver a good with a total contract price of $100x. The costs to produce the good are required to be capitalized under sections 471 and 263A as the good is inventory in the hands of A. Ownership of the good is transferred from A to Customer upon its delivery in 2022. A determines, under paragraph (c)(2)(i)(A) of this section, that its AFS inventory inclusion amount for 2021 is $20x. A incurs $12x of costs in 2021, and $48x of costs in 2022 ($60x in total) that are permissibly capitalized and allocated to the produced good under sections 471 and 263A. A has a fixed right to receive the $100x contract price when it delivers the good in 2022. A does not receive any payments from Customer prior to delivery. Further, all $100x is treated as “taken into account as AFS revenue” as of the last day of 2022.

(B) Analysis for 2021. For 2021, A's AFS income inclusion amount, as determined under paragraph (c)(2)(i) of this section, is $8x ($20x AFS inventory inclusion amount less $12x cost of goods in progress offset, which is the cost of goods incurred through December 31, 2021).

(C) Analysis for 2022. During 2022, ownership of the good is transferred to Customer. Accordingly, pursuant to paragraph (c)(2)(ii) of this section, A determines the AFS income inclusion amount for 2022 by:

(1) First taking the greater of:

(i) The cumulative amount of revenue that satisfies the all events test under § 1.451-1(a) through the last day of 2022 ($100x); or

(ii) The cumulative amount of revenue that is treated as “taken into account as AFS revenue” through the last day of 2022 ($100x) (or if the two amounts are equal, the equal amount).

(2) Then subtracting from such amount ($100x) the prior income inclusion amounts attributable to the transferred good ($8x). This net amount of $92x is the AFS income inclusion amount for 2022. Although A does not reduce such amount by a cost of goods in progress offset under this paragraph (c), A is entitled to recover the $60x of costs capitalized to the good as cost of goods sold in 2022 in accordance with sections 471 and 263A. See § 1.61-3. Accordingly, A's gross income for 2022 is $32x.

(ii) Example 2 -

(A) Facts. In December of 2021, A enters into a contract with Customer to manufacture and deliver 10 items of inventory at a price of $10x per item by the end of 2023. A determines, under paragraph (c)(2)(i)(A) of this section, that the AFS inventory inclusion amount attributable to each item of inventory under the contract is $3x for 2021. A also incurs $10x of inventory costs during 2021. Such costs are permissibly capitalized and allocated under sections 471 and 263A and are allocated equally to each item of inventory under the contract ($1x per item). During 2022, the taxpayer incurs $18x of costs to finish manufacturing 6 of the 10 items and delivers such items to Customer in October of 2022. Such costs are permissibly capitalized and allocated under sections 471 and 263A and are allocated equally to each of the 6 items delivered in October of 2022 ($3x per item). Upon delivering the 6 items, ownership of the delivered items transfers to Customer, A has a fixed right to receive $60x of the total contract price, and all $60x is treated as “taken into account as AFS revenue.” A does not incur any inventory costs during 2022 that are allocable to the 4 remaining undelivered items, nor does the taxpayer have an AFS inventory inclusion amount attributable to such items for 2022. During 2023, A incurs $12x of costs to finish manufacturing the 4 remaining items and delivers such items to Customer. Such costs are permissibly capitalized and allocated under sections 471 and 263A and are allocated equally to each of the 4 items delivered in 2023 ($3x per item). Upon delivering the 4 remaining items, ownership of the items transfers to Customer, A has a fixed right to receive the remaining $40x contract price, and all $40x is treated as “taken into account as AFS revenue.”

(B) Analysis for 2021 A's AFS income inclusion amount for 2021 is $2x per item ($3x AFS inventory inclusion amount per item less $1x cost of goods in progress offset per item, which is the cost of goods as of December 31, 2021). Accordingly, A's total gross income inclusion for 2021 is $20x.

(C) Analysis for 2022. During 2022, ownership of 6 of the 10 items is transferred to Customer. Accordingly, pursuant to paragraph (c)(2)(ii) of this section, A determines the AFS income inclusion amount for 2022 by:

(1) First taking the greater of:

(i) The cumulative amount of revenue that satisfies the all events test under § 1.451-1(a) through the last day of 2022 ($10x per item); or

(ii) The cumulative amount of revenue that is treated as taken into account as AFS revenue through the last day of 2022 ($10x per item) (or if the two amounts are equal, the equal amount).

(2) Then subtracting from such amount ($10x per item) the prior income inclusion amounts attributable to each transferred item ($2x per item). This net amount of $8x per item is the AFS income inclusion amount for each transferred item for 2022. Although A does not reduce such amount by a cost of goods in progress offset under this paragraph (c), A is entitled to recover the $4x of costs capitalized to each item delivered as cost of goods sold in 2022 in accordance with sections 471 and 263A. Accordingly, on an aggregate basis, A's gross income for 2022 is $24x (aggregate AFS income inclusion amount for the 6 items delivered in 2022 of $ 48x less aggregate cost of goods sold of $24x). A does not include any amounts in gross income for 2022 with respect to the 4 items of inventory that were not delivered to Customer until 2023 as A does not have an AFS inventory inclusion amount attributable to such items for 2022.

(D) Analysis for 2023. During 2023, ownership of the 4 remaining items are transferred to Customer. Based on the facts, A did not have an AFS inventory inclusion amount attributable to the 4 remaining items for 2022, nor did it incur any cost for such items in 2022 so the analysis for the 4 remaining items for 2023 is similar to the analysis for the 6 items transferred to the customer in 2022 on a per item basis. Pursuant to paragraph (c)(2)(ii) of this section, A determines the AFS income inclusion amount for 2023 by:

(1) First taking the greater of:

(i) The cumulative amount of revenue that satisfies the all events test under § 1.451-1(a) through the last day of 2023 ($10x per item); or

(ii) The cumulative amount of revenue that is treated as taken into account as AFS revenue through the last day of 2023 ($10x per item) (or if the two amounts are equal, the equal amount).

(2) Then subtracting from such amount ($10x per item) the prior income inclusion amounts attributable to each transferred item ($2x per item). This net amount of $8x per item is the AFS income inclusion amount for each transferred item for 2023. Although A does not reduce such amount by a cost of goods in progress offset under this paragraph (c), A is entitled to recover the $4x of costs capitalized to each item delivered as cost of goods sold in 2023 in accordance with sections 471 and 263A. On an aggregate basis, A's gross income for 2023 is $16x (aggregate AFS income inclusion amount for the 4 items delivered in 2023 of $32x less aggregate cost of goods sold of $16x).

(iii) Example 3 -

(A) Facts. In December of 2021, A enters into a contract with Customer to manufacture and deliver a good with a total contract price of $100x. The costs to produce the good are required to be capitalized under sections 471 and 263A as the good is inventory in the hands of the taxpayer. Ownership of the good is transferred from A to Customer upon its delivery in January of 2023. A determines, under paragraph (c)(2)(i)(A) of this section, that its AFS inventory inclusion amount for 2021 and 2022 is $40x per year. A incurs $25x of costs each year ($75x in total) that are permissibly capitalized and allocated to the manufactured good under sections 471 and 263A. A has a fixed right to receive the $100x contract price when it delivers the good in January of 2023. A does not receive any payments from Customer prior to delivery. Further, all $100x is treated as “taken into account as AFS revenue” as of the last day of 2023.

(B) Analysis for 2021 and 2022. For 2021, A's AFS income inclusion amount, as determined under paragraph (c)(2)(i) of this section, is $15x ($40x AFS inventory inclusion amount for 2021 less the $25x cost of goods in progress offset for 2021, which is equal to the cost of goods as of December 31, 2021). For 2022, A's AFS income inclusion amount is $15x ($40x AFS inventory inclusion amount for 2022 less the $25x cost of goods in progress offset for 2022, which is the $50x cost of goods as of December 31, 2022 less the 25x cumulative cost of goods in progress offset amount taken into account in 2021).

(C) Analysis for 2023. During 2023, ownership of the good is transferred to Customer. Accordingly, pursuant to paragraph (c)(2)(ii) of this section, A determines the AFS income inclusion amount for 2023 by:

(1) First taking the greater of:

(i) The cumulative amount of revenue that satisfies the all events test under § 1.451-1(a) through the last day of 2023 ($100x); or

(ii) The cumulative amount of revenue that is treated as “taken into account as AFS revenue” through the last day of 2023 ($100x) (or if the two amounts are equal, the equal amount).

(2) Then subtracting from such amount ($100x) the prior income inclusion amounts attributable to the transferred good of $30x ($15x for 2021 and $15x for 2022). This net amount of $70x is the AFS income inclusion amount for 2023. Although A does not reduce such amount by a cost of goods in progress offset under this paragraph (c), A is entitled to recover the $75x of costs capitalized to the good as cost of goods sold in 2023 in accordance with sections 471 and 263A. See § 1.61-3. Accordingly, A's gross income for 2025 is −$5x.

(iv) Example 4 -

(A) Facts. In December 2021, A enters into a contract with Customer to manufacture and deliver a good with a total contract price of $100x. A reports $5x of AFS revenue for 2021, $90x of cumulative AFS revenue through the end of 2022, and $100x of cumulative AFS revenue through the end of 2023. A has an enforceable right to recover all AFS revenue reported through the end of each contract year if Customer were to terminate the contract on the last day of each year. Under the terms of the contract, A is entitled to and receives a payment of $40x in 2021 and a payment of $60x when Customer accepts delivery of the good in 2023, which is also when ownership of the good transfers to Customer. The costs to produce the good are required to be capitalized under sections 471 and 263A as the good is inventory in the hands of A. A incurs $10x of costs in 2021, $55x of costs in 2022, and $5x of costs in 2023 ($70x in total). Such costs are permissibly capitalized and allocated to the produced good under sections 471 and 263A. A uses the AFS cost offset method under paragraph (c) of this section and accounts for advance payments, as defined in § 1.451-8(a)(1), under the deferral method and advance payment cost offset method under § 1.451-8(c) and (e), respectively.

(B) Analysis for 2021. The $40x payment A receives in 2021 meets the definition of an advance payment under § 1.451-8(a)(1) as the full inclusion of $40x in gross income in the year of receipt is a permissible method of accounting, a portion of the payment ($35x) is “taken into account as AFS revenue” in a subsequent year, and the payment is for a good. Pursuant to § 1.451-8(a)(3), A's advance payment inventory inclusion amount for 2022 is $35x (the portion of the payment deferred for AFS purposes). Pursuant to paragraph (c)(2)(i) of this section, A must first determine the AFS inventory inclusion amount for 2021 by applying the rules in paragraph (c)(2)(i)(A) of this section. A then reduces such amount by the cost of goods in progress offset for 2021, as determined under paragraphs (c)(3) through (5) of this section.

(1) Pursuant to paragraph (c)(2)(i)(A)(1) of this section, A first takes the greater of:

(i) The cumulative amount of revenue that satisfies the all events test under § 1.451-1(a) through the last day of 2021, less any advance payment inventory inclusion amount attributable to a subsequent year ($5x, determined as the $40x under the all events test, less the $35x of advance payment inventory inclusion amount attributable to 2022); or

(ii) The cumulative amount of revenue that is treated as “taken into account as AFS revenue” through the last day of 2021 ($5x) (or if the two amounts are equal, the equal amount).

(2) Pursuant to paragraph (c)(2)(i)(A)(2) of this section, A then subtracts from such amount ($5x) the amount determined under paragraph (c)(2)(i)(A)(1) of this section for the item of inventory for the immediately preceding year ($0). This net amount of $5x is the AFS inventory inclusion amount for 2021.

(3) Pursuant to paragraph (c)(2)(i) of this section, A reduces this $5x AFS inventory inclusion amount by the cost of goods in progress offset for 2021 of $5x, determined as the cost of goods as of December 31, 2021 of $10x, less the cumulative cost of goods in progress offset taken into account in prior years of $0, less 5x for the AFS inventory inclusion amount limitation under paragraph (c)(4) of this section. Accordingly, A is required to include $0 in gross income for 2021.

(C) Analysis for 2022. Pursuant to paragraph (c)(2)(i) of this section, A must first determine the AFS inventory inclusion amount for 2022 by applying the rules in paragraph (c)(2)(i)(A) of this section. A then reduces such amount by the cost of goods in progress offset for 2022, as determined under paragraphs (c)(3) through (5) of this section.

(1) Pursuant to paragraph (c)(2)(i)(A)(1) of this section, A first takes the greater of:

(i) The cumulative amount of revenue that satisfies the all events test under § 1.451-1(a) through the last day of 2022 ($40x); or

(ii) The cumulative amount of revenue that is treated as “taken into account as AFS revenue” through the last day of 2022 ($90x).

(2) Pursuant to (c)(2)(i)(A)(2) of this section, A then subtracts from such amount ($90x) the amount determined under paragraph (c)(2)(i)(A)(1) of this section for the item of inventory for 2021 ($5x). This net amount of $85x is the AFS inventory inclusion amount for 2022.

(3) Pursuant to paragraph (c)(2)(i) of this section, A reduces this $85x AFS inventory inclusion amount by the cost of goods in progress offset for 2022 of $60x, determined as the cost of goods as of December 31, 2022 of $65x, less the cumulative cost of goods in progress offset taken into account in prior years of $5x. Accordingly, A is required to include $25x in gross income for 2022.

(D) Analysis for 2023. During 2023, ownership of the good is transferred to Customer. Accordingly, pursuant to paragraph (c)(2)(ii) of this section, A determines its gross income inclusion for 2023 by:

(1) First taking the greater of:

(i) The cumulative amount of revenue that satisfies the all events test under § 1.451-1(a) through the last day of 2023 ($100x); or

(ii) The cumulative amount of revenue that is treated as “taken into account as AFS revenue” through the last day of 2023 ($100x) (or if the two amounts are equal, the equal amount).

(2) Then subtracting from such amount ($100x) the prior income inclusion amounts attributable to the transferred good of $25x ($0 for 2021 plus $25x for 2022). A is required to include this net amount of $75x in gross income for 2023. Although A does not reduce such amount by a cost of goods in progress offset under this paragraph (c), A is entitled to recover the $70x of costs capitalized to the good as cost of goods sold in 2023 in accordance with sections 471 and 263A. See § 1.61-3. Accordingly, A's gross income for 2023 is $5x.

(v) Example 5 - (A) Facts. The same facts as in paragraph (c)(8)(iv) of this section (Example 4) apply, except that in 2022, A's obligation to Customer with respect to the good ends other than in a transaction to which section 381(a) applies, or a section 351 transaction described in paragraph (c)(6)(ii)(B) of this section. A does not receive any additional payments in 2022.

(B) Analysis for 2021. The analysis for 2021 is the same as in paragraph (c)(8)(iv) of this section (Example 4).

(C) Analysis for 2022. Because, in 2022, A's obligation to Customer with respect to the good ends in a transaction other than a transaction described in paragraph (c)(6)(ii)(A) or (B) of this section, A is required to apply the acceleration rules in paragraph (c)(6) of this section. Accordingly, because A received $40x of payments as of the date of the transaction, but did not include any portion of such payments in gross income in prior years, A is required to include the remaining $40x of the payments received in gross income in 2022 pursuant to paragraph (c)(6) of this section. A is not permitted to further reduce the $40x income inclusion by a cost of goods in progress offset under this paragraph (c).

(vi) Example 6 -

(A) Facts. In 2021, A enters into a contract with Customer to produce and deliver a good. The contract provides that A will receive payments equal to AFS costs plus a 100% mark-up, however, A can only bill the customer on December 31, 2022 and, if the good is not delivered by December 31, 2022, A can also bill Customer upon delivery of the good, for the AFS costs (plus markup) incurred to date, less any amounts previously billed. A recognizes AFS revenue based on a percentage of completion (cost to cost) method. A recognizes AFS revenue of $100 through the last day of 2021, $150 through the last day of 2022, and $300 through the last day of 2023, and has an enforceable right to all AFS revenue reported as of the end of each year if the customer were to terminate the contract on the last day of the year. A bills the customer $150 on December 31 of 2022 and $150 in 2023 when A delivers the good and ownership transfers to Customer. The costs to produce the good are required to be capitalized under sections 471 and 263A as the good is inventory in the hands of the taxpayer. A incurs the following costs each year that are permissibly capitalized and allocated to the produced good under sections 471 and 263A: $125 in 2021; $0 in 2022; and $25 in year 2023.

(B) Analysis for taxable year 2021. Pursuant to paragraph (c)(2)(i) of this section, A must first determine the AFS inventory inclusion amount for 2021 by applying the rules in paragraph (c)(2)(i)(A) of this section. A then reduces such amount by the cost of goods in progress offset for 2021, as determined under paragraphs (c)(3) through (5) of this section.

(1) Pursuant to paragraph (c)(2)(i)(A)(1) of this section, A first takes the greater of:

(i) The cumulative amount of revenue that satisfies the all events test under § 1.451-1(a) through the last day of 2021 ($0); or

(ii) The cumulative amount of revenue that is treated as “taken into account as AFS revenue” through the last day of 2021 ($100).

(2) Pursuant to paragraph (c)(2)(i)(A)(2) of this section, A then subtracts from such amount ($100) the amount determined under paragraph (c)(2)(i)(A)(1) of this section for the item of inventory for the immediately preceding year ($0). This net amount of $100 is the AFS inventory inclusion amount for 2021.

(3) Pursuant to paragraph (c)(2)(i) of this section, A reduces this $100 AFS inventory inclusion amount by the cost of goods in progress offset for 2021 of $100. Although A's cost of goods in progress as of the end of 2021 is $125, the cost of goods in progress offset is limited to $100, the amount of A's AFS inventory inclusion amount for 2021. Accordingly, A is required to include $0 in gross income in 2021.

(C) Analysis for taxable year 2022. Pursuant to paragraph (c)(2)(i) of this section, A must first determine the AFS inventory inclusion amount for 2022 by applying the rules in paragraph (c)(2)(i)(A) of this section. A then reduces such amount by the cost of goods in progress offset for 2022, as determined under paragraphs (c)(3) through (5) of this section.

(1) Pursuant to paragraph (c)(2)(i)(A)(1) of this section, A first takes the greater of:

(i) The cumulative amount of revenue that satisfies the all events test under § 1.451-1(a) through the last day of 2022 ($150 due under the terms of the contract); or

(ii) The cumulative amount of revenue that is treated as “taken into account as AFS revenue” through the last day of 2022 ($150) (or if the two amounts are equal, the equal amount).

(2) Pursuant to paragraph (c)(2)(i)(A)(2) of this section, A then subtracts from such amount ($150) the amount determined under paragraph (c)(2)(i)(A)(1) of this section for the item of inventory for the immediately preceding year ($100). This net amount of $50 is the AFS inventory inclusion amount for 2022.

(3) Pursuant to paragraph (c)(2)(i) of this section, A reduces this $50 AFS inventory inclusion amount by the cost of goods in progress offset for 2022 of $25, determined as $125 cost of goods as of December 31, 2022 minus $100 cumulative cost of goods in progress offset amount taken into account in 2021. Accordingly, A is required to include $25 in gross income for 2022.

(D) Analysis for taxable year 2023. During 2023, ownership of the good is transferred to the customer. Accordingly, pursuant to paragraph (c)(2)(ii) of this section, A determines its gross income inclusion for 2023 by:

(1) First taking the greater of:

(i) The cumulative amount of revenue that satisfies the all events test under § 1.451-1(a) through the last day of 2023 ($300x); or

(ii) The cumulative amount of revenue that is treated as “taken into account as AFS revenue” through the last day of 2025 ($300x) (or if the two amounts are equal, the equal amount).

(2) Then subtracting from such amount ($300x) the prior income inclusion amounts attributable to the transferred good of $25 ($0 for 2021 plus $25 for 2022). This net amount of $275 is the AFS income inclusion amount for 2023. Although A does not reduce such amount by a cost of goods in progress offset under this paragraph (c), A is entitled to recover the $150 of costs capitalized to the good as cost of goods sold in 2023 in accordance with sections 471 and 263A. See § 1.61-3. Accordingly, A's gross income for 2023 is $125 ($275 AFS income inclusion amount less $150 cost of goods sold).

(d) Contracts with multiple performance obligations -

(1) In general. Each performance obligation generally yields a corresponding item of gross income that must be accounted for separately under the AFS income inclusion rule in paragraph (b)(1) of this section. Except as provided in paragraph (d)(5) of this section, if a contract contains more than one performance obligation, and thus yields more than one corresponding item of gross income, the transaction price amount shall be allocated to each corresponding item of gross income in accordance with the transaction price amount allocated to each performance obligation for AFS purposes, subject to the adjustments to the transaction price amount and special allocation rules in paragraph (d)(3) of this section.

(2) Single performance obligation with more than one item of gross income. If a single performance obligation yields more than one corresponding item of gross income, the transaction price amount allocated to the single performance obligation for AFS purposes must be further allocated among the corresponding items of gross income using any reasonable method.

(3) Adjustments to transaction price amount and special allocation rules -

(i) Increases to transaction price amount. If the transaction price amount includes a reduction for amounts described in paragraph (b)(2)(i)(A)(1) or (2) of this section, or has been reduced because a significant financing component is deemed to exist under the standards the taxpayer uses to prepare its AFS, the taxpayer must determine the specific performance obligation to which such reduction relates and increase the transaction price amount allocable to the corresponding item of gross income by the amount of such reduction (specific identification approach). If it is impracticable from the taxpayer's records to use the specific identification approach, the taxpayer may use any reasonable method to allocate the reduction amount to the items of gross income in the contract. A pro-rata allocation of the reduction amount across all items of gross income under the contract based on the relative transaction price amounts allocated to such items under paragraph (d)(1) of this section is a reasonable method.

(ii) Decrease to transaction price amount. If the transaction price amount has been increased because a significant financing component is deemed to exist under the standards the taxpayer uses to prepare its AFS, the taxpayer must determine the specific performance obligation to which such amount relates and decrease the transaction price amount allocable to the corresponding item of gross income by such amount (specific identification approach). If it is impracticable from the taxpayer's records to use the specific identification approach, the taxpayer may use any reasonable method to allocate such amount to the items of gross income in the contract. A pro-rata allocation of such amount across all items of gross income under the contract based on the relative transaction price amounts allocated to such items under paragraph (d)(1) of this section is a reasonable method.

(4) Examples. The following examples illustrate the rules of paragraph (d)(1) through (3) of this section. Unless the facts specifically state otherwise, the taxpayer has an AFS, is on a calendar year for Federal income tax purposes and AFS purposes, and uses an accrual method of accounting for Federal income tax purposes.

(i) Example 1 -

(A) Facts. On November 1, 2021, A, a software developer, enters into a contract with a customer to transfer a software license, perform software installation services, and provide technical support for a two-year period for $100x. The installation service does not significantly modify the software and the software remains functional without the technical support. A receives an additional $10x bonus if the installation service is performed before February 1, 2022, which A expects to receive. Further, the customer is entitled to a refund of $2x if technical support does not meet performance standards set forth in the contract, which A expects it will pay to the customer. For its AFS, A identifies three performance obligations in the contract:

(1)(i) The software license;

(ii) The installation service; and

(iii) Technical support.

(2) Also, for its AFS, A determines that the transaction price amount is $108x, determined as $100x contract price plus $10x bonus for installation services minus $2x customer refund. Finally, for its AFS, A allocates the $108x transaction price amount to the three performance obligations as follows: $60x to the software license; $40x to the installation service ($30x + $10x bonus); and $8x to technical support ($10x−$2x refund).

(B) Analysis. Pursuant to paragraph (d)(1) of this section, A's contract with the customer has three performance obligations, and each performance obligation yields a corresponding item of gross income that is accounted for separately. Pursuant to paragraph (d)(1) of this section, A is required to allocate the $108x transaction price amount to each corresponding item of gross income in accordance with the transaction price amount allocated to each respective performance obligation for AFS purposes. Accordingly, A initially allocates $60x to the software license item, $40x to the installation service item, and $8 to the technical support item. However, because the transaction price amount was reduced by the anticipated refund of $2x, which relates specifically to the technical support item, A must increase the transaction price allocable to that item of gross income pursuant to the specific identification approach in paragraph (d)(3) of this section. Accordingly, the amount allocated to the item of gross income related to technical support is $10x.

(ii) Example 2 -

(A) Facts. In 2021, B, a manufacturer and servicer of airplane parts, enters into a contract with a customer to sell airplane parts in 2021 and to service those parts, as necessary, in 2021, 2022, and 2023 for $100x. B regularly sells the airline parts and the services separately. For its AFS, B identifies two performance obligations in the contract:

(1)(i) The sale of airplane parts; and

(ii) The services for those parts.

(2) The customer receives a refund of $5x if it does not require a specified level of service for the parts, which B expects it will pay to the customer. Also, for its AFS, B determines that the transaction price amount is $95x, determined as the $100x contract price minus the $5x refund that it expects to pay the customer. Finally, for its AFS, B allocates the $95x transaction price amount to the two performance obligations as follows: $40x to the sale of parts and $55x to the provision of services ($60x−$5x refund).

(B) Analysis. Pursuant to paragraph (d)(1) of this section, B's contract with the customer has two performance obligations, and each performance obligation yields a corresponding item of gross income that is accounted for separately. Pursuant to paragraph (d)(1) of this section, B is required to allocate the $95x transaction price amount to each corresponding item of gross income in accordance with the transaction price amount allocated to each respective performance obligation for AFS purposes. Accordingly, B initially allocates $40x to the sale of parts item and $55x to the provision of services item. However, because the transaction price amount was reduced by the anticipated refund of $5x, which relates specifically to provision of services item, B must increase the transaction price allocable to that item of gross income pursuant to the specific identification approach in paragraph (d)(3) of this section. Accordingly, the amount allocated to the item of gross income related to servicing the parts is $60x.

(iii) Example 3: Reward points -

(A) Facts. On December 31, 2021, U, in the business of selling consumer electronics, sells a new TV for $1,000 and gives the customer 50 reward points. Each reward point is redeemable for a $1 discount on any future purchase of U's products. For its AFS, U identifies two performance obligations from the transaction:

(1)(i) The sale of the TV; and

(ii) The provision of rewards points.

(2) Also, for its AFS, U allocates $950 of transaction price amount to the sale of the TV and the remaining $50 of the transaction price amount to the reward points.

(B) Analysis. Pursuant to paragraph (d)(1) of this section, U's contract with the customer has two performance obligations, and each performance obligation yields a corresponding item of gross income that is accounted for separately. Pursuant to paragraph (d)(1) of this section, U is required to allocate the $1,000 transaction price amount to each corresponding item of gross income in accordance with the transaction price amount allocated to each respective performance obligation for AFS purposes. Accordingly, U allocates the transaction price amount as follows: $950 to the TV sale item and $50 to the reward points item. If U reports any portion of the $50 payment allocated to the reward points as AFS revenue for 2022, or later, the payment is an advance payment, as defined in § 1.451-8(a)(1), and may be accounted for under the deferral method if U satisfies the criteria in § 1.451-8(c).

(iv) Example 4: Airline reward miles -

(A) Facts. On January 1, 2021, W, a passenger airline company, sells a customer a $700 airline ticket to fly roundtrip in 2021. As part of the purchase, the customer receives 7,000 points (air miles) from W to be redeemed for future air travel. For its AFS, W identifies two performance obligations in the contract:

(1)(i) The sale of the airline ticket; and

(ii) The provision of air miles.

(2) W also anticipates that it will issue a rebate to the customer for $10. Also, for its AFS, W determines that the transaction price amount is $690, determined as the $700 ticket price minus the anticipated $10 rebate. Finally, for its AFS, W allocates the $690 transaction price amount to the separate performance obligations as follows: $660 to the ticket ($670−$10 rebate = $660) and $30 to the air miles.

(B) Analysis. Pursuant to paragraph (d)(1) of this section, W's contract with the customer has two performance obligations, and each performance obligation yields a corresponding item of gross income that is accounted for separately. Pursuant to paragraph (d)(1) of this section, W must allocate the $690 transaction price amount to each corresponding item of gross income in accordance with the transaction price amount allocated to each respective performance obligation for AFS purposes. Accordingly, W initially allocates $660 to the ticket sale item and $30 to the air miles item. However, because the transaction price amount was reduced by the anticipated rebate of $10x, which relates to the ticket sale item, W must increase the transaction price allocable to that item of gross income pursuant to paragraph (d)(3) of this section. Accordingly, the amount allocated to the item of gross income related to the ticket sale is $670. If W reports any portion of the $30 payment allocated to the air miles item as AFS revenue for 2022, or later, the payment is an advance payment, as defined in § 1.451-8(a)(1), and may be accounted for under the deferral method if W satisfies the criteria in § 1.451-8(c).

(v) Example 5: Contract with significant financing component amounts -

(A) Facts. On January 1, 2021, C, a manufacturer and servicer of airline parts, enters into a contract with a customer to sell airline parts in December 2022, and to service those parts, as necessary, through 2024. The contract contains two alternative payment options: payment of $5,000 in December 2022 when the customer obtains control of the parts or payment of $4,000 when the contract is signed. The customer pays $4,000 when the contract is signed, which reflects an implicit interest rate of 11.8% and is C's incremental borrowing rate. C regularly sells the airline parts and the services separately. For its AFS, C identifies two performance obligations in the contract:

(1)(i) The sale of airplane parts; and

(ii) The services for those parts.

(2) Also, for its AFS, although the contract only requires the customer to pay $4,000, the transaction price is increased by $1,000 to $5,000 because the customer is deemed to provide financing to C under the standards C uses to prepare its AFS. The $1,000 increase is attributable to a significant financing component. Finally, for its AFS, C allocates the $5,000 transaction price amount to the separate performance obligations as follows: $3,750 to the sale of parts ($3,000 upfront payment plus $750 financing component) and $1,250 ($1,000 upfront payment plus $250 financing component) to the provision of services.

(B) Analysis. Pursuant to paragraph (d)(1) of this section, C's contract with the customer has two performance obligations, and each performance obligation yields a corresponding item of gross income that is accounted for separately. Pursuant to paragraph (d)(1) of this section, C must allocate the $5,000 transaction price amount to each corresponding item of gross income in accordance with the transaction price amount allocated to each respective performance obligation for AFS purposes. Accordingly, C initially allocates $3,750 to the sale of the parts item and $1,250 to the provision of services item. However, because the transaction price was increased by a significant financing component of $1,000, $750 of which was allocated to sale of the parts item and $250 of which was allocated to the provision of services item, pursuant to paragraph (d)(3) of this section, C must decrease the transaction price amount allocable to the sale of parts item from $3,750 to $3,000 and must decrease the transaction price allocable to the provision of services from $1,250 to $1,000.

(5) Contracts accounted for in part under this section and in part under a special method of accounting -

(i) In general. If a taxpayer has a contract with a customer that includes one or more items of gross income that are subject to a special method of accounting and one or more items of gross income that are subject to this section (special method/451 contract), the transaction price allocation rule in paragraph (d)(1) of this section does not apply to determine the amount of each item of gross income that is subject to a special method of accounting. For purposes of this paragraph (d)(5)(i), a special method of accounting has the meaning set forth in paragraph (a)(13) of this section, except as otherwise provided in guidance published in the Internal Revenue Bulletin (see § 601.601(d) of this chapter). For special method/451 contracts, paragraphs (d)(5)(ii) and (iii) of this section apply to determine the transaction price amount and the portion of such amount that is allocated to each item of gross income that is subject to this section.

(ii) Transaction price adjustments. If the transaction price amount for the special method/451 contract includes a reduction for amounts described in paragraph (b)(2)(i)(A)(1) or (2) of this section, or has been reduced because a significant financing component is deemed to exist under the standards the taxpayer uses to prepare its AFS, the taxpayer must increase the transaction price amount by the amount of such reduction. If the transaction price amount for the special method/451 contract has been increased because a significant financing component is deemed to exist under the standards the taxpayer uses to prepare its AFS, the taxpayer must decrease the transaction price amount by the amount of such increase.

(iii) Transaction price allocation. After the taxpayer determines the adjusted transaction price amount for the special method/451 contract under paragraph (d)(5)(ii) of this section, the taxpayer first allocates such amount to the item(s) of gross income subject to a special method of accounting and then allocates the remainder (residual amount) to the item(s) of gross income that are subject to this section. If the contract contains more than one item of gross income that is subject to this section, the taxpayer allocates the residual amount to such items in proportion to the amounts allocated to the corresponding performance obligations for AFS purposes or as otherwise provided in guidance published in the Internal Revenue Bulletin (see § 601.601(d) of this chapter).

(iv) Example -

(1) Facts. B is a calendar-year accrual method taxpayer with an AFS. In 2020, B enters into a $100x contract to design, build, operate and maintain a toll road. The contract meets the definition of a long-term contract under § 1.460-1(b)(1). B determines that the obligations to design and build the toll road are long-term contract activities under § 1.460-1(d)(1) and accounts for the gross income from these activities under section 460 and the regulations in this part under section 460 of the Code. In addition, B determines that the obligations to operate and maintain the toll road are non-long-term contract activities under § 1.460-1(d)(2) and that the gross income attributable to these activities is required to be accounted for under this section. B determines that of the $100x transaction price amount, $60x is properly allocable to the items of gross income that are subject to section 460 and the regulations in this part under section 460 of the Code. However, for its AFS, B allocates $55x of the transaction price amount to performance obligations that are long-term contract activities, $30x to the toll road operation performance obligation and $15x to the toll road maintenance performance obligation.

(2) Analysis. A method of accounting under section 460 is a special method of accounting that is within the scope of paragraph (d)(5) of this section. Pursuant to paragraph (d)(5) of this section, B first allocates $60x of the transaction price amount to the items of gross income that are subject to section 460 and the regulations in this part under section 460 of the Code and then allocates the residual amount of $40x to the two items of gross income that are required to be accounted for under this section in proportion to the amounts allocated to the corresponding performance obligations for AFS purposes. Accordingly, B allocates $26.7 × ($30x/$45x × $40x residual amount) to the toll road operations item of gross income and $13.3x ($15x/$45x × $40x residual amount) to the toll road maintenance item of gross income.

(e) Cumulative rule for multi-year contracts -

(1) In general. In the case of an item of gross income from a multi-year contract, a taxpayer determines the AFS income inclusion amount for a taxable year by applying the steps in paragraph (e)(1)(i) or (ii) of this section. For this paragraph (e), the term multi-year contract means a contract that spans more than one taxable year.

(i) Inventory items. If the item of gross income is from the sale of an item of inventory and the taxpayer uses the cost offset method under paragraph (c) of this section, see paragraph (c) of this section.

(ii) Other items of gross income. For all other items of gross income, the taxpayer first compares the cumulative amount of the item of gross income that satisfies the all events test under § 1.451-1(a) through the last day of the taxable year, including the full amount of any advance payment received for such item in a prior taxable year, with the cumulative amount of the item of gross income that is treated as “taken into account as AFS revenue” under paragraph (b)(2) of this section through the last day of the taxable year and identifies the larger of the two amounts (or, if the two amounts are equal, the equal amount). The taxpayer then reduces such amount by all prior year inclusion amounts attributable to the item of gross income, if any, to determine the AFS income inclusion amount for the current taxable year. If, however, the taxpayer receives an advance payment, as defined in § 1.451-8(a)(1), that is allocable to an item of gross income from a multi-year contract, the taxpayer applies the applicable rules in § 1.451-8, rather than the rules in this paragraph (e)(1)(ii), to determine the amount of the item of gross income that is required to be included in gross income in the taxable year in which such advance payment is received, or, if applicable, in a short taxable year described in § 1.451-8(c)(6).

(2) Examples. The following examples illustrate the rules of paragraph (e)(1) of this section. Unless the facts specifically state otherwise, the taxpayer has an AFS, is on a calendar year for both Federal income tax purposes and AFS purposes and uses an accrual method of accounting for Federal income tax purposes. Further, the taxpayer does not use a special method of accounting.

(i) Example 1: Provision of services included in AFS revenue with full inclusion method for advance payments -

(A) Facts. In 2021, D, an engineering services provider, enters into a nonseverable contract with a customer to provide engineering services through 2024 for a total of $100x. Under the contract, D receives payments of $25x in each calendar year of the contract. For its AFS, D reports $50x, $0, $20x, and $30x of AFS revenue from the contract for 2021, 2022, 2023, and 2024, respectively. D has an enforceable right to recover all amounts reported as AFS revenue through the end of a given contract year if the customer were to terminate the contract on the last day of such year. The $25x payment received in 2023 is an advance payment, as defined in § 1.451-8(a)(1), because $5x of the $25x payment is reported as AFS revenue for 2024. D uses the full inclusion method for advance payments.

(B) Taxable year 2021. Under the all events test in § 1.451-1(a), D is required to include $25x in gross income in 2021 as $25x is due under the terms of the contract and received by D during 2021. D does not have a fixed right to receive any portion of the remaining $75 as such amount is not due under the terms of the contract until future years and is also contingent on D's completion of the nonseverable services. Under the AFS income inclusion rule, because D has an enforceable right to recover all $50x reported as AFS revenue for 2021 if the customer were to terminate the contract on the last day of such year, all $50x is treated as “taken into account as AFS revenue” in 2021. Accordingly, D is required to include $50x in gross income in 2021.

(C) Taxable year 2022. Under the all events test in § 1.451-1(a), D is required to include $50x in gross income through the end of 2022 as $50x is due under the terms of the contract and received by D as of the end of 2022. D does not have a fixed right to receive any portion of the remaining $50 as such amount is not due under the terms of the contract until future years and is also contingent on D's completion of the nonseverable services. Under the AFS income inclusion rule, because D has an enforceable right to recover all $50x reported as AFS revenue through the end of 2022 if the customer were to terminate the contract on the last day of such year, all $50x is treated as “taken into account as AFS revenue” as of the last day of 2022. Under the cumulative rule in paragraph (e)(1)(ii) of this section, D compares the cumulative all events test amount of $50x with the cumulative AFS revenue amount of $50x and selects the larger of the two amounts (or if the two amounts are equal, the equal amount). From this equal amount of $50x, D subtracts the prior income inclusion amount of $50x. Accordingly, under the cumulative rule D is not required to include any amount in gross income in 2022.

(D) Taxable year 2023. The payment received during 2023 meets the definition of an advance payment under § 1.451-8(a)(1). Accordingly, pursuant to paragraph (e)(1)(ii) of this section, D must determine the amount that is required to be included in gross income in 2023 under the rules in § 1.451-8. Because D uses the full inclusion method under § 1.451-8(b), D is required to include the $25x that was due and received during 2023 in gross income in 2023.

(E) Taxable year 2024. Under the all events test in § 1.451-1(a), D is required to include $100x in gross income through the end of 2024 as $100x is due under the terms of the contract and received by D as of the end of 2024. Under the AFS income inclusion rule, because D has an enforceable right to recover all $100x reported as AFS revenue through the end of 2024 if the customer were to terminate the contract on the last day of such year, all $100x is treated as “taken into account as AFS revenue” through the last day of 2024. Under the cumulative rule in paragraph (e)(1)(ii) of this section, D compares the cumulative all events test amount of $100x with the cumulative AFS revenue amount of $100x and selects the larger of the two amounts (or, if the two amounts are equal, the equal amount). From this equal amount of $100x, D subtracts the prior income inclusion amount of $75x ($50x from 2021 plus $0x from 2022 plus $25x from 2023). Accordingly, under the cumulative rule D is required to include $25 in gross income in 2024. The example in this paragraph (e)(2)(i)(E) is summarized in the following table:

Table 2 to Paragaph (e)(2)(i)(E)

2021 2022 2023 2024 Total
All Events/Full Inclusion Income $25x $25x $25x $25x $100x
AFS Revenue 50x 0 20x 30x 100x
Cumulative rule income 50x 0 25x 25x 100x

(ii) Example 2: Provision of services included in AFS revenue with deferral method for advance payments -

(A) Facts. The facts are the same as in paragraph (e)(2)(i) of this section (Example 1), except D elects to use the deferral method under § 1.451-8(c) to account for advance payments.

(B) Taxable years 2021 and 2022. The analysis for tax years 2021 and 2022 is the same as in paragraph (e)(2)(i) of this section (Example 1).

(C) Taxable year 2023. The payment received during 2023 meets the definition of an advance payment under § 1.451-8(a)(1). Accordingly, pursuant to paragraph (e)(1)(ii) of this section, D must determine the amount that is required to be included in gross income in 2023 under the rules in § 1.451-8. Because D uses the deferral method under § 1.451-8(b), D is required to include $20x of the $25x payment in gross income in 2023 as $20x of such payment was treated as “taken into account as AFS revenue” as of the end of 2023.

(D) Taxable year 2024. Under the all events test in § 1.451-1(a), D is required to include $100x in gross income through the end of 2024. Under the AFS income inclusion rule, because D has an enforceable right to recover all $100x reported as AFS revenue through the end of 2024 if the customer were to terminate the contract on the last day of such year, all $100x is treated as “taken into account as AFS revenue” through the last day of 2024. Under the cumulative rule in paragraph (e)(1)(ii) of this section, D compares the cumulative all events test amount of $100x, which includes the full amount of the $25 advance payment received in 2023, with the cumulative AFS revenue amount of $100x and selects the larger of the two amounts (or, if the two amounts are equal, the equal amount). From this equal amount of $100x, D subtracts the prior income inclusion amount of $70x ($50x from 2021 plus $0x from 2022 plus $20x from 2023). Accordingly, under the cumulative rule D is required to include $30x in gross income in 2024. The example in this paragraph (e)(2)(ii)(D) is summarized in the following table:

Table 3 to Paragraph (e)(2)(ii)(D)

2021 2022 2023 2024 Total
All Events Test/Deferral Method Income $25x $25x 1 $20x $30x $100x
AFS Revenue amount 50x 0 20x 30x 100x
Cumulative rule income 50x 0 20x 30x 100x

1 $5x of the advance payment in 2023 is deferred and taken into income in 2024.

(f) No change in the treatment of a transaction. Except as provided in paragraph (j) of this section and § 1.1275-2(l), the AFS income inclusion rule does not change the treatment of a transaction or the character of an item for Federal income tax purposes. The following are examples of transactions where the treatment or character for AFS purposes does not change the treatment of the transaction or character of the item for Federal income tax purposes:

(1) A transaction treated as a lease, license, or similar transaction for Federal income tax purposes that is treated as a sale or financing for AFS purposes, and vice versa;

(2) A transaction or instrument that is not required to be marked-to-market for Federal income tax purposes but that is marked-to-market for AFS purposes;

(3) Asset sale and liquidation treatment under section 336(e) or 338(h)(10);

(4) A distribution of a corporation or the allocable share of partnership items or an income inclusion under section 951, 951A, or 1293(a) for Federal income tax purposes that is accounted for under the equity method for AFS purposes;

(5) A distribution of previously taxed earnings and profits of a foreign corporation; and

(6) A deposit, return of capital, or conduit payment that is not gross income for Federal income tax purposes that is treated as AFS revenue.

(g) No change to exclusion provisions and the treatment of non-recognition transactions -

(1) In general. The AFS income inclusion rule accelerates the time at which the all events test under § 1.451-1(a) is treated as satisfied, and therefore does not change the applicability of any exclusion provision, or the treatment of non-recognition transactions, in the Code, the regulations in this part, or other guidance published in the Internal Revenue Bulletin (see § 601.601(d) of this chapter). The following are examples of exclusion provisions and non-recognition transactions that are not affected by the AFS income inclusion rule:

(i) Any non-recognition transaction, within the meaning of section 7701(a)(45), including, for example, a liquidation described in sections 332 and 337, an exchange described in section 351, a distribution described in section 355, a reorganization described in section 368, a contribution described in section 721, or transactions described in sections 1031 through 1045; and

(ii) Items specifically excluded from income under sections 101 through 140.

(2) Example: Non-recognition provisions not changed for Federal income tax purposes -

(i) Facts. Taxpayer (Distributing) is a calendar-year accrual method C corporation with an AFS. On December 31, 2021, Distributing:

(A)(1) Contributes assets to a wholly owned subsidiary ( Controlled) in exchange for Controlled stock and $100x; and

(2) Distributes all the Controlled stock pro rata to its shareholders.

(B) The transaction qualifies as a reorganization under section 368(a)(1)(D) and a distribution to which section 355 applies (D reorganization). Distributing's realized gain on the transferred assets for book and tax purposes is $150x. On January 15, 2022, in pursuance of the plan of reorganization, Distributing distributes the $100x to its shareholders. Consequently, no gain to Distributing is recognized under section 361(b)(1)(A). On Distributing's 2021 AFS, Distributing recognizes revenue of $150x related to the D reorganization.

(ii) Analysis. For Federal income tax purposes, under section 361, Distributing does not recognize gain on Distributing's:

(A)(1) Contribution of assets to Controlled;

(2) Receipt of Controlled stock and cash; and

(3) Distribution of Controlled stock and cash to Distributing's shareholders.

(B) Pursuant to paragraph (g) of this section, the AFS income inclusion rule does not change the result of this paragraph (g)(2).

(h) Additional AFS issues -

(1) AFS covering groups of entities -

(i) In general. If a taxpayer's financial results are reported on the AFS for a group of entities (consolidated AFS), the taxpayer's AFS is the consolidated AFS. However, if the taxpayer's financial results are also reported on a separate AFS that is of equal or higher priority to the consolidated AFS under paragraph (a)(5) of this section, then the taxpayer's AFS is the separate AFS.

(ii) Example. Taxpayer B, a reseller of computers and electronics, is a calendar-year accrual method taxpayer. In 2021, B's financial results are included in P's consolidated financial statement, which is certified as being prepared in accordance with GAAP, and is a Form 10-K filed with the SEC. B also has a separate audited financial statement prepared in accordance with GAAP that is used for credit purposes. B must use its parent corporation's consolidated Form 10-K as its AFS.

(2) Separately listed items. If a consolidated AFS is treated as the taxpayer's AFS, the taxpayer must include the amount of any items listed separately in the consolidated AFS, including any notes or other supplementary data that is considered part of the consolidated AFS, in determining the amount of AFS revenue allocated to the taxpayer.

(3) Non-separately listed items. If a consolidated AFS does not separately list items for the taxpayer, the portion of the AFS revenue allocable to the taxpayer is determined by relying on the taxpayer's separate source documents that were used to create the consolidated AFS and includes amounts subsequently eliminated in the consolidated AFS. Whether a taxpayer that changes the source documents it uses for this purpose from one taxable year to another taxable year has changed its method of accounting is determined under the rules of section 446.

(4) Computation of AFS revenue for the taxable year when the AFS covers mismatched reportable periods -

(i) In general. If a taxpayer's AFS is prepared on the basis of a financial accounting year that differs from the taxpayer's taxable year, the taxpayer must use one of the following permissible methods of accounting described in paragraph (h)(4)(i)(A) through (C) of this section to determine the AFS income inclusion amount for the taxable year:

(A) The taxpayer computes AFS revenue as if its financial reporting period is the same as its taxable year by conducting an interim closing of its books using the accounting principles it uses to prepare its AFS.

(B) The taxpayer computes AFS revenue by including a pro rata portion of AFS revenue for each financial accounting year that includes any part of the taxpayer's taxable year. If the taxpayer's AFS for part of the taxable year is not available by the due date of the return (with extension), the taxpayer must make a reasonable estimate of AFS revenue for the pro rata portion of the taxable year for which an AFS is not yet available. See § 1.451-1(a) for adjustments after actual amounts are determined.

(C) If a taxpayer's financial accounting year ends five or more months after the end of its taxable year, the taxpayer computes AFS revenue for the taxable year based on the AFS revenue reported on the AFS prepared for the financial accounting year ending within the taxpayer's taxable year. For this paragraph (h)(4)(i)(C), if a taxpayer uses a 52-53 week year for financial accounting or Federal income tax purposes, the last day of such year shall be deemed to occur on the last day of the calendar month ending closest to the end of such year.

(ii) Examples. The following examples illustrate the principles of paragraph (j)(4) of this section.

(A) Example 1: Interim closing of the books. A is a calendar year taxpayer. For its AFS, A's financial results are reported on a June 30 fiscal year. Using the method described in paragraph (h)(4)(i)(A) of this section, for the taxable year 2021, A uses the financial results reported on its June 30, 2021 AFS to determine whether an item of gross income is treated as “taken into account as AFS revenue” from January 1, 2021, through June 30, 2021, and uses financial data and accounting procedures from its June 30, 2022 AFS to prepare an interim closing of the books as of December 31, 2021 to determine whether an item of gross income is treated as “taken into account as AFS revenue” from July 1, 2021, through December 31, 2021.

(B) Example 2: Pro rata approach. A is a calendar year taxpayer. For its AFS, A's financial results are reported on a June 30 fiscal year. Using the method described in paragraph (h)(4)(i)(B) of this section, for the taxable year 2021, A computes AFS revenue for the 2021 tax year by taking the AFS revenue for the financial accounting year ending June 30, 2021 and multiplying it by a ratio equal to the number of days in the financial accounting year that are part of the 2021 tax year/365 and then adding to that amount the AFS revenue for the financial accounting year ending June 30, 2022 multiplied by the number of days in the financial accounting year that are part of the 2021 tax year/365.

(C) Example 3: AFS revenue for the taxable year based on AFS ending in taxpayer's taxable year. The same facts as in paragraph (h)(4)(ii)(B) of this section (Example 2) apply, except that A uses the method described in paragraph (h)(4)(i)(C) of this section. For the taxable year 2021, A uses the financial results reported on its June 30, 2021 AFS to determine whether an item of gross income is treated as “taken into account as AFS revenue” as of the end of its 2021 taxable year. Accordingly, any AFS revenue reported on the taxpayer's June 30, 2022 AFS is disregarded when determining whether an item of gross income is treated as “taken into account as AFS revenue” as of the end of the 2021 taxable year.

(i) [Reserved]

(j) Special ordering rule for certain items of income for debt instruments -

(1) In general. If an item of income, or portion thereof, with respect to a debt instrument is described in paragraph (j)(2) of this section, the rules of this section apply before the rules in sections 1271 through 1275 and §§ 1.1271-1 through 1.1275-7 (OID rules). Therefore, an item of income, or portion thereof, described in paragraph (j)(2) of this section may not be included in income later than when that item, or portion thereof, is treated as taken into account as AFS revenue, as determined under paragraph (b)(2) of this section, regardless of whether the timing of income inclusion for that item is normally determined using a special method of accounting. See also § 1.1275-2(l) for the treatment of the items described in paragraph (j)(2) of this section under the OID rules.

(2) Specified fees. Paragraph (j)(1) of this section applies to fees (specified fees) that are not spread over a period of time as discount or as an adjustment to the yield of a debt instrument (such as points) in the taxpayer's AFS and, but for paragraph (j) of this section and § 1.1275-2(l), would be treated as creating or increasing OID for Federal income tax purposes. For example, the following specified fees (specified credit card fees) are described in this paragraph (j)(2):

(i) A payment of additional interest or a similar charge provided with respect to amounts that are not paid when due on a credit card account (for example, credit card late fees);

(ii) Amounts charged under a credit card agreement when the cardholder uses the credit card to conduct a cash advance transaction (for example, credit card cash advance fees); and

(iii) Amounts a credit or debit card issuer is entitled to upon a purchase of goods or services by one of its cardholders (for example, interchange fees, which are sometimes labeled merchant discount in certain private label credit card transactions).

(3) Example. C, a credit card issuer, is a calendar-year accrual method taxpayer with a calendar year AFS. In 2021, a cardholder uses C's credit card to purchase $100 of merchandise from a merchant and the cardholder earns a reward of 1% of the purchase price of $100 ($1) as part of C's cardholder loyalty program. Upon purchase, C becomes entitled to an interchange fee equal to 2% of the purchase price of $100 ($2). For its AFS, C reports the $2 of interchange fees as AFS revenue for 2021. C's $2 of interchange fees is described in paragraph (j)(2)(iii) of this section. Under paragraph (j)(1) of this section, C must apply the rules in this section before applying the OID rules. See also § 1.1275-2(l). Therefore, C's $2 of interchange fees is included in gross income in 2021, the year it is treated as “taken into account as AFS revenue.” Under paragraph (b)(2)(i)(A) of this section, the $2 of interchange revenue is not reduced by the $1 reward. Even if C reports interchange fees net of rewards in its AFS for 2021 ($2 of interchange fee minus $1 reward liability), under paragraph (b)(2)(i)(A) of this section, C includes $2 of interchange revenue in gross income in 2021. See sections 162 and 461(h) for the treatment of the reward by C.

(k) Treatment of adjustments to deferred revenue in an AFS -

(1) In general. If a taxpayer treats an item of gross income as deferred revenue in its AFS and writes down or adjusts that item, or portion thereof, to an equity account (for example, retained earnings) or otherwise writes down or adjusts that item of deferred revenue in a subsequent taxable year, AFS revenue for that subsequent taxable year is increased or decreased, as applicable by the amount of that item, or portion thereof, that is written down or adjusted. See § 1.451-8(c)(5).

(2) Example -

(i) Facts. D, a remanufacturer of industrial equipment, is a calendar-year, accrual method taxpayer with a calendar year AFS. On January 1, 2021, D enters into a contract with a customer and receives a payment of $100x to remanufacture equipment in 2021 and 2022. The contract is not a long-term contract under section 460. For its AFS 2021, D performs remanufacturing services and reports $40x of the $100x payment as AFS revenue for 2021, and treats $60x of the $100x payment as deferred revenue.

(ii) Facts for taxable year 2022. On January 1, 2022, all of the stock of D is acquired by an unrelated third party and D adjusts deferred AFS revenue to $50x (the expected cost to provide the services) by charging $10x ($60x−$50× = $10x) to retained earnings. In addition, for 2022, D performs remanufacturing services and reports $50x of the deferred revenue as AFS revenue.

(iii) Analysis for taxable year 2022. Under paragraph (k)(1) of this section, D's $10x write down to deferred revenue for 2022 is treated as “taken into account as AFS revenue” for 2022.

(l) Methods of accounting -

(1) In general. Except as otherwise provided in this section, a change to comply with this section is a change in method of accounting to which the provisions of sections 446 and 481 and the regulations in this part under sections 446 and 481 of the Code apply. A taxpayer seeking to change to a method of accounting permitted in this section must secure the consent of the Commissioner in accordance with § 1.446-1(e) and follow the administrative procedures issued under § 1.446-1(e)(3)(ii) for obtaining the Commissioner's consent to change its accounting method. For example, the use of the AFS income inclusion rule under paragraph (b)(1) of this section under which the taxpayer determines the amount of the item of gross income that is treated as “taken into account as AFS revenue” by making the adjustments provided in paragraph (b)(2)(i) of this section, the use of the AFS income inclusion rule under paragraph (b)(1) of this section under which the taxpayer determines the amount of the item of gross income that is treated as “taken into account as AFS revenue” by making only the adjustments provided in paragraph (b)(2)(ii) of this section (the alternative AFS revenue method), the AFS cost offset method under paragraph (c) of this section, the use of a method of determining AFS revenue under paragraph (i)(4) of this section, are methods of accounting under section 446 and the regulations in this part under section 446 of the Code. In addition, a change in the manner of recognizing revenue in an AFS that changes or could change the timing of the inclusion of income for Federal income tax purposes is generally a change in method of accounting under section 446 and the regulations in this part under section 446 of the Code. However, a change resulting from the restatement of AFS revenue may not always constitute a change in method of accounting under section 446 and the regulations in this part under section 446 of the Code. For example, a restatement of AFS revenue to correct an error described in § 1.446-1(e)(2)(ii)(b) does not constitute a change in method of accounting under section 446.

(2) Transition rule for changes in method of accounting -

(i) In general. Except as provided in paragraph (l)(2)(ii) of this section, a taxpayer that makes a qualified change in method of accounting for the taxpayer's first taxable year beginning after December 31, 2017, is treated as making a change in method of accounting initiated by the taxpayer under section 481(a)(2). A taxpayer obtains the consent of the Commissioner to make the change in method of accounting by using the applicable administrative procedures that govern changes in method of accounting under section 446(e). See § 1.446-1(e)(3).

(ii) Special rules for OID and specified credit card fees. The rules of paragraph (l)(2)(i) of this section apply to a qualified change in method of accounting for the taxpayer's first taxable year beginning after December 31, 2018, if the change relates to a specified credit card fee as defined in paragraph (j)(2) of this section. For paragraph (l) of this section, the section 481(a) adjustment period for any adjustment under section 481(a) for a change in method of accounting described in the preceding sentence is six taxable years.

(iii) Qualified change in method of accounting. For paragraph (l)(2) of this section, a qualified change in method of accounting means any change in method of accounting that is required by section 13221 of Public Law 115-97, 131 Stat. 2054 (2017) (TCJA), or was prohibited under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 prior to TCJA section 13221 and is now permitted as a result of TCJA section 13221.

(m) Applicability date -

(1) In general. Except as provided in paragraph (m)(2) of this section, this section applies for taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2021.

(2) Delayed application with respect to certain fees. Notwithstanding paragraph (m)(1) of this section, paragraph (j) of this section applies to specified fees (as defined in paragraph (j)(2) of this section) that are not specified credit card fees (as defined in paragraph (j)(2) of this section) for taxable years beginning on or after January 6, 2022.

(3) Early application of this section -

(i) In general. Except as provided in paragraph (m)(3)(ii) of this section, taxpayers and their related parties, within the meaning of sections 267(b) and 707(b), may apply both the rules in this section and, to the extent relevant, the rules in § 1.451-8, in their entirety and in a consistent manner, to a taxable year beginning after December 31, 2017, and before January 1, 2021, provided that, once applied to a taxable year, the rules in this section and, to the extent relevant, the rules in § 1.451-8, are applied in their entirety and in a consistent manner to all subsequent taxable years. See section 7508(b)(7) and § 1.451-8(h).

(ii) Certain fees -

(A) Specified credit card fees. In the case of specified credit card fees, a taxpayer and its related parties, within the meaning of sections 267(b) and 707(b), may apply both the rules in this section and the rules in § 1.1275-2(l), in their entirety and in a consistent manner, to a taxable year beginning after December 31, 2018, and before January 1, 2021, provided that, once applied to a taxable year, the rules in this section and § 1.1275-2(l) that apply to specified credit card fees are applied in their entirety and in a consistent manner to all subsequent taxable years (other than the rules applicable to specified fees that are not specified credit card fees). See section 7508(b)(7) and § 1.1275-2(l)(2).

(B) Specified fees. Paragraphs (m)(3)(i) and (m)(3)(ii)(A) of this section do not apply to specified fees that are not specified credit card fees.

[T.D. 9941, 86 FR 836, Jan. 6, 2021, as amended by 86 FR 1256, Jan. 8, 2021]