26 CFR 1.48-4 - Election of lessor of new section 38 property to treat lessee as purchaser.

§ 1.48-4 Election of lessor of new section 38 property to treat lessee as purchaser.

(a)In general -

(1)Lessee treated as purchaser. Under section 48(d), a lessor of property may elect to treat the lessee of such property as having purchased such property (or, in the case of short-term lease property described in subparagraph (2) of this paragraph, a portion of such property) for purposes of the credit allowed by section 38 if the following conditions are satisfied:

(i) The property must be “section 38 property” in the hands of the lessor; that is, it must be property with respect to which depreciation (or amortization in lieu of depreciation) is allowable to the lessor, it must have a useful life of 3 years (4 years in the case of property which is not described in section 50) or more in his hands, and in every other respect it must meet the requirements of § 1.48-1. Thus, for example, property leased by a municipality to a taxpayer for use in what is commonly known as an “industrial park” is not eligible for the election since, under paragraph (k) of § 1.48-1, property used by a governmental unit is not section 38 property. In addition, property used by the lessee predominantly outside the United States is not eligible for the election since, under paragraph (g) of § 1.48-1, such property is not section 38 property. For purposes of this subdivision, if the lessor is an estate or trust, depreciation (or amortization in lieu of depreciation) will be considered allowable to the estate or trust even if it is apportioned to the beneficiaries or other persons.

(ii) The property must be “new section 38 property” (within the meaning of § 1.48-2) in the hands of the lessor, and the original use of such property must commence with the lessor. See paragraph (b) of this section for the application of the rules relating to “original use” in the case of leased property.

(iii) The property would constitute “new section 38 property” to the lessee if such lessee had actually purchased the property. Thus, the election is not available if the lessee is not the original user of the property. See paragraph (b) of this section for the application of the rules relating to “original use” in the case of leased property. See paragraph (d) of this section for the determination of the estimated useful life of leased property in the hands of the lessee.

(iv) A statement of election to treat the lessee as a purchaser has been filed in the manner and within the time provided in paragraph (f) or (g) of this section.

(v) The lessor is not a person referred to in section 46(d)(1), that is, a mutual savings bank, cooperative bank, or domestic building and loan association to which section 593 applies; a regulated investment company or real estate investment trust subject to taxation under subchapter M, chapter 1 of the Code; or a cooperative organization described in section 1381(a).

The election may be made on a property-by-property basis or a general election may be made with respect to each taxable year of a particular lessee. If the conditions of this subparagraph have been met, the lessee shall be treated as though he were the actual owner of all or a portion of the property for purposes of the credit allowed by section 38. Thus, the lessee shall be entitled to a credit allowed by section 38 with respect to such property for the taxable year in which he places such property in service, and the lessor shall not be entitled to a credit allowed by section 38 with respect to such property unless the property is short-term lease property (as defined in subparagraph (2) of this paragraph). Moreover, if the leased property is disposed of, or if it otherwise ceases to be section 38 property, the property will be subject to the provisions of section 47 (relating to early dispositions, etc.).

(2)Short-term lease property. For purposes of this section, the term “short-term lease property” means property which -

(i) Is new section 38 property;

(ii) Has a class life (determined under section 167(m)) in excess of 14 years;

(iii) Is leased under a lease entered into after November 8, 1971, for a period which is less than 80 percent of the class life of such property; and

(iv) Is not leased subject to a net lease within the meaning of section 57(c)(1)(B) and the regulations thereunder.

The class life of property shall be determined under section 167(m) and the regulations prescribed in connection with that section, except that such class life shall be determined without regard to any variance from the class life permitted under such section. If a class life has not been prescribed for property under section 167(m) on the date such property is leased, the class life of the property shall be the estimated useful life used to compute the allowance for depreciation with respect to such property under section 167. For purposes of subdivision (iii) of this subparagraph, the period for which a lease is entered into shall be determined without regard to any option on the part of the lessee to extend or renew such lease, and without regard to any option on the part of the lessee to cancel the lease after a specified period if under the terms of such lease, such a cancellation would result in the imposition of a substantial penalty upon the lessee. Generally, a penalty equal to 25 percent of the total remaining rental payments due under the lease will be regarded as substantial.

(b)Original use. For purposes of this section only, the lessor and the lessee may both be considered as the original users of an item of leased property. The determination of whether the lessor qualifies as the original user of leased property shall be made under paragraph (b)(7) of § 1.48-2. The determination of whether the lessee qualifies as the original user of leased property shall be made, under paragraph (b)(7) of § 1.48-2, as if the lessee actually purchased the property. Thus, the lessee would not be considered the original user of the property if it has been previously used by the lessor or another person, or if it is reconstructed, rebuilt, or reconditioned property. However, the lessee would be considered the original user if he is the first person to use the property for its intended function. Thus, the fact that the lessor may have, for example, tested, stored, or attempted to lease the property to other persons will not preclude the lessee from being considered the original user.

(c)Qualified investment -

(1)In general. If a valid election is made under this section, the amount of qualified investment under section 46(c) with respect to the leased property shall be determined under this paragraph and paragraphs (d) and (e) of this section.

(2)Nonshort-term lease property. In the case of property which is not short-term lease property, the lessee is treated as having acquired the entire property for an amount equal to -

(i) The fair market value of such property on the date possession is transferred to the lessee, or

(ii) If the property is leased by a component member of a controlled group to another component member of the same controlled group (within the meaning of paragraph (f)(4) of § 1.46-1) on the date possession of the property is transferred to the lessee, the basis of the property in the hands of the lessor.

(3)Short-term lease property.

(i) In the case of short-term lease property, the lessee is treated as having acquired a portion of such property. The amount for which the lessee is treated as having acquired such portion is an amount equal to a fraction, the numerator of which is the term of the lease and the denominator of which is the class life of the property leased, of the amount for which the lessee would be treated as having acquired the property under subparagraph (2) of this paragraph if the property were not short-term lease property.

(ii) In the case of short-term lease property, the qualified investment of the lessor is an amount equal to his qualified investment in such property determined under section 46(c) multiplied by a fraction, the numerator of which is the class life of the property leased minus the term of the lease and the denominator of which is the class life of such property.

(4)Example. The provisions of this paragraph may be illustrated by the following example:

Example.
(a) On December 1, 1971, X corporation completed construction of an item of new section 38 property with a basis of $10,000. Under section 167(m), the property has a class life of 16 years. On December 1, 1971, X leases the property to individual A for 4 years and A immediately places the property in service. The lease is not a net lease within the meaning of section 57(c)(1)(B). On the date of the lease, the fair market value of the property is $12,000. The property would qualify as new section 38 property in A's hands if it had been purchased by A. Under this section, the property is short-term lease property. X makes the election under this section to treat A as having acquired a portion of the property.

(b) A is treated as having acquired from X a portion of the property for $3,000 (the fair market value of the property, $12,000, multiplied by a fraction, 4/16 , the numerator of which is the term of the lease and the denominator of which is the class life of the leased property). Since under paragraph (d) of this section the useful life of such property in the hands of A is the same as the useful life of such property in the hands of X, and such useful life is at least 7 years, A's qualified investment with respect to the property is $3,000.

(c) The qualified investment of X is $7,500 (the qualified investment of X under section 46(c), $10,000, multiplied by a fraction, 12/16, the numerator of which is the class life of the leased property, 16, minus the term of the lease, 4, and the denominator of which is the class life of the property).

(d)Estimated useful life of leased property. The estimated useful life to the lessee of property subject to the election shall be deemed to be the estimated useful life in the hands of the lessor for purposes of computing depreciation, regardless of the term of the lease. The lessor shall determine the estimated useful life of each leased property on an individual basis even though multiple asset accounts are used. However, in the case of assets similar in kind contained in a multiple asset account, the lessor shall assign to each of such assets the average useful life of such assets used in computing depreciation. Thus, for example, if during a taxable year a lessor leases 10 similar trucks with an average estimated useful life for depreciation purposes of 6 years, based on an estimated range of 5 to 7 years, he must assign a useful life of 6 years to each of the 10 trucks.

(e)Lessor itself a lessee -

(1)In general. If the lessee of property is treated, under this section, as having purchased all or a portion of such property and if such lessee leases such property to a sublessee, the qualified investment with respect to such property in the hands of the sublessee shall be determined under paragraphs (c) and (d) of this section as if the original lessor had leased the property directly to the sublessee for the term of the sublessee's lease on the date possession of the property is transferred to the sublessee. For this purpose, property which is short-term lease property in the hands of the lessee shall be treated as short-term lease property in the hands of the sublessee regardless of whether such property is leased to the sublessee subject to a net lease (within the meaning of section 57(c)(1)(B)). In the case of property which is short-term lease property in the hands of the sublessee, the amount for which the lessee is treated as having acquired such property under paragraph (c) of this section shall be reduced by an amount equal to such amount multiplied by a fraction, the numerator of which is the term of the lease of the sublessee and the denominator of which is the term of the lease of the lessee.

(2)Example. The provisions of this paragraph may be illustrated by the following example:

Example.
(a) On December 1, 1971, corporation X completes construction of a machine at a cost of $10,000. The machine has a class life under section 167(m) of 20 years. On December 1, 1971, X leases the machine to corporation Y for 12 years, and Y immediately subleases the machine to individual A for 8 years. X and Y are component members of the same controlled group. The lease between X and Y is not a net lease within the meaning of section 57(c)(1)(B). The fair market value of the property on December 1, 1971, is $16,000. Both X and Y make valid elections under this section.

(b) The property is short-term lease property and this paragraph applies.

(c) The qualified investment of A is $6,400. Such amount is determined by multiplying $16,000, the amount for which A would be treated under paragraph (c)(2) of this section as having acquired the property if it were not short-term lease property, by 8/20.

(d) The qualified investment of Y is $2,000. Such amount is determined by multiplying $10,000, the amount for which Y would be treated under paragraph (c)(2) of this section as having acquired the property if it were not short-term lease property, by 12/20, and by reducing the amount so determined ($6,000) by 8/12 of such amount ($4,000) to $2,000.

(e) The qualified investment of X is $4,000. Such amount is determined by multiplying the amount of X's qualified investment determined under section 46(c) without regard to this section ($10,000) by 8/20.

(f)Property-by-property election -

(1)Manner of making election. The election of a lessor with respect to a particular property (or properties) shall be made by filing a statement with the lessee, signed by the lessor and including the written consent of the lessee, containing the following information:

(i) The name, address, and taxpayer account number of the lessor and the lessee;

(ii) The district director's office with which the income tax returns of the lessor and the lessee are filed;

(iii) A description of each property with respect to which the election is being made;

(iv) The date on which possession of the property (or properties) is transferred to the lessee;

(v) The estimated useful life category of the property (or properties) in the hands of the lessor, that is, 3 years or more but less than 5 years, 5 years or more but less than 7 years, or 7 years or more;

(vi) The amount for which the lessee (or sublessee) is treated as having acquired the leased property under paragraph (c)(2) or (3) of this section; and

(vii) If the lessor is itself a lessee, the name, address, and taxpayer account number of the original lessor, and the district director's office with which the income tax return of such original lessor is filed.

(2)Time for making election. The statement referred to in subparagraph (1) of this paragraph shall be filed with the lessee on or before the due date (including any extensions of time) of the lessee's return for the lessee's taxable year during which possession of the property is transferred to the lessee, except that if such taxable year ends after March 31, 1971, and before December 11, 1971, the statement shall be filed with the lessee on or before the due date (including any extensions of time) of the lessee's return for such taxable year, or on or before October 24, 1972, whichever is later.

(3)Election is irrevocable. An election under this paragraph shall be irrevocable as of the time the statement referred to in subparagraph (1) of this paragraph is filed with the lessee.

(g)General election -

(1)In general. In lieu of making elections on a property-by-property basis in the manner and time prescribed in paragraph (f) of this section, a lessor may, with respect to a particular taxable year of a particular lessee, make a general election to treat such lessee as having purchased all properties possession of which is transferred under lease by the lessor to the lessee during such taxable year of the lessee.

(2)Manner and time for making general election. The general election of a lessor with respect to a taxable year of a lessee shall be made by filing a statement with the lessee, signed by the lessor and including the written consent of the lessee, on or before the due date (including any extensions of time) of the lessee's return for such taxable year, except that if such taxable year ends after March 31, 1971, and before December 11, 1971, the statement shall be filed with the lessee on or before the due date (including any extensions of time) of the lessee's return for such taxable year, or on or before October 24, 1972, whichever is later. Such statement of general election shall contain:

(i) The name, address, and taxpayer account number of the lessor and the lessee;

(ii) The taxable year of the lessee with respect to which such general election is made;

(iii) The district director's office with which the income tax returns of the lessor and the lessee are filed;

(iv) If the lessor is itself a lessee, the name, address, and taxpayer account number of the original lessor, and the district director's office with which the income tax return of such original lessor is filed.

(3)Election is irrevocable. A general election under this paragraph shall be irrevocable as of the time the statement referred to in subparagraph (2) of this paragraph is filed with the lessee and shall be binding on the lessor and the lessee for the entire taxable year of the lessee with respect to which such general election is made.

(4)Information requirement. If a lessor, with respect to a taxable year of the lessee, makes a general election under this paragraph, such lessor shall provide such lessee, on or before the date required for filing the statement under subparagraph (2) of this paragraph, with a statement (or statements) containing the information required by paragraphs (f)(1) (iii), (iv), (v), and (vi) of this section with respect to all properties possession of which is transferred under lease by the lessor to the lessee during such taxable year.

(h)Signature. The statement referred to in paragraph (f)(1) or (g)(2) of this section shall not be valid unless signed by both the lessor and the lessee. The signature of the lessee shall constitute the consent of the lessee to the election. The statement shall be signed by the taxpayer or a duly authorized agent of the taxpayer. For purposes of this section, a facsimile signature may be used in lieu of a signature manually executed and, if used, shall be as binding as a signature manually executed.

(i) [Reserved]

(j)Record requirements. The lessor and the lessee shall keep as a part of their records the statement referred to in paragraph (f)(1), or the statements referred to in paragraphs (g)(2) and (g)(4), of this section. The lessor shall attach to his income tax return a summary statement of all property leased during his taxable year with respect to which an election is made. In the case of a taxable year ending after March 31, 1971, and before December 11, 1971, a summary statement may be filed on or before the due date (including any extensions of time) of the return or on or before October 24, 1972, whichever is later, with the Internal Revenue Service Center with which the return has been filed. Such summary statement shall contain the following information: (1) The name, address, and taxpayer account number of the lessor; and (2) in numerical account number order, each lessee's account number, name, and address, the estimated useful life category of the property (or, if applicable, the estimated useful life expressed in years), and the basis or fair market value of the property, whichever is applicable.

(k)Adjustment of rental deductions -

(1)In general. The rules of this paragraph apply only to section 38 property placed in service before January 1, 1964, and with respect to any such property only for taxable years of a lessee beginning before January 1, 1964. If a lessor makes a valid election under this section with respect to property placed in service by the lessee before January 1, 1964, section 48(g) and § 1.48-7 (relating to adjustments to basis of property) shall not apply to the lessor with respect to such property. Thus, the lessor is not required to reduce under section 48(g)(1) the basis of such property. However, if such an election is made, the deductions otherwise allowable under section 162 to the lessee for amounts paid or accrued to the lessor under the lease shall be adjusted in the manner provided in this paragraph. For special adjustment for taxable years beginning after December 31, 1963, see paragraph (m) of this section.

(2)Decrease in rental deduction.

(i) The deductions otherwise allowable under section 162 to the lessee for amounts paid or accrued to the lessor under the lease with respect to leased property placed in service before January 1, 1964, shall be decreased under subdivision (ii) or (iii) of this subparagraph, whichever is applicable, by an amount determined by reference to the credit earned on the leased property. The “credit earned” on the leased property is determined by multiplying the qualified investment (as defined in section 46(c)) with respect to such property by 7 percent. Thus, the credit earned (and the decrease in deductions) is determined without regard to the limitation based on tax which, under section 46(a)(2), may limit the amount of the credit the lessee may take into account in any one year.

(ii) If, in the case of property placed in service before January 1, 1964, the lessor, under paragraph (f)(1)(v) of this section, supplies the lessee with the useful life of such property expressed in years, then for each taxable year beginning before January 1, 1964, any part of which falls within a period beginning with the month in which the leased property is placed in service by the lessee and ending with the close of the estimated useful life of such property (as determined under paragraph (d) of this section), the lessee shall decrease the deduction otherwise allowable under section 162 for each such taxable year with respect to such property. The decrease for each such taxable year shall be equal to (a) the credit earned, divided by (b) the estimated useful life of the property (expressed in months), multiplied by (c) the number of calendar months in which the leased property was held by the lessee during such taxable year. Thus, if leased property with a basis of $27,000 in the hands of a calendar-year lessee, and with an estimated useful life of 10 years, is placed in service by the lessee on July 15, 1963, the lessee must decrease his section 162 deduction with respect to the leased property for the taxable year 1963 by $94.50 ($1,890 credit earned, divided by 120, multiplied by 6).

(iii) If, in the case of property placed in service before January 1, 1964, the lessor, under paragraph (f)(1)(v) of this section, supplies the lessee with the useful life category of such property, then for each taxable year beginning before January 1, 1964, during a period equal to the shortest life of the useful life category used by the lessee in computing qualified investment under section 46(c) with respect to the leased property, the lessee shall decrease the deduction otherwise allowable under section 162 for such taxable year with respect to such property. The decrease for each such taxable year shall be equal to the credit earned divided by such shortest life, that is, 4, 6, or 8. Such decreases shall begin with the taxable year during which the lessee places the property in service. Thus, if leased property with a basis of $30,000 to the lessee, and an estimated useful life falling within the 4 years or more but less than 6 years useful life category, is placed in service by the lessee within the lessee's taxable year ending December 31, 1962, the lessee must decrease his section 162 deduction with respect to the leased property for each of the taxable years 1962 and 1963 by $175 ($700 credit earned divided by 4).

(iv) To the extent that a required decrease, under subdivision (ii) or (iii) of this subparagraph, is not taken into account for any taxable year beginning before January 1, 1964, because the deduction otherwise allowable under section 162 for such taxable year with respect to the leased property is less than the required decrease for such taxable year, then the balance of the required decrease not taken into account for such taxable year shall decrease the amount otherwise allowable as a deduction under section 162 with respect to such property for the next succeeding taxable year (or years) beginning before January 1, 1964, if any, for which a deduction is allowable with respect to such property. Thus, if the required decrease with respect to leased property is $200 for 1962 but the lessee's deduction otherwise allowable under section 162 for such taxable year with respect to such property is only $50, the balance of $150 must be applied in 1963 to decrease the deduction otherwise allowable to the lessee with respect to the leased property for such taxable year.

(v) See paragraph (b) of § 1.48-7 for reduction of basis in the case of an actual purchase of leased property by a lessee (in a taxable year of such lessee beginning before January 1, 1964) who has been treated as a purchaser of such property under this section.

(3)Increase in rental deductions on account of early disposition, etc.

(i) If, as a result of an early disposition, etc., in a taxable year beginning before January 1, 1964, with respect to leased property placed in service before such date, the lessee's tax is increased under section 47(a) (1) or (2), or an adjustment in a carryback or carryover is made under section 47(a)(3) by reduction of an unused credit, the rental deductions (if any) otherwise allowable under section 162 to such lessee for amounts paid or accrued to the lessor under the lease with respect to such property shall be increased in an amount equal to the total decreases previously made in the lessee's rental deductions under subparagraph (2) of this paragraph.

(ii) Except as provided in subdivision (iii) of this subparagraph, the increase in rental deductions described in subdivision (i) of this subparagraph shall be taken into account as an increase in rental deductions otherwise allowable under section 162 for the taxable year in which the early disposition, etc., occurred.

(iii) If, after the event which caused section 47(a) (1), (2), or (3) to apply the lessee continues the use of the property in a trade or business or in the production of income, the increase in rental deductions described in subdivision (i) of this subparagraph shall be taken into account ratably over the remaining portion of the useful life of the property which was used in making the decreases in rental deductions with respect to the property under subparagraph (2) of this paragraph.

(iv) If subdivision (iii) of this subparagraph applies, and if, prior to the expiration of the useful life of the property used in making the decreases in rental deductions, the lease is terminated other than by actual purchase of the property by the lessee, any increase in rental deductions not previously taken into account shall be taken into account as an increase in rental deductions for the taxable year in which the lease is terminated. In the case of an actual purchase of the property by the lessee, see paragraph (e) of § 1.48-7.

(l)Examples. The provisions of this section may be illustrated by the following examples:

Example 1.
X Corporation is engaged in the business of manufacturing and leasing new and reconstructed equipment which in its hands has an estimated useful life of 12 years. After December 31, 1961, X Corporation constructs machine no. 1 at a cost of $20,000 and reconstructs machine no. 2 at a cost of $5,000. On February 15, 1962, Y Corporation, a calendar-year taxpayer, leases both machines from X Corporation and places them in service. The fair market value of machine no. 1 on the date on which possession is transferred to Y is $25,200. Machine no. 1 would qualify as new section 38 property in Y's hands if it had been purchased by Y. If X elects to treat Y as the purchaser of machine no. 1, under paragraph (c)(2)(ii) of this section such machine will have a basis of $25,200 in Y's hands. Under paragraph (f)(1)(v) of this section, X supplies Y with an estimated useful life of 12 years (expressed in years rather than useful life category) with respect to machine no. 1 for purposes of determining Y's qualified investment. Y's credit earned with respect to the property is $1,764 (7 percent of $25,200). Under paragraph (k)(2)(ii) of this section, Y's deduction attributable to the leased property for 1962 will be decreased by $134.75 (credit earned of $1,764, divided by 144, multiplied by 11), and for 1963 such deduction will be decreased by $147 ($1,764, divided by 144, multiplied by 12). The election is not available with respect to machine no. 2 since a reconstructed machine would not constitute new section 38 property if Y had purchased it. In such case, while X cannot make the election to treat Y as a purchaser, X would be entitled to a credit under section 38 based on its expenditure of $5,000 as an investment in new section 38 property, since such amount represents cost of reconstruction after December 31, 1961.
Example 2.
Assume the same facts as in example 1 except that under paragraph (f)(1)(v) of this section, X supplies Y with an estimated useful life category of 8 years or more (rather than an estimated useful life expressed in years) with respect to machine no. 1 for purposes of determining Y's qualified investment. Under paragraph (k)(2)(iii) of this section, Y's deduction attributable to the leased property will be decreased by $220.50 (credit earned of $1,764, divided by 8) for each of its taxable years 1962 and 1963.
Example 3.
Assume the same facts as in example 1 except that the lessee disposes of his interest in the lease on January 1, 1963, and that there is an increase in Y's tax for 1963 under section 47(a)(1) in the amount of $1,764. Under paragraph (k)(2) of this section, Y's deductions attributable to the leased property are decreased only in 1962, and the amount of such decrease is $134.75. In 1963 there shall be an increase of $134.75 in the deductions otherwise allowable under section 162 for such taxable year with respect to the leased property.
Example 4.
Assume the same facts as in example 1 except that during the year 1963 the property was used by Y predominantly outside the United States within the meaning of paragraph (g) of § 1.48-1, and thereafter was used in Y's trade or business. Under paragraph (k)(3) of this section, the increase of $134.75 described in example 3 is taken into account ratably as an increase in rental deductions otherwise allowable under section 162 in the amount of $12.25 ($134.75 divided by 11 years) for 1963 and each of the 10 succeeding years.

(m)Increase in rental deductions on account of section 203(a)(2)(B) of the Revenue Act of 1964 -

(1)In general.

(i) Under section 203(a)(2)(B) of the Revenue Act of 1964, if, for any taxable year of a lessee beginning before January 1, 1964, the rental deductions otherwise allowable under section 162 to such lessee for amounts paid or accrued to the lessor under the lease with respect to leased property placed in service before January 1, 1964, were decreased under paragraph (k)(2) of this section, such rental deductions shall be increased.

(ii) The increase in rental deductions described in subdivision (i) of this subparagraph shall be in an amount equal to the total decreases in the lessee's rental deductions previously made under paragraph (k)(2) of this section less any increases in rental deductions made under paragraph (k)(3) of this section.

(iii) Except as provided in subdivision (iv) of this subparagraph, the increase in rental deductions described in subdivision (i) of this subparagraph shall be taken into account ratably over the remaining portion of the useful life of the property commencing with the first day of the first taxable year beginning after December 31, 1963. For this purpose, the useful life of the property shall be the useful life used in making the decreases in rental deductions with respect to the property under paragraph (k)(2) of this section.

(iv) If the lease is terminated other than by the lessee's actual purchase of the property during a taxable year beginning after December 31, 1963, and before the end of the remaining useful life of the property used in making the decreases in rental deductions, the amount of the increase in rental deductions described in subdivision (i) of this subparagraph and not previously taken into account shall be allowed as a deduction for the taxable year in which such termination occurs.

(v) The rental deductions with respect to any section 38 property are not to be increased under this paragraph if the lessee dies in a taxable year beginning before January 1, 1964.

(vi) The increase in rental deductions described in subdivision (i) of this subparagraph shall ordinarily be taken into account by the lessee treated as the purchaser, that is, the lessee entitled to the credit. However, if the property under the lease is transferred by the lessee to a successor lessee in a transaction described in section 47(b) (other than a transfer by reason of death) under which the successor lessee assumes the lessee's obligations under the lease, such increase in rental deductions shall be taken into account by the successor lessee in the manner prescribed in this paragraph.

(2)Examples. The operation of this paragraph may be illustrated by the following examples:

Example 1.
(a) X Corporation acquired on January 1, 1962, an item of new section 38 property with a basis of $24,000 and with a useful life to the lessor of 10 years. Y Corporation, which makes its returns on the basis of a calendar year, leased such property from X Corporation and placed it in service on January 2, 1962. Under this section, X Corporation made a valid election to treat Y Corporation as having purchased such property for purposes of the credit allowed by section 38 and supplied the lessee with information that the property had a useful life of 10 years. The amount of the credit earned with respect to such property was $1,680 (7 percent of $24,000). For each of the taxable years 1962 and 1963, Y Corporation decreased, under paragraph (k)(2) of this section, its deductions otherwise allowable under section 162 with respect to such property by $168 ($1,680 multiplied by 12/120).

(b) For each of the taxable years 1964 through 1971, Y Corporation increases its deductions otherwise allowable under section 162 for amounts paid to X Corporation under the lease by $42 ($336 (that is, $168 multiplied by 2) divided by the remaining useful life of 8 years).

Example 2.
(a) The facts are the same as in example 1 except that the lease is terminated on January 3, 1965.

(b) For the taxable year 1964, Y Corporation increases its deductions otherwise allowable under section 162 by $42.

(c) For the taxable year 1965, Y Corporation increases its deductions otherwise allowable under section 162 for the portion of the increase which had not been taken into account as of the time of the termination of the lease. Thus, the amount of such increase for the taxable year 1965 is $294 ($336 minus $42).

[T.D. 6731, 29 FR 6080, May 8, 1964; 29 FR 7671, June 16, 1964, as amended by T.D. 6838, 30 FR 9060, July 20, 1965; T.D. 7203, 37 FR 17131, 17132, Aug. 25, 1972]

This is a list of United States Code sections, Statutes at Large, Public Laws, and Presidential Documents, which provide rulemaking authority for this CFR Part.

This list is taken from the Parallel Table of Authorities and Rules provided by GPO [Government Printing Office].

It is not guaranteed to be accurate or up-to-date, though we do refresh the database weekly. More limitations on accuracy are described at the GPO site.


United States Code
U.S. Code: Title 26 - INTERNAL REVENUE CODE

§ 1 - Tax imposed

§ 21 - Expenses for household and dependent care services necessary for gainful employment

§ 23 - Adoption expenses

§ 25 - Interest on certain home mortgages

§ 25A - Hope and Lifetime Learning credits

§ 28 - Renumbered § 45C]

§ 30 - Repealed. Pub. L. 113–295, div. A, title II, § 221(a)(2)(A), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 4037]

§ 36B - Refundable credit for coverage under a qualified health plan

§ 38 - General business credit

§ 40 - Alcohol, etc., used as fuel

§ 41 - Credit for increasing research activities

§ 42 - Low-income housing credit

§ 43 - Enhanced oil recovery credit

§ 45D - New markets tax credit

§ 46 - Amount of credit

§ 47 - Rehabilitation credit

§ 52 - Special rules

§ 56 - Adjustments in computing alternative minimum taxable income

§ 58 - Denial of certain losses

§ 61 - Gross income defined

§ 62 - Adjusted gross income defined

§ 66 - Treatment of community income

§ 67 - 2-percent floor on miscellaneous itemized deductions

§ 72 - Annuities; certain proceeds of endowment and life insurance contracts

§ 101 - Certain death benefits

§ 103 - Interest on State and local bonds

§ 103A - Repealed. Pub. L. 99–514, title XIII, § 1301(j)(1), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2657]

§ 108 - Income from discharge of indebtedness

§ 110 - Qualified lessee construction allowances for short-term leases

§ 129 - Dependent care assistance programs

§ 132 - Certain fringe benefits

§ 148 - Arbitrage

§ 149 - Bonds must be registered to be tax exempt; other requirements

§ 150 - Definitions and special rules

§ 152 - Dependent defined

§ 162 - Trade or business expenses

§ 163 - Interest

§ 165 - Losses

§ 166 - Bad debts

§ 168 - Accelerated cost recovery system

§ 170 - Charitable, etc., contributions and gifts

§ 171 - Amortizable bond premium

§ 179 - Election to expense certain depreciable business assets

§ 179A - Repealed. Pub. L. 113–295, div. A, title II, § 221(a)(34)(A), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 4042]

§ 197 - Amortization of goodwill and certain other intangibles

§ 199 - Income attributable to domestic production activities

§ 216 - Deduction of taxes, interest, and business depreciation by cooperative housing corporation tenant-stockholder

§ 221 - Interest on education loans

§ 263A - Capitalization and inclusion in inventory costs of certain expenses

§ 267 - Losses, expenses, and interest with respect to transactions between related taxpayers

§ 274 - Disallowance of certain entertainment, etc., expenses

§ 280C - Certain expenses for which credits are allowable

§ 280F - Limitation on depreciation for luxury automobiles; limitation where certain property used for personal purposes

§ 280G - Golden parachute payments

§ 301 - Distributions of property

§ 304 - Redemption through use of related corporations

§ 305 - Distributions of stock and stock rights

§ 324

§ 336 - Gain or loss recognized on property distributed in complete liquidation

§ 337 - Nonrecognition for property distributed to parent in complete liquidation of subsidiary

§ 338 - Certain stock purchases treated as asset acquisitions

§ 351 - Transfer to corporation controlled by transferor

§ 355 - Distribution of stock and securities of a controlled corporation

§ 357 - Assumption of liability

§ 358 - Basis to distributees

§ 362 - Basis to corporations

§ 367 - Foreign corporations

§ 382 - Limitation on net operating loss carryforwards and certain built-in losses following ownership change

§ 383 - Special limitations on certain excess credits, etc.

§ 401 - Qualified pension, profit-sharing, and stock bonus plans

§ 401 note - Qualified pension, profit-sharing, and stock bonus plans

§ 402A - Optional treatment of elective deferrals as Roth contributions

§ 403 - Taxation of employee annuities

§ 404 - Deduction for contributions of an employer to an employees’ trust or annuity plan and compensation under a deferred-payment plan

§ 408 - Individual retirement accounts

§ 408A - Roth IRAs

§ 409 - Qualifications for tax credit employee stock ownership plans

§ 410 - Minimum participation standards

§ 411 - Minimum vesting standards

§ 414 - Definitions and special rules

§ 417 - Definitions and special rules for purposes of minimum survivor annuity requirements

§ 419A - Qualified asset account; limitation on additions to account

§ 420 - Transfers of excess pension assets to retiree health accounts

§ 441 - Period for computation of taxable income

§ 442 - Change of annual accounting period

§ 444 - Election of taxable year other than required taxable year

§ 446 - General rule for methods of accounting

§ 453 - Installment method

§ 453A - Special rules for nondealers

§ 458 - Magazines, paperbacks, and records returned after the close of the taxable year

§ 460 - Special rules for long-term contracts

§ 461 - General rule for taxable year of deduction

§ 465 - Deductions limited to amount at risk

§ 466 - Repealed. Pub. L. 99–514, title VIII, § 823(a), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2373]

§ 467 - Certain payments for the use of property or services

§ 468A - Special rules for nuclear decommissioning costs

§ 468B - Special rules for designated settlement funds

§ 469 - Passive activity losses and credits limited

§ 471 - General rule for inventories

§ 472 - Last-in, first-out inventories

§ 475 - Mark to market accounting method for dealers in securities

§ 481 - Adjustments required by changes in method of accounting

§ 482 - Allocation of income and deductions among taxpayers

§ 483 - Interest on certain deferred payments

§ 493

§ 504 - Status after organization ceases to qualify for exemption under section 501(c)(3) because of substantial lobbying or because of political activities

§ 514 - Unrelated debt-financed income

§ 527 - Political organizations

§ 585 - Reserves for losses on loans of banks

§ 597 - Treatment of transactions in which Federal financial assistance provided

§ 642 - Special rules for credits and deductions

§ 643 - Definitions applicable to subparts A, B, C, and D

§ 645 - Certain revocable trusts treated as part of estate

§ 663 - Special rules applicable to sections 661 and 662

§ 664 - Charitable remainder trusts

§ 672 - Definitions and rules

§ 679 - Foreign trusts having one or more United States beneficiaries

§ 701 - Partners, not partnership, subject to tax

§ 702 - Income and credits of partner

§ 703 - Partnership computations

§ 704 - Partner’s distributive share

§ 705 - Determination of basis of partner’s interest

§ 706 - Taxable years of partner and partnership

§ 707 - Transactions between partner and partnership

§ 708 - Continuation of partnership

§ 709 - Treatment of organization and syndication fees

§ 721 - Nonrecognition of gain or loss on contribution

§ 722 - Basis of contributing partner’s interest

§ 723 - Basis of property contributed to partnership

§ 724 - Character of gain or loss on contributed unrealized receivables, inventory items, and capital loss property

§ 731 - Extent of recognition of gain or loss on distribution

§ 732 - Basis of distributed property other than money

§ 733 - Basis of distributee partner’s interest

§ 734 - Adjustment to basis of undistributed partnership property where section 754 election or substantial basis reduction

§ 735 - Character of gain or loss on disposition of distributed property

§ 736 - Payments to a retiring partner or a deceased partner’s successor in interest

§ 737 - Recognition of precontribution gain in case of certain distributions to contributing partner

§ 741 - Recognition and character of gain or loss on sale or exchange

§ 742 - Basis of transferee partner’s interest

§ 743 - Special rules where section 754 election or substantial built-in loss

§ 751 - Unrealized receivables and inventory items

§ 752 - Treatment of certain liabilities

§ 753 - Partner receiving income in respect of decedent

§ 754 - Manner of electing optional adjustment to basis of partnership property

§ 755 - Rules for allocation of basis

§ 761 - Terms defined

§ 809 - Repealed. Pub. L. 108–218, title II, § 205(a), Apr. 10, 2004, 118 Stat. 610]

§ 817A - Special rules for modified guaranteed contracts

§ 832 - Insurance company taxable income

§ 845 - Certain reinsurance agreements

§ 846 - Discounted unpaid losses defined

§ 848 - Capitalization of certain policy acquisition expenses

§ 852 - Taxation of regulated investment companies and their shareholders

§ 860E - Treatment of income in excess of daily accruals on residual interests

§ 860G - Other definitions and special rules

§ 863 - Special rules for determining source

§ 864 - Definitions and special rules

§ 865 - Source rules for personal property sales

§ 874 - Allowance of deductions and credits

§ 882 - Tax on income of foreign corporations connected with United States business

§ 883 - Exclusions from gross income

§ 884 - Branch profits tax

§ 892 - Income of foreign governments and of international organizations

§ 894 - Income affected by treaty

§ 897 - Disposition of investment in United States real property

§ 901 - Taxes of foreign countries and of possessions of United States

§ 902 - Deemed paid credit where domestic corporation owns 10 percent or more of voting stock of foreign corporation

§ 904 - Limitation on credit

§ 907 - Special rules in case of foreign oil and gas income

§ 911 - Citizens or residents of the United States living abroad

§ 924

§ 925

§ 927

§ 934 - Limitation on reduction in income tax liability incurred to the Virgin Islands

§ 936 - Puerto Rico and possession tax credit

§ 937 - Residence and source rules involving possessions

§ 954 - Foreign base company income

§ 956 - Investment of earnings in United States property

§ 957 - Controlled foreign corporations; United States persons

§ 960 - Special rules for foreign tax credit

§ 963 - Repealed. Pub. L. 94–12, title VI, § 602(a)(1), Mar. 29, 1975, 89 Stat. 58]

§ 985 - Functional currency

§ 987 - Branch transactions

§ 988 - Treatment of certain foreign currency transactions

§ 989 - Other definitions and special rules

§ 1017 - Discharge of indebtedness

§ 1032 - Exchange of stock for property

§ 1059 - Corporate shareholder’s basis in stock reduced by nontaxed portion of extraordinary dividends

§ 1060 - Special allocation rules for certain asset acquisitions

§ 1092 - Straddles

§ 1202 - Partial exclusion for gain from certain small business stock

§ 1221 - Capital asset defined

§ 1244 - Losses on small business stock

§ 1248 - Gain from certain sales or exchanges of stock in certain foreign corporations

§ 1254 - Gain from disposition of interest in oil, gas, geothermal, or other mineral properties

§ 1275 - Other definitions and special rules

§ 1286 - Tax treatment of stripped bonds

§ 1291 - Interest on tax deferral

§ 1293 - Current taxation of income from qualified electing funds

§ 1294 - Election to extend time for payment of tax on undistributed earnings

§ 1295 - Qualified electing fund

§ 1296 - Election of mark to market for marketable stock

§ 1297 - Passive foreign investment company

§ 1298 - Special rules

§ 1301 - Averaging of farm income

§ 1361 - S corporation defined

§ 1368 - Distributions

§ 1374 - Tax imposed on certain built-in gains

§ 1377 - Definitions and special rule

§ 1378 - Taxable year of S corporation

§ 1397D - Qualified zone property defined

§ 1397E - Credit to holders of qualified zone academy bonds

§ 1402 - Definitions

§ 1441 - Withholding of tax on nonresident aliens

§ 1443 - Foreign tax-exempt organizations

§ 1445 - Withholding of tax on dispositions of United States real property interests

§ 1471 - Withholdable payments to foreign financial institutions

§ 1472 - Withholdable payments to other foreign entities

§ 1473 - Definitions

§ 1474 - Special rules

§ 1502 - Regulations

§ 1503 - Computation and payment of tax

§ 1504 - Definitions

§ 1561 - Limitations on certain multiple tax benefits in the case of certain controlled corporations

§ 3401 - Definitions

§ 5000 - Certain group health plans

§ 5000A - Requirement to maintain minimum essential coverage

§ 6001 - Notice or regulations requiring records, statements, and special returns

§ 6011 - General requirement of return, statement, or list

§ 6015 - Relief from joint and several liability on joint return

§ 6033 - Returns by exempt organizations

§ 6035 - Basis information to persons acquiring property from decedent

§ 6038 - Information reporting with respect to certain foreign corporations and partnerships

§ 6038A - Information with respect to certain foreign-owned corporations

§ 6038B - Notice of certain transfers to foreign persons

§ 6038D - Information with respect to foreign financial assets

§ 6039I - Returns and records with respect to employer-owned life insurance contracts

§ 6041 - Information at source

§ 6043 - Liquidating, etc., transactions

§ 6045 - Returns of brokers

§ 6046A - Returns as to interests in foreign partnerships

§ 6049 - Returns regarding payments of interest

§ 6050E - State and local income tax refunds

§ 6050H - Returns relating to mortgage interest received in trade or business from individuals

§ 6050I-1

§ 6050K - Returns relating to exchanges of certain partnership interests

§ 6050M - Returns relating to persons receiving contracts from Federal executive agencies

§ 6050P - Returns relating to the cancellation of indebtedness by certain entities

§ 6050S - Returns relating to higher education tuition and related expenses

§ 6060 - Information returns of tax return preparers

§ 6061 - Signing of returns and other documents

§ 6065 - Verification of returns

§ 6081 - Extension of time for filing returns

§ 6103 - Confidentiality and disclosure of returns and return information

§ 6109 - Identifying numbers

§ 6302 - Mode or time of collection

§ 6402 - Authority to make credits or refunds

§ 6411 - Tentative carryback and refund adjustments

§ 6655 - Failure by corporation to pay estimated income tax

§ 6662 - Imposition of accuracy-related penalty on underpayments

§ 6695 - Other assessable penalties with respect to the preparation of tax returns for other persons

§ 6851 - Termination assessments of income tax

§ 7520 - Valuation tables

§ 7654 - Coordination of United States and certain possession individual income taxes

§ 7701 - Definitions

§ 7702 - Life insurance contract defined

§ 7805 - Rules and regulations

§ 7872 - Treatment of loans with below-market interest rates

§ 7874 - Rules relating to expatriated entities and their foreign parents

U.S. Code: Title 29 - LABOR
Statutes at Large
Public Laws
Presidential Documents

Reorganization ... 1978 Plan No. 4

Title 26 published on 16-Jun-2017 03:58

The following are ALL rules, proposed rules, and notices (chronologically) published in the Federal Register relating to 26 CFR Part 1 after this date.

  • 2017-06-30; vol. 82 # 125 - Friday, June 30, 2017
    1. 82 FR 29719 - Regulations Regarding Withholding of Tax on Certain U.S. Source Income Paid to Foreign Persons, Information Reporting and Backup Withholding on Payments Made to Certain U.S. Persons, and Portfolio Interest Treatment; Correction
      GPO FDSys XML | Text
      DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY, Internal Revenue Service
      Correcting amendment.
        Effective Date: These corrections are effective June 30, 2017. Applicability Date: The corrections to §§ 1.1441-0; 1.1441-1(b)(7)(ii)(B), (e)(3)(iv)(B) and (C), (e)(4)(ii)(B)( 11 ), (e)(4)(ix)(D), (e)(5)(ii) through (e)(5)(ii)(B), (e)(5)(ii)(D) through (e)(5)(v)(B)( 3 ), (e)(5)(v)(B)( 5 ) through (e)(5)(v)(D), and (f) through (f)(4); 1.1441-1T; 1.1441-3(d)(1); 1.1441-4; 1.6045-1(m)(2)(ii) and (n)(12)(ii); and 1.6049-5(c)(1) through (c)(4) are applicable on January 6, 2017.
      26 CFR Part 1

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