26 CFR 1.507-6 - Substantial contributor defined.
(1)In general. Except as provided in subparagraph (2) of this paragraph, the term substantial contributor means, with respect to a private foundation, any person (within the meaning of section 7701(a)(1)), whether or not exempt from taxation under section 501(a), who contributed or bequeathed an aggregate amount of more than $5,000 to the private foundation, if such amount is more than 2 percent of the total contributions and bequests received by the private foundation before the close of the taxable year of the private foundation in which a contribution or bequest is received by the foundation from such person. In the case of a trust, the term substantial contributor also means the creator of the trust. Such term does not include a governmental unit described in section 170(c)(1).
(2)Special rules. For purposes of sections 170(b)(1)(E)(iii), 507(d)(1), 508(d), 509(a) (1) and (3), and chapter 42, the term substantial contributor shall not include an organization which is described in section 509(a) (1), (2), or (3) or any other organization which is wholly owned by such section 509(a) (1), (2), or (3) organization. Furthermore, taking section 4941 (relating to taxes on self-dealing) in context, it would unduly restrict the activities of private foundations if the term substantial contributor were to include any section 501(c)(3) organizations. It was not intended, for example, that a large grant for charitable purposes from one private foundation to another world forever preclude the latter from making any grants to, or otherwise dealing with, the former. Accordingly, for purposes of section 4941 only, the term substantial contributor shall not only include any organization which is described in section 501(c)(3) (other than an organization described in section 509(a)(4)).
(b)Determination of substantial contributor -
(1)In general. In determining under paragraph (a) of this section whether the aggregate of contributions and bequests from a person exceeds 2 percent of the total contributions and bequests received by a private foundation, both the total of such amounts received by the private foundation, and the aggregate of such amounts contributed and bequeathed by such person, shall be determined as of the last day of each taxable year commencing with the first taxable year ending after October 9, 1969. Generally, under section 507(d)(2) and this section, except for purposes of valuation under section 507(d)(2)(B)(i), all contributions and bequests made before October 9, 1969, are deemed to have been made on October 9, 1969. For purposes of section 509(a)(2) and the support test described in § 1.509(a)-3(c), contributions and bequests before October 9, 1969, will be taken into account in the year when actually made. For example, in the case of a contribution or bequest of $6,000 in 1967, such contribution or bequest shall be treated as made by a substantial contributor in 1967 for purposes of section 509(a)(2) and § 1.509(a)-3(c) if such person met the $5,000 - 2 percent test as of December 31, 1967, and December 31, 1969 (in the case of a calendar year accounting period). Although the determination of the percentage of total contributions and bequests represented by a given donor's contributions and bequests is not made until the end of the foundation's taxable year, a donor is a substantial contributor as of the first date when the foundation received from him an amount sufficient to make him a substantial contributor. Except as otherwise provided in this subparagraph, such amount is treated for all purposes as made by a substantial contributor. Thus, the total contributions and bequests received by the private foundation from all persons, and the aggregate contributions and bequests made by a particular person, are to be determined as of December 31, 1969 (in the case of a calendar year organization which was in existence on that date), and the amounts included in each respective total would be all contributions and bequests received by the organization on or before that date, and all contributions and bequests made by the person on or before that date. Thereafter, a similar determination is to be made with respect to such private foundation as of the end of each of its succeeding taxable years. Status as a substantial contributor, however, will date from the time when the donor first met the $5,000 and 2 percent test. Once a person is a substantial contributor with respect to a private foundation, he remains a substantial contributor even though he might not be so classified if a determination were first made at some later date. For instance, even though the aggregate contributions and bequests of a person become less than 2 percent of the total received by a private foundation (for example, because of subsequent contributions and bequests by other persons), such person remains a substantial contributor with respect to the foundation.
(c)Special rules -
(1)Contributions defined. The term contribution shall, for purposes of section 507(d)(2), have the same meaning as such term has under section 170(c) and also include bequests, legacies, devises, and transfers within the meaning of section 2055 or 2106(a)(2). Thus, for purposes of section 507(d)(2), any payment of money or transfer of property without adequate consideration shall be considered a contribution. Where payment is made or property transferred as consideration for admissions, sales of merchandise, performance of services, or furnishing of facilities to the donor, the qualification of all or any part of such payment or transfer as a contribution under section 170(c) shall determine whether and to what extent such payment or transfer constitutes a contribution under section 507(d)(2).
(3)Contributions and bequests by a spouse. An individual shall be considered, for purposes of this section, to have made all contributions and bequests made by his spouse during the period of their marriage. Thus, for example, where W contributed $500,000 to P, a private foundation, in 1941 and that amount exceeded 2 percent of the total contributions received by P as of the end of P's first taxable year ending after October 9, 1969, H (W's spouse at the time of the 1941 gift) is considered to have made such contribution (even if W died prior to October 9, 1969, or their marriage was otherwise terminated prior to such date). Similarly, any bequest or devise shall be treated as having been made by the decedent's surviving spouse.