26 CFR § 1.58-4 - Electing small business corporations.

(a) In general. Section 58(d)(1) provides rules for the apportionment of the items of tax preference of an electing small business corporation among the shareholders of such corporation. Section 58(d)(2) provides rules for the imposition of the minimum tax on an electing small business corporation with respect to certain capital gains. For purposes of section 58(d) and this section, the items of tax preference are computed at the corporate level as if section 57 generally applied to the corporation. However, the items of tax preference so computed are treated as items of tax preference of the shareholders of such corporation and not as items of tax preference of such corporation (except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section). The items of tax preference specified in section 57(a)(1) and § 1.57-1(a) (excess investment interest) and section 57(a)(3) and § 1.57-1(c) (accelerated depreciation on section 1245 property subject to a net lease), while generally inapplicable to corporations, are included as items of tax preference in the case of an electing small business corporation.

(b) Apportionment to shareholders.

(1) The items of tax preference of an electing small business corporation, other than the capital gains item of tax preference described in paragraph (c) of this section, are apportioned pro rata among the shareholders of such corporation in a manner consistent with section 1374(c)(1). Thus, with respect to the items of tax preference of the electing small business corporation, there is to be treated as items of tax preference of each shareholder a pro rata share of such items computed as follows:

(i) Divide the total amount of such items of tax preference of the corporation by the number of days in the taxable year of the corporation, thus determining the daily amount of such items of tax preference.

(ii) Determine for each day the shareholder's portion of the daily amount of each such item of tax preference by applying to such amount the ratio which the stock owned by the shareholder on that day bears to the total stock outstanding on that day.

(iii) Total the shareholder's daily portions of each such item of tax preference of the corporation for it taxable year.

Amounts taken into account by shareholders in accordance with this paragraph are considered to consist of a pro rata share of each item of tax preference of the corporation. Thus, for example, if the corporation has $50,000 of excess investment interest and $150,000 of excess accelerated depreciation on section 1250 property and a shareholder, in accordance with this paragraph, takes into account $60,000 of the total $200,000 of tax preference items of the corporation, one-fourth ($50,000 ÷ $200,000) of the $60,000, or $15,000, taken into account by the shareholder is considered excess investment interest and three-fourths of the $60,000, or $45,000, is considered excess accelerated depreciation on section 1250 property.

(2) Items of tax preference apportioned to a shareholder pursuant to subparagraph (1) of this paragraph are taken into account by the shareholder for the shareholder's taxable year in which or with which the taxable year of the corporation ends, except that, in the case of the death of a shareholder during any taxable year of the corporation (during which the corporation is an electing small business corporation), the items of tax preference of the corporation for such taxable year are taken into account for the final taxable year of the shareholder.

(c) Capital gains.

(1) Capital gains of an electing small business corporation, other than those capital gains subject to tax under section 1378, do not result in an item of tax preference at the corporate level since, in applying the formula specified in sections 57(a)(9)(B) and § 1.57-1(i)(2), the rate of tax on capital gains (and the resulting tax) at the corporate level is zero. Under section 1375 (a) shareholders of an electing small business corporation take into account the capital gains of the corporation (including capital gains subject to tax under section 1378). Therefore, the computation of the capital gains item of tax preference at the shareholder level, with respect to such capital gains, is taken into account automatically by operation of section 57(a)(9) and § 1.57-1(i). To avoid double inclusion of the capital gains item of tax preference by a shareholder with respect to capital gains subject to tax under section 1378, the capital gains item of tax preference which results at the corporate level by reason of section 58 (d)(2) is not treated under section 58 (d)(1) as an item of tax preference of the shareholders of the corporation.

(2) The capital gains item of tax preference of an electing small business corporation subject to the tax imposed by section 1378 is the excess of the amount of tax computed under section 1378(b)(2) over the sum of -

(i) The amount of tax that would be computed under section 1378(b)(2) if the following amount were excluded:

(a) That portion of the net section 1201 gain of the corporation described in section 1378(b)(1), or

(b) If section 1378(c)(3) applies, that portion of the net section 1201 gain attributable to the property described in section 1378(c)(3), and

(ii) The amount of tax imposed under section 1378 divided by the sum of the normal tax rate and the surtax rate under section 11 for the taxable year.

(3) The principles of this paragraph may be illustrated by the following example.

Example.
Corporation X is a calendar year taxpayer and an electing small business corporation. For its taxable year 1971 the corporation has net section 1201 gain of $650,000 and taxable income of $800,000 (including the net section 1201 gain). Although X's election under section 1372(a) has been in effect for its three immediately preceding taxable years, X is subject to the tax imposed by section 1378 for 1971 since it has net section 1201 gain (in the amount of $200,000) attributable to property with a substituted basis. The tax computed under section 1378(b)(1) is $187,500 (30 percent of ($650,000 minus $25,000)) and under section 1378(b)(2) is $377,500 (22 percent of $800,000 plus 26 percent of $775,000). By reason of the limitation imposed by section 1378(c) the tax actually imposed by section 1378 is $60,000 (30 percent of $200,000, the net section 1201 gain). The tax computed under section 1378(b)(2) with the modification required under subparagraph (2)(i) of this paragraph is $281,500 (22 percent of $600,000 plus 26 percent of $575,000). Thus, the 1971 capital gains item of tax preference X is $75,000 computed as follows:
1. Tax computed under 1378(b) (2) $377,500
2. Tax computed under 1378(b) (2) with modification 281,500
3. Excess 96,000
4. Tax actually imposed under 1378 60,000
5. Difference 36,000
6. Normal tax rate plus surtax rate .48
7. Tax preference (line 5 divided by line 6) $75,000
In addition each shareholder of X will take into account his distributive share of the $650,000 of net section 1201 gain of X less the taxes paid by X under sections 56 and 1378 on the gain
[T.D. 7564, 43 FR 40483, Sept. 12, 1978]

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