26 CFR § 1.6038A-4 - Monetary penalty.
(a) Imposition of monetary penalty -
(1) In general. If a reporting corporation fails to furnish the information described in § 1.6038A-2 within the time and manner prescribed in § 1.6038A-2(d), fails to maintain or cause another to maintain records as required by § 1.6038A-3, or (in the case of records maintained outside the United States) fails to meet the non-U.S. record maintenance requirements within the applicable time prescribed in § 1.6038A-3(f), a penalty of $25,000 shall be assessed for each taxable year with respect to which such failure occurs. The filing of a substantially incomplete Form 5472 constitutes a failure to file Form 5472. Where, however, the information described in § 1.6038A-2(b)(3) through (5) is not required to be reported, a Form 5472 filed without such information is not a substantially incomplete Form 5472.
(2) Liability for certain partnership transactions. A reporting corporation to which transactions engaged in by a partnership are attributed under § 1.6038A-1(e)(2) is subject to the rules of this section to the extent failures occur with respect to the partnership transactions so attributed.
(3) Calculation of monetary penalty. If a reporting corporation fails to maintain records as required by § 1.6038A-3 of transactions with multiple related parties, the monetary penalty may be assessed for each failure to maintain records with respect to each related party. The monetary penalty, however, shall be imposed on a reporting corporation only once for a taxable year with respect to each related party for a failure to furnish the information required on Form 5472, for a failure to maintain or cause another to maintain records, or for a failure to comply with the non-U.S. maintenance requirements described in § 1.6038A-3(f). An additional penalty for another failure may be imposed, however, under the rules of paragraph (d)(2) of this section. Thus, unless such failures continue after notification as described in paragraph (d) of this section, the maximum penalty under this paragraph with respect to each related party for all such failures in a taxable year is$25,000. The members of a group of corporations filing a consolidated return are jointly and severally liable for any monetary penalty that may be imposed under this section.
(b) Reasonable cause -
(1) In general. Certain failures may be excused for reasonable cause, including not timely filing Form 5472, not maintaining or causing another to maintain records as required by § 1.6038A-3, and not complying with the non-U.S. maintenance requirements described in § 1.6038A-3(f). If an affirmative showing is made that the taxpayer acted in good faith and there is reasonable cause for a failure that results in the assessment of the monetary penalty, the period during which reasonable cause exists shall be treated as beginning on the day reasonable cause is established and ending not earlier than the last day on which reasonable cause existed for any such failure. Additionally, the beginning of the 90-day period after mailing of a notice by the District Director or the Director of an Internal Revenue Service Center of a failure described in paragraph (d) of this section shall be treated as not earlier than the last day on which reasonable cause existed.
(2) Affirmative showing required -
(i) In general. To show that reasonable cause exists for purposes of paragraph (b)(1) of this section, the reporting corporation must make an affirmative showing of all the facts alleged as reasonable cause for the failure in a written statement containing a declaration that it is made under penalties of perjury. The statement must be filed with the District Director (in the case of failure to maintain or furnish requested information permitted to be maintained outside the United States within the time required under § 1.6038A-3(f) or a failure to file Form 5472) or the Director of the Internal Revenue Service Center where the Form 5472 is required to be filed (in the case of failure to file Form 5472). The District Director or the Director of the Internal Revenue Service Center where the Form 5472 is required to be filed, as appropriate, shall determine whether the failure was due to reasonable cause, and if so, the period of time for which reasonable cause existed. If a return has been filed as required by § 1.6038A-2 or records have been maintained as required by § 1.6038A-3, except for an omission of, or error with respect to, some of the information required or a record to be maintained, the omission or error shall not constitute a failure for purposes of section 6038A(d) if the reporting corporation that filed the return establishes to the satisfaction of the District Director or the Director of the Internal Revenue Service Center that it has substantially complied with the filing of Form 5472 or the requirement to maintain records.
(ii) Small corporations. The District Director shall apply the reasonable cause exception liberally in the case of a small corporation that had no knowledge of the requirements imposed by section 6038A; has limited presence in and contact with the United States; and promptly and fully complies with all requests by the District Director to file Form 5472, and to furnish books, records, or other materials relevant to the reportable transaction. A small corporation is a corporation whose gross receipts for a taxable year are $20,000,000 or less.
(iii) Facts and circumstances taken into account. The determination of whether a taxpayer acted with reasonable cause and in good faith is made on a case-by-case basis, taking into account all pertinent facts and circumstances. Circumstances that may indicate reasonable cause and good faith include an honest misunderstanding of fact or law that is reasonable in light of the experience and knowledge of the taxpayer. Isolated computational or transcriptional errors generally are not inconsistent with reasonable cause and good faith. Reliance upon an information return or on the advice of a professional (such as an attorney or accountant) does not necessarily demonstrate reasonable cause and good faith. Similarly, reasonable cause and good faith is not necessarily indicated by reliance on facts that, unknown to the taxpayer, are incorrect. Reliance on an information return, professional advice or other facts, however, constitutes reasonable cause and good faith if, under all the circumstances, the reliance was reasonable. A taxpayer, for example, may have reasonable cause for not filing a Form 5472 or for not maintaining records under section 6038A if the taxpayer has a reasonable belief that it is not owned by a 25-percent foreign shareholder. A reasonable belief means that the taxpayer does not know or has no reason to know that it is owned by a 25-percent foreign shareholder. For example, a reporting corporation would not know or have reason to know that it is owned by a 25-percent foreign shareholder if its belief that it is not so owned is consistent with other information reported or otherwise furnished to or known by the reporting corporation. A taxpayer may have reasonable cause for not treating a foreign corporation as a related party for purposes of section 6038A where the foreign corporation is a related party solely by reason of § 1.6038A-1(d)(3) (under the principles of section 482), and the taxpayer had a reasonable belief that its relationship with the foreign corporation did not meet the standards for related parties under section 482.
(c) Failure to maintain records or to cause another to maintain records. A failure to maintain records or to cause another to maintain records is determined by the District Director upon the basis of the reporting corporation's overall compliance (including compliance with the non-U.S. maintenance requirements under § 1.6038A-3(f)(2)) with the record maintenance requirements. It is not an item-by-item determination. Thus, for example, a failure to maintain a single or small number of items may not constitute a failure for purposes of section 6038A(d), unless the item or items are essential to the correct determination of transactions between the reporting corporation and any foreign related parties. The District Director shall notify the reporting corporation in writing of any determination that it has failed to comply with the record maintenance requirement.
(d) Increase in penalty where failure continues after notification -
(1) In general. If any failure described in this section continues for more than 90 days after the day on which the District Director or the Director of the Internal Revenue Service Center where the Form 5472 is required to be filed mails notice of the failure to the reporting corporation, the reporting corporation shall pay a penalty (in addition to the penalty described in paragraph (a) of this section) of $25,000 with respect to each related party for which a failure occurs for each 30-day period during which the failure continues after the expiration of the 90-day period. Any uncompleted fraction of a 30-day period shall count as a 30-day period for purposes of this paragraph (d).
(2) Additional penalty for another failure. An additional penalty for a taxable year may be imposed, however, if at a time subsequent to the time of the imposition of the monetary penalty described in paragraph (a) of this section, a second failure is determined and the second failure continues after notification under paragraph (d)(1) of this section. Thus, if a taxpayer fails to file Form 5472 and is assessed a monetary penalty and later, upon audit, is determined to have failed to maintain records, an additional penalty for the failure to maintain records may be assessed under the rules of this paragraph if the failure to maintain records continues after notification under this paragraph.
(3) Cessation of accrual. The monetary penalty will cease to accrue if the reporting corporation either files Form 5472 (in the case of a failure to file Form 5472), furnishes information to substantially complete Form 5472, or demonstrates compliance with respect to the maintenance of records (in the case of a failure to maintain records) for the taxable year in which the examination occurs and subsequent years to the satisfaction of the District Director. The monetary penalty also will cease to accrue if requested information, documents, or records, kept outside the United States under the requirements of § 1.6038A-3(f) and not produced within the time specified are produced or moved to the United States under the rules of paragraph (f)(2)(ii) of this section.
(4) Continued failures. If a failure under this section relating to a taxable year beginning before July 11, 1989 occurs, and if the failure continues following 90 days after the notice of failure under this paragraph is sent, the amount of the additional penalty to be assessed under this paragraph is $25,000 for each 30-day period beginning after November 5, 1990, during which the failure continues. There is no limitation on the amount of the monetary penalty that may be assessed after November 5, 1990.
(e) Other penalties. For criminal penalties for failure to file a return and filing a false or fraudulent return, see sections 7203 and 7206 of the Code. For the penalty relating to an underpayment of tax, see section 6662.
(1) Failure to file Form 5472. Corp X, a U.S. reporting corporation, engages in related party transactions with FC. Corp X does not timely file a Form 5472 or maintain records relating to the transactions with FC for Year 1 or subsequent years. The Service Center with which Corp X files its income tax return imposes a $25,000 penalty for each of Years 1, 2, and 3 under section 6038A (d) and this section for failure to provide information as required on Form 5472 and mails a notice of failure to provide inrormation. Corp X does not file Form 5472. Ninety days following the mailing of the notice of failure to Corp X an additional penaly of $25,000 is imposed. On the 135th day following the mailing of the notice of failure, Corp X files Form 5472 for Years 1, 2, and 3. The total penalty owed by Corp X for Year 1 is $75,000. ($25,000 for not timely filing Form 5472, $25,000 for the first 30-day period following the expiration of the 90-day period, and $25,000 for the fraction of the second 30-day period). The penalty for Years 2 and 3 for the failure to file Form 5472 is also $75,000 for each year, calculated in the same manner as for Year 1. The total penalty for failure to file Form 5472 for Years 1, 2, and 3 is $225,000.
(2) Failure to maintain records.
Assume the same facts as in Example 1. In Year 5, Corp X is audited for Years 1 through 3. Corp X has not been maintaining records relating to the transactions with FC. The District Director issues a notice of failure to maintain records. Corp X has already been subject to the monetary penalty of $25,000 for each of Years 1, 2, and 3 for failure to file Form 5472 and, therefore, a monetary penalty under paragraph (a) of this section for failure to maintain records is not assessed. However, an additional penalty is assessed after the 90th day following the mailing of the notice of failure to maintain records. Corp X develops a record maintenance system as required by section 6038A and § 1.6038A-3. On the 180th day following the mailing of the notice of failure to maintain records, Corp X demonstrates to the satisfaction of the District Director that the newly developed record maintenance system will comply with the requirements of § 1.6038A-3 and the increase in the monetary penalty after notification ceases to accrue. The additional penalty for failure to maintain records is $75,000. An additional penalty of $75,000 per year is assessed for each of years 2 and 3 for the failure to maintain records for a total of $225,000.