26 CFR 1.665(b)-2 - Exclusions from accumulation distributions in the case of trusts (other than a foreign trust created by a U.S. person).
(a) In the case of a trust other than a foreign trust created by a U.S. person, certain amounts paid, credited, or required to be distributed to a beneficiary are excluded under section 665(b) in determining whether there is an accumulation distribution for the purposes of subpart D (section 665 and following), part I, subchapter J, chapter 1 of the Code. These exclusions are solely for the purpose of determining the amount allocable to preceding years under section 666 and in no way affect the determination under subpart C (section 661 and following) of such part I of the beneficiary's tax liability for the year of distribution. Further, amounts excluded from accumulation distributions do not reduce the amount of undistributed net income for the 5 years preceding the year of distribution.
(1)Distributions from accumulations while a beneficiary is under 21.
(i) The first exception to the definition of an accumulation distribution is for amounts paid, credited, or required to be distributed to a beneficiary who was under 21 years of age or unborn when it was accumulated. A distribution is to be considered as so paid, credited, or required to be distributed to the extent, and only to the extent, that there is no undistributed net income for taxable years preceding the year of distribution other than undistributed net income accumulated while the beneficiary was under 21. If a distribution can be made from income accumulated either before or after a beneficiary reaches 21, it will be considered as made from the most recently accumulated income, and it will be so considered even though the governing instrument directs that distributions be charged first against the earliest accumulations.
(ii) As was indicated in paragraph (a) of this section, a distribution of an amount excepted from the definition of an accumulation distribution will not reduce undistributed net income for the purpose of determining the effect of a future accumulation distribution. Thus, a distribution to a beneficiary of income accumulated before he reached 21 would not reduce the undistributed net income includible in a future accumulation distribution to another beneficiary. However, all future distributions to the same beneficiary, or to another beneficiary to whom a distribution would be excepted under the provisions of this subparagraph, would be excepted from the definition of an accumulation distribution to the extent that they could not be paid, credited, or required to be distributed from other accumulated income.
(iii) The following examples illustrate the application of the foregoing rules of this subparagraph (in each of these examples it is assumed that the exceptions in section 665(b) (2), (3), and (4) do not apply):
(b) Income is to be accumulated until A is 21, when it is to be distributed to him but the corpus is to remain in trust. A distribution of the accumulated income to A when he reaches 21 is not an accumulation distribution.
(c) Income is to be accumulated and added to corpus until A reaches 21, when he is to receive one-third of the corpus (including accumulations). Thereafter all the income is to be paid to A until he is 23 when the remaining corpus (including accumulations) is to be paid to him. If A dies under that age any undistributed portion is to be paid to B. Distributions to A at 21 and 23 out of accumulations are not accumulation distributions even though they include accumulated income. However, if A died at the age of 22, when B was 23, a distribution to B would be an accumulation distribution to the extent of income accumulations since B reached 21, and the amount of undistributed net income includible in the distribution will not be reduced by the previous distribution to A.
(d) Income is to be accumulated and added to corpus until A is 21. After he is 21, he is entitled to all the income and, in addition, to distributions of corpus in the discretion of the trustee. When he reaches 25 he is entitled to the corpus. Distributions to A are not accumulation distributions, whether they are discretionary or upon termination of the trust.
(e) The facts are the same as in the preceding example, except that income is to be accumulated until A is 23. Distributions to A are accumulation distributions to the extent of income accumulated after A reached 21.
(f) Income may be distributed among a testator's children or accumulated and added to corpus until the youngest child is 21, when the corpus is to be distributed to the testator's then living descendants. Upon termination of the trust, the corpus is distributed to A, age 21; B, age 23; and C, the child of a deceased child, age 3. The distributions to A and C are not accumulation distributions. The distribution to B is an accumulation distribution to the extent of income accumulated after he reaches 21. (If the terms of the trust were such that it was subject to the separate share treatment under section 663(c), the distribution to B would be an accumulation distribution only to the extent of income accumulated for B's separate share since he reached 21.)
(g) Income may be distributed to A or accumulated and added to corpus during A's life. Upon the death of A the corpus is to be distributed to B. B is 23 at A's death. The distribution is an accumulation distribution to the extent of income accumulated since B reached 21.
(2)Emergency distributions. The second exclusion from the definition of an accumulation distribution is for amounts properly paid or credited to a beneficiary to meet his emergency needs. Whether or not a distribution falls within this exclusion depends upon the facts and circumstances causing the distribution. A distribution based upon an unforeseen or unforeseeable combination of circumstances requiring immediate help to the beneficiary would qualify for the exclusion. However, the beneficiary must be in actual need of the distribution and the fact that he had other sufficient resources would tend to negate the conclusion that a distribution was to meet his emergency needs. Ordinary distributions for the support, maintenance, or education of the beneficiary would not qualify for the exclusion.
(3)Certain distributions at specified ages. The third exclusion from the definition of an accumulation distribution is for amounts properly paid or credited to a beneficiary upon the beneficiary's attaining a specified age or ages; provided, (i) the total number of such distributions with respect to that beneficiary cannot exceed 4; (ii) the period between each such distribution is 4 years or more; and (iii) on January 1, 1954, such distributions were required by the specific terms of the governing instrument. Any discretionary invasion of corpus at other times is not excluded under this subparagraph, but does not affect the status of distributions that would otherwise be excluded. If more than four distributions are required to be made to a particular beneficiary at specified ages if he survives to receive them, none of the distributions will be excluded, even though the beneficiary dies before he receives more than four. On the other hand, a direction to make additional distributions to a remainderman will not affect the status of distributions required to be made to the primary beneficiary. For example, a trust agreement provided on January 1, 1954, that when A reached age 25 he would receive one-eighth of the corpus and accumulated income, as then constituted, and similar distributions at ages 30, 35, and 40. It also provided for similar distributions to B after A's death, and for additional discretionary distributions to both A and B. Required distributions to both A and B are excluded, regardless of whether discretionary distributions are made, but discretionary distributions are not excluded. On the other hand, if an additional distribution to A was directed when he reached 45, no distributions to him would be excluded, regardless of when he died.
(4)Certain final distributions.
(i) The last exception to the definition of an accumulation distribution is for amounts properly paid or credited to a beneficiary as a final distribution of a trust if the final distribution is made more than 9 years after the date of the last transfer to such trust.
(ii) The term last transfer to such trust includes only transfers, whether by the original grantor or by a third person, made with a donative intent. A transfer arising out of a property right held by the trust is excluded, such as a transfer by a debtor in satisfaction of his indebtedness, or a distribution in liquidation or reorganization of a corporation. If the terms of two or more trusts include cross-remainders on the deaths of life beneficiaries, the donative transfers occurred at the time the trusts were created. The addition of the corpus of one trust to that of another when a remainder falls in is therefore not a new transfer within the meaning of section 665(b)(4).
(iii) For example, under the terms of a trust created July 1, 1950, with an original corpus of $100,000, by H for the benefit of his wife, W, the income of the trust is to be accumulated and added to corpus. Upon the expiration of a 10-year period, the trust is to terminate and its assets, including all accumulated income, are to be distributed to W. No transfers were made by H or other persons to the trust after it was created. Both the trust and W file returns on the calendar year basis. In accordance with its terms, the trust terminated on June 30, 1960, and on August 1, 1960, the trustee made a final distribution of the assets of the trust to W, consisting of investments derived from $100,000 of donated principal, accumulated income of $30,000 attributable to the period July 1, 1950, through December 31, 1959, and income of $3,000 attributable to the period the trust was in existence during 1960. Subpart D is inapplicable to the $3,000 of income of the trust for 1960 since that amount would be deductible by the trust and includible in W's gross income for that year to the extent provided in subpart C. However, the balance of the distribution will qualify as an exclusion from the provisions of subpart D.