26 CFR § 1.871-12 - Determination of tax on treaty income.

(a) In general. This section applies for purposes of determining under § 1.871-7 or § 1.871-8 the tax of a nonresident alien individual, or under § 1.881-2 or § 1.882-1 the tax of a foreign corporation, which for the taxable year has income described in section 872(a) or 882(b) upon which the tax is limited by an income tax convention to which the United States is a party. Income for such purposes does not include income of any kind which is exempt from tax under the provisions of an income tax convention to which the United States is a party. See §§ 1.872-2(c) and 1.883-1(b). This section shall not apply to a nonresident alien individual who is a bona fide resident of Puerto Rico during the entire taxable year.

(b) Definition of treaty and nontreaty income -

(1) In general.

(i) For purposes of this section the term “treaty income” shall be construed to mean the gross income of a nonresident alien individual or foreign corporation, as the case may be, the tax on which is limited by a tax convention. The term “non-treaty income” shall be construed, for such purposes, to mean the gross income of the nonresident alien individual or foreign corporation other than the treaty income. Neither term includes income of any kind which is exempt from the tax imposed by chapter 1 of the Code.

(ii) In determining either the treaty or nontreaty income the gross income shall be determined in accordance with §§ 1.872-1 and 1.872-2, or with §§ 1.882-3 and 1.883-1, except that in determining the treaty income the exclusion granted by section 116(a) for dividends shall not be taken into account. Thus, for example, treaty income includes the total amount of dividends paid by a domestic corporation not disqualified by section 116(b) and received from sources within the United States if, in accordance with a tax convention, the dividends are subject to the income tax at a rate not to exceed 15 percent but does not include interest which, in accordance with a tax convention, is exempt from the income tax. In further illustration, neither the treaty nor the nontreaty income includes interest on certain governmental obligations which by reason of section 103 is excluded from gross income, or interest which by reason of a tax convention is exempt from the tax imposed by chapter 1 of the Code.

(iii) For purposes of applying any income tax convention to which the United States is a party, original issue discount which is subject to tax under section 871(a)(1)(C) or 881(a)(3) is to be treated as interest, and gains which are subject to tax under section 871(a)(1)(D) or 881(a)(4) are to be treated as royalty income. This subdivision shall not apply, however, where its application would be contrary to any treaty obligation of the United States.

(2) Application of permanent establishment rule of treaties. In applying this section with respect to income which is not effectively connected for the taxable year with the conduct of a trade or business in the United States by a nonresident alien individual or foreign corporation, see section 894(b), which provides that with respect to such income the nonresident alien individual or foreign corporation shall be deemed not to have a permanent establishment in the United States at any time during the taxable year for purposes of applying any exemption from, or reduction in rate of, tax provided by any tax convention.

(c) Determination of tax -

(1) In general. If the gross income of a nonresident alien individual or foreign corporation, as the case may be, consists of both treaty and nontreaty income, the tax liability for the taxable year shall be the sum of the amounts determined in accordance with subparagraphs (2) and (3) of this paragraph. In no case, however, may the tax liability so determined exceed the tax liability (tax reduced by allowable credits) with respect to the taxpayer's entire income, determined in accordance with § 1.871-7 or § 1.871-8, or with § 1.881-2 or § 1.882-1, as though the tax convention had not come into effect and without reference to the provisions of this section. Determinations under this paragraph shall be made without taking into account any credits allowed by sections 31, 32, 39, and 6402, but such credits shall be allowed against the tax liability determined in accordance with this subparagraph.

(2) Tax on nontreaty income. For purposes of subparagraph (1) of this paragraph, compute a partial tax (determined without the allowance of any credit) upon only the nontreaty income in accordance with § 1.871-7 or § 1.871-8, or with § 1.881-2 or § 1.882-1, whichever applies, as though the tax convention had not come into effect. To the extent allowed by paragraph (d) of § 1.871-8, or paragraph (c) of § 1.882-1, the credits allowed by sections 33, 35, 38, and 40 shall then be allowed, without taking into account any item included in the treaty income, against the tax determined under this subparagraph.

(3) Tax on treaty income. For purposes of subparagraph (1) of this paragraph, compute a tax upon the gross amount, determined without the allowance of any deduction, of each separate item of treaty income at the reduced rate applicable to that item under the tax convention. No credits shall be allowed against the tax determined under this subparagraph.

(d) Illustration. The application of this section may be illustrated by the following example:

Example.
(a) A nonresident alien individual who is a resident of a foreign country with which the United States has entered into a tax convention receives during the taxable year 1967 from sources within the United States total gross income of $22,000, consisting of the following items:
Compensation for personal services the tax on which is not limited by the tax convention (effectively connected income under § 1.864-4(c)(6)(ii)) $20,000
Oil royalties the tax on which is limited by the tax convention to 15 percent of the gross amount thereof (effectively connected income by reason of election under § 1.871-10) 2,000
Total gross income 22,000
(b) The taxpayer is engaged in business in the United States during the taxable year but does not have a permanent establishment therein. There are no allowable deductions, other than the deductions allowed by sections 613 and 873(b)(3).

(c) The tax liability for the taxable year is $6,100, determined as follows:

Nontreaty gross income $20,000
Less: Deduction for personal exemption 600
Nontreaty taxable income 19,400
Tax under section 1 of the Code on nontreaty taxable income ($5,170 plus 45 percent of $1,400) 5,800
Plus: Tax on treaty income (Gross oil royalties) ($2,000 × 15 percent) 300
Total tax (determined as provided in paragraph (c) (2) and (3) of this section) 6,100
(d) If the tax had been determined under paragraph (b)(2) of § 1.871-8 as though the tax liability would have been $6,478, determined as follows and by taking into account the election under § 1.871-10:
Total gross income $22,000
Less: Deduction under section 613 for percentage depletion ($2000 × 27 1/2 percent) $550
Deduction for personal exemption 600 1,150
Taxable income 20,850
Tax under section 1 of the Code on taxable income ($6,070 plus 48 percent of $850) 6,478

(e) Effective date. This section shall apply for taxable years beginning after December 31, 1966. For corresponding rules applicable to taxable years beginning before January 1, 1967, see 26 CFR 1.871-7(e) (Revised as of January 1, 1971).

[T.D. 7332, 39 FR 44225, Dec. 23, 1974, as amended at T.D. 8657, 61 FR 9338, Mar. 8, 1996]