26 CFR 1.879-1 - Treatment of community income.

§ 1.879-1 Treatment of community income.

(a)Treatment of community income -

(1)In general. For taxable years beginning after December 31, 1976, community income of a citizen or resident of the United States who is married to a nonresident alien individual, and the deductions properly allocable to that income, shall be divided between the U.S. citizen or resident spouse in accordance with the rules in section 879 and paragraph (a)(2) through (a)(6) of this section. This section does not apply for any taxable year with respect to which an election under section 6013 (g) or (h) is in effect. Community income for this purpose includes all gross income, whether derived from sources within or without the United States, which is treated as community income of the spouses under the community property laws of the State, foreign country, or possession of the United States in which the recipient of the income is domiciled. Income from real property also may be community income if so treated under the laws of the jurisdiction in which the real property is located.

(2)Earned income. Wages, salaries, or professional fees, and other amounts received as compensation for personal services actually performed, which are community income for the taxable year, shall be treated as the income of the spouse who actually performed the personal services. This paragraph (a)(2) does not apply, however, to the following items of community income:

(i) Community income derived from any trade or business carried on by the husband or the wife.

(ii) Community income attributable to a spouse's distributive share of the income of a partnership to which paragraph (a)(4) of this section applies.

(iii) Community income consisting of compensation for personal services rendered to a corporation which represents a distribution of the earnings and profits of the corporation rather than a reasonable allowance as compensation for the personal services actually performed, but not including any income that would be treated as earned income under the second sentence of section 911(b).

(iv) Community income derived from property which is acquired as consideration for personal services performed.

These items of community income are divided in accordance with the rules in paragraph (a)(3) through (a)(6) of this section.

(3)Trade or business income. If any income derived from a trade or business carried on by the husband or wife is community income for the taxable year, all of the gross income, and the deductions attributable to that income, shall be treated as the gross income and deductions of the husband. However, if the wife exercises substantially all of the management and control of the trade or business, all of the gross income and deductions shall be treated as the gross income and deductions of the wife. This paragraph (a)(3) does not apply to any income derived from a trade or business carried on by a partnership of which both or one of the spouses is a member (see paragraph (a)(4) of this section). For purposes of this paragraph (a)(3), income derived from a trade or business includes any income derived from a trade or business in which both personal services and capital are material income producing factors. The term “management and control” means management and control in fact, not the management and control imputed to the husband under the community property laws of a State, foreign country or possession of the United States. For example, a wife who operates a pharmacy without any appreciable collaboration on the part of a husband is considered as having substantially all of the management and control of the business despite the provisions of any community property laws of a State, foreign country, or possession of the United States, vesting in the husband the right of management and control of community property. The income and deductions attributable to the operation of the pharmacy are considered the income and deductions of the wife.

(4)Partnership income. If any portion of a spouse's distributive share of the income of a partnership, of which the spouse is a member, is community income for the taxable year, all of that distributive share shall be treated as the income of that spouse and shall not be taken into account in determining the income of the other spouse. If both spouses are members of the same partnership, the distributive share of the income of each spouse which is community income shall be treated as the income of that spouse. A spouse's distributive share of the income of a partnership that is community income shall be determined as provided in section 704 and the regulations thereunder.

(5)Income from separate property. Any community income for the taxable year, other than income described in section 879(a) (1) or (2) and paragraph (a) (2), (3), or (4) of this section, which is derived from the separate property of one of the spouses shall be treated as the income of that spouse. The determination of what property is separate property for this purpose shall be made in accordance with the laws of the State, foreign country, or possession of the United States in which, in accordance with paragraph (a)(1) of this section, the recipient of the income is domiciled or, in the case of income from real property, in which the real property is located.

(6)Other community income. Any community income for the taxable year, other than income described in section 879(a) (1), (2), or (3), and paragraph (a) (2), (3), (4), or (5) of this section, shall be treated as income of that spouse who has a proprietary vested interest in that income under the laws of the state, foreign country, or possession of the United States in which, in accordance with paragraph (a)(1) of this section, the recipient of the income is domiciled or, in the case of income from real property, in which the real property is located. Thus, for example, this paragraph (a)(6) applies to community income not described in paragraph (a) (2), (3), (4), or (5) of this section which consists of dividends, interest, rents, royalties, or gains, from community property or of the earnings of unemancipated minor children.

(7)Illustrations. The application of this paragraph may be illustrated by the following examples:

Example 1.
H, a U.S. citizen, and W, a nonresident alien individual, each of whose taxable years is the calendar year, were married throughout 1977. H and W were residents of, and domiciled in, foreign country Z during the entire taxable year. No election under section 6013 (g) or (h) is in effect for 1977. During 1977, H earned $10,000 from the performance of personal services as an employee. H also received $500 in dividend income from stock which under the community property laws of country Z is considered to be the separate property of H. W had no separate income for 1977. Under the community property laws of country Z all income earned by either spouse is considered to be community income, and one-half of this income is considered to belong to the other spouse. In addition, the laws of country Z provide that all income derived from property held separately by either spouse is to be treated as community income and treated as belonging one-half to each spouse. Thus, under the community property laws of country Z, H and W are both considered to have realized income of $5,250 during 1977, even though Z's laws recognize the stock as the separate property of H. Under the rules of paragraph (a) (2) and (5) of this section all of the income of $10,500 derived during 1977 is treated, for U.S. income tax purposes, as the income of H.
Example 2.
(a) The facts are the same as in example 1, except that H is the sole proprietor of a retail merchandising company, which has a $10,000 profit during 1977. W exercises no management and control over the business. In addition, H is a partner in a wholesale distributing company, and his distributive share of the partnership profit is $5,000. Both of these amounts of income are treated as community income under the community property laws of country Z, and under these laws both H and W are treated as realizing $7,500 of the income. Under the rule of paragraph (a) (3) and (4) of this section all $15,000 of the income is treated as the income of H for U.S. income tax purposes.

(b) If W exercises substantially all of the management and control over the retail merchandising company, then for U.S. income tax purposes the $10,000 profit is treated as the income of W.

Example 3.
The facts are the same as in example 1, except that H also received $1,000 in dividends on stock held separately in his name. Under the community property laws of country Z the stock is considered to be community property, the dividends to be community income, and one-half of the income to be the income of each spouse. Under the rule of paragraph (a)(6) of this section, $500 of the dividend income is treated, for U.S. income tax purposes, as the income of each spouse.

(b)Definitions and other special rules -

(1)Spouses with different taxable years. A special rule applies if the nonresident alien and the United States citizen or resident spouse of the alien do not have the same taxable years, as defined in section 441(b) and the regulations thereunder. The special rule is as follows. With respect to the U.S. citizen or resident spouse, section 879 and this section shall apply to each taxable year of the U.S. citizen or resident spouse for which no election under section 6013 (g) or (h) is in effect. With respect to the nonresident alien spouse, section 879 and this section apply to each period falling within the consecutive taxable years of the nonresident alien spouse which coincides with a taxable year of the U.S. citizen or resident spouse to which section 879 and this section apply.

(2)Determination of marital status. For purposes of this section, marital status shall be determined under section 143(a).

[T.D. 7670, 45 FR 6928, Jan. 31, 1980]

This is a list of United States Code sections, Statutes at Large, Public Laws, and Presidential Documents, which provide rulemaking authority for this CFR Part.

This list is taken from the Parallel Table of Authorities and Rules provided by GPO [Government Printing Office].

It is not guaranteed to be accurate or up-to-date, though we do refresh the database weekly. More limitations on accuracy are described at the GPO site.


United States Code
U.S. Code: Title 26 - INTERNAL REVENUE CODE

§ 1 - Tax imposed

§ 21 - Expenses for household and dependent care services necessary for gainful employment

§ 23 - Adoption expenses

§ 25 - Interest on certain home mortgages

§ 25A - Hope and Lifetime Learning credits

§ 28 - Renumbered § 45C]

§ 30 - Repealed. Pub. L. 113–295, div. A, title II, § 221(a)(2)(A), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 4037]

§ 36B - Refundable credit for coverage under a qualified health plan

§ 38 - General business credit

§ 40 - Alcohol, etc., used as fuel

§ 41 - Credit for increasing research activities

§ 42 - Low-income housing credit

§ 43 - Enhanced oil recovery credit

§ 45D - New markets tax credit

§ 46 - Amount of credit

§ 47 - Rehabilitation credit

§ 52 - Special rules

§ 56 - Adjustments in computing alternative minimum taxable income

§ 58 - Denial of certain losses

§ 61 - Gross income defined

§ 62 - Adjusted gross income defined

§ 66 - Treatment of community income

§ 67 - 2-percent floor on miscellaneous itemized deductions

§ 72 - Annuities; certain proceeds of endowment and life insurance contracts

§ 101 - Certain death benefits

§ 103 - Interest on State and local bonds

§ 103A - Repealed. Pub. L. 99–514, title XIII, § 1301(j)(1), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2657]

§ 108 - Income from discharge of indebtedness

§ 110 - Qualified lessee construction allowances for short-term leases

§ 129 - Dependent care assistance programs

§ 132 - Certain fringe benefits

§ 148 - Arbitrage

§ 149 - Bonds must be registered to be tax exempt; other requirements

§ 150 - Definitions and special rules

§ 152 - Dependent defined

§ 162 - Trade or business expenses

§ 163 - Interest

§ 165 - Losses

§ 166 - Bad debts

§ 168 - Accelerated cost recovery system

§ 170 - Charitable, etc., contributions and gifts

§ 171 - Amortizable bond premium

§ 179 - Election to expense certain depreciable business assets

§ 179A - Repealed. Pub. L. 113–295, div. A, title II, § 221(a)(34)(A), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 4042]

§ 197 - Amortization of goodwill and certain other intangibles

§ 199 - Income attributable to domestic production activities

§ 216 - Deduction of taxes, interest, and business depreciation by cooperative housing corporation tenant-stockholder

§ 221 - Interest on education loans

§ 263A - Capitalization and inclusion in inventory costs of certain expenses

§ 267 - Losses, expenses, and interest with respect to transactions between related taxpayers

§ 274 - Disallowance of certain entertainment, etc., expenses

§ 280C - Certain expenses for which credits are allowable

§ 280F - Limitation on depreciation for luxury automobiles; limitation where certain property used for personal purposes

§ 280G - Golden parachute payments

§ 301 - Distributions of property

§ 304 - Redemption through use of related corporations

§ 305 - Distributions of stock and stock rights

§ 324

§ 336 - Gain or loss recognized on property distributed in complete liquidation

§ 337 - Nonrecognition for property distributed to parent in complete liquidation of subsidiary

§ 338 - Certain stock purchases treated as asset acquisitions

§ 351 - Transfer to corporation controlled by transferor

§ 355 - Distribution of stock and securities of a controlled corporation

§ 357 - Assumption of liability

§ 358 - Basis to distributees

§ 362 - Basis to corporations

§ 367 - Foreign corporations

§ 382 - Limitation on net operating loss carryforwards and certain built-in losses following ownership change

§ 383 - Special limitations on certain excess credits, etc.

§ 401 - Qualified pension, profit-sharing, and stock bonus plans

§ 401 note - Qualified pension, profit-sharing, and stock bonus plans

§ 402A - Optional treatment of elective deferrals as Roth contributions

§ 403 - Taxation of employee annuities

§ 404 - Deduction for contributions of an employer to an employees’ trust or annuity plan and compensation under a deferred-payment plan

§ 408 - Individual retirement accounts

§ 408A - Roth IRAs

§ 409 - Qualifications for tax credit employee stock ownership plans

§ 410 - Minimum participation standards

§ 411 - Minimum vesting standards

§ 414 - Definitions and special rules

§ 417 - Definitions and special rules for purposes of minimum survivor annuity requirements

§ 419A - Qualified asset account; limitation on additions to account

§ 420 - Transfers of excess pension assets to retiree health accounts

§ 441 - Period for computation of taxable income

§ 442 - Change of annual accounting period

§ 444 - Election of taxable year other than required taxable year

§ 446 - General rule for methods of accounting

§ 453 - Installment method

§ 453A - Special rules for nondealers

§ 458 - Magazines, paperbacks, and records returned after the close of the taxable year

§ 460 - Special rules for long-term contracts

§ 461 - General rule for taxable year of deduction

§ 465 - Deductions limited to amount at risk

§ 466 - Repealed. Pub. L. 99–514, title VIII, § 823(a), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2373]

§ 467 - Certain payments for the use of property or services

§ 468A - Special rules for nuclear decommissioning costs

§ 468B - Special rules for designated settlement funds

§ 469 - Passive activity losses and credits limited

§ 471 - General rule for inventories

§ 472 - Last-in, first-out inventories

§ 475 - Mark to market accounting method for dealers in securities

§ 481 - Adjustments required by changes in method of accounting

§ 482 - Allocation of income and deductions among taxpayers

§ 483 - Interest on certain deferred payments

§ 493

§ 504 - Status after organization ceases to qualify for exemption under section 501(c)(3) because of substantial lobbying or because of political activities

§ 514 - Unrelated debt-financed income

§ 527 - Political organizations

§ 585 - Reserves for losses on loans of banks

§ 597 - Treatment of transactions in which Federal financial assistance provided

§ 642 - Special rules for credits and deductions

§ 643 - Definitions applicable to subparts A, B, C, and D

§ 645 - Certain revocable trusts treated as part of estate

§ 663 - Special rules applicable to sections 661 and 662

§ 664 - Charitable remainder trusts

§ 672 - Definitions and rules

§ 679 - Foreign trusts having one or more United States beneficiaries

§ 701 - Partners, not partnership, subject to tax

§ 702 - Income and credits of partner

§ 703 - Partnership computations

§ 704 - Partner’s distributive share

§ 705 - Determination of basis of partner’s interest

§ 706 - Taxable years of partner and partnership

§ 707 - Transactions between partner and partnership

§ 708 - Continuation of partnership

§ 709 - Treatment of organization and syndication fees

§ 721 - Nonrecognition of gain or loss on contribution

§ 722 - Basis of contributing partner’s interest

§ 723 - Basis of property contributed to partnership

§ 724 - Character of gain or loss on contributed unrealized receivables, inventory items, and capital loss property

§ 731 - Extent of recognition of gain or loss on distribution

§ 732 - Basis of distributed property other than money

§ 733 - Basis of distributee partner’s interest

§ 734 - Adjustment to basis of undistributed partnership property where section 754 election or substantial basis reduction

§ 735 - Character of gain or loss on disposition of distributed property

§ 736 - Payments to a retiring partner or a deceased partner’s successor in interest

§ 737 - Recognition of precontribution gain in case of certain distributions to contributing partner

§ 741 - Recognition and character of gain or loss on sale or exchange

§ 742 - Basis of transferee partner’s interest

§ 743 - Special rules where section 754 election or substantial built-in loss

§ 751 - Unrealized receivables and inventory items

§ 752 - Treatment of certain liabilities

§ 753 - Partner receiving income in respect of decedent

§ 754 - Manner of electing optional adjustment to basis of partnership property

§ 755 - Rules for allocation of basis

§ 761 - Terms defined

§ 809 - Repealed. Pub. L. 108–218, title II, § 205(a), Apr. 10, 2004, 118 Stat. 610]

§ 817A - Special rules for modified guaranteed contracts

§ 832 - Insurance company taxable income

§ 845 - Certain reinsurance agreements

§ 846 - Discounted unpaid losses defined

§ 848 - Capitalization of certain policy acquisition expenses

§ 852 - Taxation of regulated investment companies and their shareholders

§ 860E - Treatment of income in excess of daily accruals on residual interests

§ 860G - Other definitions and special rules

§ 863 - Special rules for determining source

§ 864 - Definitions and special rules

§ 865 - Source rules for personal property sales

§ 874 - Allowance of deductions and credits

§ 882 - Tax on income of foreign corporations connected with United States business

§ 883 - Exclusions from gross income

§ 884 - Branch profits tax

§ 892 - Income of foreign governments and of international organizations

§ 894 - Income affected by treaty

§ 897 - Disposition of investment in United States real property

§ 901 - Taxes of foreign countries and of possessions of United States

§ 902 - Deemed paid credit where domestic corporation owns 10 percent or more of voting stock of foreign corporation

§ 904 - Limitation on credit

§ 907 - Special rules in case of foreign oil and gas income

§ 911 - Citizens or residents of the United States living abroad

§ 924

§ 925

§ 927

§ 934 - Limitation on reduction in income tax liability incurred to the Virgin Islands

§ 936 - Puerto Rico and possession tax credit

§ 937 - Residence and source rules involving possessions

§ 954 - Foreign base company income

§ 956 - Investment of earnings in United States property

§ 957 - Controlled foreign corporations; United States persons

§ 960 - Special rules for foreign tax credit

§ 963 - Repealed. Pub. L. 94–12, title VI, § 602(a)(1), Mar. 29, 1975, 89 Stat. 58]

§ 985 - Functional currency

§ 987 - Branch transactions

§ 988 - Treatment of certain foreign currency transactions

§ 989 - Other definitions and special rules

§ 1017 - Discharge of indebtedness

§ 1032 - Exchange of stock for property

§ 1059 - Corporate shareholder’s basis in stock reduced by nontaxed portion of extraordinary dividends

§ 1060 - Special allocation rules for certain asset acquisitions

§ 1092 - Straddles

§ 1202 - Partial exclusion for gain from certain small business stock

§ 1221 - Capital asset defined

§ 1244 - Losses on small business stock

§ 1248 - Gain from certain sales or exchanges of stock in certain foreign corporations

§ 1254 - Gain from disposition of interest in oil, gas, geothermal, or other mineral properties

§ 1275 - Other definitions and special rules

§ 1286 - Tax treatment of stripped bonds

§ 1291 - Interest on tax deferral

§ 1293 - Current taxation of income from qualified electing funds

§ 1294 - Election to extend time for payment of tax on undistributed earnings

§ 1295 - Qualified electing fund

§ 1296 - Election of mark to market for marketable stock

§ 1297 - Passive foreign investment company

§ 1298 - Special rules

§ 1301 - Averaging of farm income

§ 1361 - S corporation defined

§ 1368 - Distributions

§ 1374 - Tax imposed on certain built-in gains

§ 1377 - Definitions and special rule

§ 1378 - Taxable year of S corporation

§ 1397D - Qualified zone property defined

§ 1397E - Credit to holders of qualified zone academy bonds

§ 1402 - Definitions

§ 1441 - Withholding of tax on nonresident aliens

§ 1443 - Foreign tax-exempt organizations

§ 1445 - Withholding of tax on dispositions of United States real property interests

§ 1471 - Withholdable payments to foreign financial institutions

§ 1472 - Withholdable payments to other foreign entities

§ 1473 - Definitions

§ 1474 - Special rules

§ 1502 - Regulations

§ 1503 - Computation and payment of tax

§ 1504 - Definitions

§ 1561 - Limitations on certain multiple tax benefits in the case of certain controlled corporations

§ 3401 - Definitions

§ 5000 - Certain group health plans

§ 5000A - Requirement to maintain minimum essential coverage

§ 6001 - Notice or regulations requiring records, statements, and special returns

§ 6011 - General requirement of return, statement, or list

§ 6015 - Relief from joint and several liability on joint return

§ 6033 - Returns by exempt organizations

§ 6035 - Basis information to persons acquiring property from decedent

§ 6038 - Information reporting with respect to certain foreign corporations and partnerships

§ 6038A - Information with respect to certain foreign-owned corporations

§ 6038B - Notice of certain transfers to foreign persons

§ 6038D - Information with respect to foreign financial assets

§ 6039I - Returns and records with respect to employer-owned life insurance contracts

§ 6041 - Information at source

§ 6043 - Liquidating, etc., transactions

§ 6045 - Returns of brokers

§ 6046A - Returns as to interests in foreign partnerships

§ 6049 - Returns regarding payments of interest

§ 6050E - State and local income tax refunds

§ 6050H - Returns relating to mortgage interest received in trade or business from individuals

§ 6050I-1

§ 6050K - Returns relating to exchanges of certain partnership interests

§ 6050M - Returns relating to persons receiving contracts from Federal executive agencies

§ 6050P - Returns relating to the cancellation of indebtedness by certain entities

§ 6050S - Returns relating to higher education tuition and related expenses

§ 6060 - Information returns of tax return preparers

§ 6061 - Signing of returns and other documents

§ 6065 - Verification of returns

§ 6081 - Extension of time for filing returns

§ 6103 - Confidentiality and disclosure of returns and return information

§ 6109 - Identifying numbers

§ 6302 - Mode or time of collection

§ 6402 - Authority to make credits or refunds

§ 6411 - Tentative carryback and refund adjustments

§ 6655 - Failure by corporation to pay estimated income tax

§ 6662 - Imposition of accuracy-related penalty on underpayments

§ 6695 - Other assessable penalties with respect to the preparation of tax returns for other persons

§ 6851 - Termination assessments of income tax

§ 7520 - Valuation tables

§ 7654 - Coordination of United States and certain possession individual income taxes

§ 7701 - Definitions

§ 7702 - Life insurance contract defined

§ 7805 - Rules and regulations

§ 7872 - Treatment of loans with below-market interest rates

§ 7874 - Rules relating to expatriated entities and their foreign parents

U.S. Code: Title 29 - LABOR
Statutes at Large
Public Laws
Presidential Documents

Reorganization ... 1978 Plan No. 4

Title 26 published on 16-Jun-2017 03:58

The following are ALL rules, proposed rules, and notices (chronologically) published in the Federal Register relating to 26 CFR Part 1 after this date.

  • 2017-06-30; vol. 82 # 125 - Friday, June 30, 2017
    1. 82 FR 29719 - Regulations Regarding Withholding of Tax on Certain U.S. Source Income Paid to Foreign Persons, Information Reporting and Backup Withholding on Payments Made to Certain U.S. Persons, and Portfolio Interest Treatment; Correction
      GPO FDSys XML | Text
      DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY, Internal Revenue Service
      Correcting amendment.
        Effective Date: These corrections are effective June 30, 2017. Applicability Date: The corrections to §§ 1.1441-0; 1.1441-1(b)(7)(ii)(B), (e)(3)(iv)(B) and (C), (e)(4)(ii)(B)( 11 ), (e)(4)(ix)(D), (e)(5)(ii) through (e)(5)(ii)(B), (e)(5)(ii)(D) through (e)(5)(v)(B)( 3 ), (e)(5)(v)(B)( 5 ) through (e)(5)(v)(D), and (f) through (f)(4); 1.1441-1T; 1.1441-3(d)(1); 1.1441-4; 1.6045-1(m)(2)(ii) and (n)(12)(ii); and 1.6049-5(c)(1) through (c)(4) are applicable on January 6, 2017.
      26 CFR Part 1

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