26 CFR § 301.6362-5 - Qualified nonresident tax.

§ 301.6362-5 Qualified nonresident tax.

(a) In general. A tax meets the requirements of section 6362(d) and this section only if:

(1) The tax is imposed by a State which simultaneously imposes a resident tax meeting the requirements of section 6362(b) and § 301.6362-2 or of section 6362(c) and § 301.6362-3;

(2) The tax is required to be computed in accordance with either the method prescribed in paragraph (b) of this section or another method of which the Secretary or his delegate approves upon submission by the State of the laws pertaining to the tax;

(3) The tax is imposed only on the wage and other business income derived from sources within such State (as defined in paragraph (d) of this section), of all individuals each of whom derives 25 percent or more of his aggregate wage and other business income for the taxable year from sources within such State while he is neither (i) a resident of such State within the meaning of section 6362(e) and § 301.6362-6, nor (ii) exempt from liability for the tax by reason of a reciprocal agreement between such State and the State of which he is a resident within the meaning of those provisions;

(4) The amount of the tax imposed with respect to any individual does not exceed the amount of tax for which such individual would be liable under the qualified resident tax imposed by such State if he were a resident of the State for the period during which he earned wage or other business income from sources within the State, and if his taxable income for such period were an amount equal to the sum of the zero bracket amount (within the meaning of section 63(d) and determined as if he had been a resident of the State for such period) and the excess of:

(i) The amount of his wage and other business income derived from sources within the State, over

(ii) That portion of the sum of the zero bracket amount and the nonbusiness deductions (i.e., all deductions from adjusted gross income allowable in computing taxable income) taken into account for purposes of the State's qualified resident tax which bears the same ratio to such sum as the amount described in subdivision (i) of this subparagraph bears to his total adjusted gross income for the year; and

(5) For purposes of the tax, wage or other business income is considered as being the income of the individual whose income it is for purposes of section 61.

(b) Approved method of computing liability for qualified nonresident tax. A tax satisfies the requirement of paragraph (a)(2) of this section if the amount of the tax is computed either as a percentage of the excess of the amount described in paragraph (a)(4)(i) of this section over the amount described in paragraph (a)(4)(ii) of this section, or by application of progressive rates to such excess.

(c) Definition of wage and other business income. For purposes of section 6362(d) and this section, the term “wage and other business income” means the following types of income:

(1) Wages, as defined in section 3401(a) and the regulations thereunder, but for these purposes:

(i) The amount of wages shall exclude amounts which are treated as wages under section 3402 (o) or (p) (relating to supplemental unemployment compensation benefits, annuity payments, and voluntary withholding agreements), and amounts which are treated as disability payments to the extent that they are excluded from gross income for Federal income tax purposes, pursuant to section 105(d), and

(ii) The amount of wages shall be reduced by those expenses which are directly related to the earning of such wages and with respect to which deductions are properly claimed from gross income in computing adjusted gross income;

(2) Net earnings from self-employment, as defined in section 1402(a); and

(3) The distributive share of income of any trade or business carried on by a trust, estate, or electing small business corporation (as defined in section 1371(a) and the regulations thereunder), to the extent that such share:

(i) Is includible in the gross income of the taxpayer for the taxable year, and

(ii) Would constitute net earnings from self-employment if the trade or business were carried on by a partnership.

For purposes of this subparagraph, “distributive share” includes the income of a trust or estate which is taxable to the taxpayer as a beneficiary under applicable Federal income tax rules, and the undistributed taxable income of an electing small business corporation which is taxable to the taxpayer as a shareholder under section 1373.

(d) Income derived from sources within a State -

(1) Income attributable primarily to services. Except as otherwise provided by Federal statute (see paragraphs (h), (i), and (j) of § 301.6362-7), wage income and other business income (net earnings from self-employment or distributive shares) which is attributable more to services performed by the taxpayer than to a capital investment of the taxpayer shall be considered to have been derived from sources within a State only if the services of the taxpayer which give rise to the income are performed in such State. If for a taxable year only a portion of the taxpayer's services giving rise to the income from one employment, trade, or business is performed within a State, then it shall be presumed that the amount of income from such employment, trade, or business which is derived from sources within that State equals that portion of the total income derived from such employment, trade, or business for the year which the amount of time spent by the taxpayer for such year performing services with respect to that employment, trade, or business in that State bears to the aggregate amount of time spent by the taxpayer for such year performing all of such services. However, the presumption stated in the preceding sentence may be rebutted in the event that the taxpayer proves, by use of detailed records, that the correct allocation of his income is otherwise.

(2) Income attributable primarily to investment. Except as otherwise provided by Federal statute (see paragraph (j) of § 301.6362-7), business income (net earnings from self-employment or distributive shares) which is attributable more to a capital investment of the taxpayer than to services performed by the taxpayer shall be considered to have been derived from sources within the State, if any, in which the significant activities of the trade or business are conducted. If for the taxable year only a portion of the significant activities conducted with respect to one trade or business is conducted within a certain State, then the portion of the taxpayer's total income for the year from such trade or business which is considered to be derived from sources within that State shall be computed as follows:

(i) Allocation by records. The portion of the taxpayer's total income from the trade or business which is considered to be derived from sources within the State shall be the portion which is allocable to such sources according to the records of the taxpayer or of the partnership, trust, estate, or electing small business corporation from which his income is derived, provided that the taxpayer establishes to the satisfaction of the district director, when requested to do so, that those records fairly and equitably reflect the income which is allocable to sources within the State. An allocation made pursuant to this subdivision shall be based on the location of the significant activities of the trade or business, and not on the location at which the taxpayer's personal services are performed.

(ii) Allocation by formula. If the taxpayer (or the trade or business) does not keep records meeting the requirements of subdivision (i) of this subparagraph, or if the taxpayer fails to meet the burden of proof set forth therein, then the amount of the taxpayer's income from the trade or business which is considered to be derived from sources within the State shall be determined by multiplying the total of his income (as defined in paragraphs (c) (2) and (3) of this section) from the trade or business for the taxable year by the percentage which is the average of these three percentages:

(A) Property percentage. The percentage computed by dividing the average of the value, at the beginning and end of the taxable year, of real and tangible personal property connected with the taxpayer's trade or business and located within the State, by the average of the value, at the beginning and end of the taxable year, of all such property located both within and without the State. For this purpose, real property shall include real property rented to the taxpayer in connection with the trade or business, or rented to the trade or business.

(B) Payroll percentage. The percentage computed by dividing the total wages, salaries, and other compensation for personal services which is paid or incurred during the taxable year to employees in connection with the taxpayer's trade or business, and which would be treated as derived by such employees from sources within the State pursuant to subparagraph (1) of this paragraph (d), by the total of all such wages, salaries, and other compensation for personal services which is so paid or incurred without regard to whether such payments would be treated as derived by the employees from sources within the State. For purposes of this subdivision (ii), no amount paid as deferred compensation pursuant to a retirement plan to a former employee shall be taken into consideration.

(C) Gross income percentage. The percentage computed by dividing the gross sales or charges for services performed by or through an agency located within the State by the total of all gross sales or charges for services performed both within and without the State. The sales or charges to be allocated to the State shall include all sales which are negotiated, and charges which are for services performed, by an employee, agent, agency, or independent contractor chiefly situated at, or working principally out of an office located within, the State.

(3) Income attributable to real estate investment. Notwithstanding subparagraph (2) of this paragraph (d), income and deductions from the rental of real property, and gain and loss from the sale, exchange, or other disposition of real property, shall not be subject to allocation under subparagraph (2), but shall be considered as entirely derived from sources located within the State in which such property is located.

(4) Treatment of losses. A loss attributable to the taxpayer's employment, or to his conduct of, participation in, or investment in a trade or business, shall be allocated in the same manner as the income attributable to such employment or trade or business would be allocated pursuant to this paragraph.

(5) Examples. The application of this paragraph may be illustrated by the following examples:

Example 1.
A, an employee who earns $10,000 in wage income attributable to services, and who has no other wage or other business income, spends 60 percent of his working time performing services for his employer in State X, 30 percent in State Y, and 10 percent in State Z. In the absence of the requisite proof to the contrary, A's wage income is considered to have been derived 60 percent from sources located within State X, 30 percent within State Y, and 10 percent within State Z. Assuming that A is a nonresident with respect to all three States, and that they all impose qualified nonresident taxes, then the qualified nonresident tax of State X is imposed on $6,000, the qualified nonresident tax of State Y is imposed on $3,000, and the qualified nonresident tax of State Z is not imposed on any of the income because A did not derive at least 25 percent of his wage and other business income from sources located within State Z.
Example 2.
B, who earns no wage income but who has a total of $10,000 of other business income for the taxable year, all of which is net income from self-employment attributable primarily to services, spends 45 percent of his working time performing services in State X, 30 percent in State Y, and 25 percent in State Z. However, the rates that B is able to charge for his services and the business expenses which he incurs vary in the different States, and he is able to prove by detailed records that his net income from self-employment was in fact derived 50 percent from sources located within State X, 35 percent from sources located within State Y, and 15 percent from sources located within State Z. Assuming that B is a nonresident with respect to all three States, and that they all impose qualified nonresident taxes, then the qualified nonresident tax of State X is imposed on $5,000, the qualified nonresident tax of State Y is imposed on $3,500, and the qualified nonresident tax of State Z is not imposed on any of the income because B did not derive at least 25 percent of his wage and other business income from sources located within State Z.
Example 3.
C is a partner in a profitable business concern, in which he has a substantial capital investment. His net earnings from self-employment attributable to his partnership interest are $75,000 for the taxable year. The fair market value of the services which C performs for the partnership during the taxable year is $30,000. C's income is therefore attributable primarily to his capital investment. The partnership business is carried on partially within and partially without State X. Neither C nor the partnership maintains records from which the portion of C's $75,000 income which is considered to be derived from sources within State X can be satisfactorily proven. As determined under subparagraph (2) of this paragraph, the partnership's “property percentage” in State X is 70, its “payroll percentage” therein is 60, and its “gross income percentage” therein is 56. The amount of C's partnership income considered to be derived from sources within State X is $46,500 ($75,000 × 62 percent). This result would obtain even if C's services for the partnership are performed entirely within State X.
Example 4.
Assume the same facts as in (3), except that the records of the partnership of which C is a member indicate that the net profits of the partnership are derived 40 percent from business activities conducted in State X, and 60 percent from business activities conducted in State Y. C is requested to prove that those records fairly and equitably reflect the income which is allocable to sources within State X. The documentary evidence which he adduces in support of the allocation made by the records shows how such allocation results from a careful step-by-step tracing of the profitability of each phase and aspect of the partnership's operations, and shows the State in which each such phase and aspect of the operations is conducted. C's proof is satisfactory to show that the percentage allocation, and the amount of his partnership income considered to be derived from sources within State X is $30,000, or $75,000 multiplied by 40 percent. This result would obtain even if B's services for the partnership are performed entirely within State X.
[T.D. 7577, 43 FR 59367, Dec. 20, 1978]