29 CFR 18.55 - Using depositions at hearings.
(a)Using depositions -
(1)In general. If there is no objection, all or part of a deposition may be used at a hearing to the extent it would be admissible under the applicable rules of evidence as if the deponent were present and testifying.
(2)Over objection. Notwithstanding any objection, all or part of a deposition may be used at a hearing against a party on these conditions:
(i) The party was present or represented at the taking of the deposition or had reasonable notice of it;
(ii) It is used to the extent it would be admissible under the applicable rules of evidence if the deponent were present and testifying; and
(iii) The use is allowed by paragraphs (a)(3) through (9) of this section.
(3)Impeachment and other uses. Any party may use a deposition to contradict or impeach the testimony given by the deponent as a witness, or for any other purpose allowed by the applicable rules of evidence.
(4)Deposition of party, agent, or designee. An adverse party may use for any purpose the deposition of a party or anyone who, when deposed, was the party's officer, director, managing agent, or designee under § 18.64(b)(6) or § 18.65(a)(4).
(5)Deposition of expert, treating physician, or examining physician. A party may use for any purpose the deposition of an expert witness, treating physician or examining physician.
(6)Unavailable witness. A party may use for any purpose the deposition of a witness, whether or not a party, if the judge finds:
(i) That the witness is dead;
(ii) That the witness is more than 100 miles from the place of hearing or is outside the United States, unless it appears that the witness's absence was procured by the party offering the deposition;
(iii) That the witness cannot attend or testify because of age, illness, infirmity, or imprisonment;
(iv) That the party offering the deposition could not procure the witness's attendance by subpoena; or
(v) on motion and notice, that exceptional circumstances make it desirable - in the interests of justice and with due regard to the importance of live testimony in an open hearing - to permit the deposition to be used.
(7)Limitations on use -
(i)Deposition taken on short notice. A deposition must not be used against a party who, having received less than 14 days' notice of the deposition, promptly moved for a protective order under § 18.52(a)(2) requesting that it not be taken or be taken at a different time or place - and this motion was still pending when the deposition was taken.
(ii)Unavailable deponent; party could not obtain a representative. A deposition taken without leave of the judge under the unavailability provision of § 18.64(a)(2)(i)(C) must not be used against a party who shows that, when served with the notice, it could not, despite diligent efforts, obtain a representative to represent it at the deposition.
(8)Using part of a deposition. If a party offers in evidence only part of a deposition, an adverse party may require the offeror to introduce other parts that in fairness should be considered with the part introduced, and any party may itself introduce any other parts.
(9)Deposition taken in an earlier action. A deposition lawfully taken may be used in a later action involving the same subject matter between the same parties, or their representatives or successors in interest, to the same extent as if taken in the later action. A deposition previously taken may also be used as allowed by the applicable rules of evidence.
(b)Objections to admissibility. Subject to paragraph (d)(3) of this section, an objection may be made at a hearing to the admission of any deposition testimony that would be inadmissible if the witness were present and testifying.
(c)Form of presentation. Unless the judge orders otherwise, a party must provide a transcript of any deposition testimony the party offers, but the judge may receive the testimony in nontranscript form as well.
(d)Waiver of objections -
(1)To the notice. An objection to an error or irregularity in a deposition notice is waived unless promptly served in writing on the party giving the notice.
(2)To the officer's qualification. An objection based on disqualification of the officer before whom a deposition is to be taken is waived if not made:
(i) Before the deposition begins; or
(ii) Promptly after the basis for disqualification becomes known or, with reasonable diligence, could have been known.
(3)To the taking of the deposition -
(i)Objection to competence, relevance, or materiality. An objection to a deponent's competence - or to the competence, relevance, or materiality of testimony - is not waived by a failure to make the objection before or during the deposition, unless the ground for it might have been corrected at that time.
(ii)Objection to an error or irregularity. An objection to an error or irregularity at an oral examination is waived if:
(A) It relates to the manner of taking the deposition, the form of a question or answer, the oath or affirmation, a party's conduct, or other matters that might have been corrected at that time; and
(B) It is not timely made during the deposition.
(iii)Objection to a written question. An objection to the form of a written question under § 18.65 is waived if not served in writing on the party submitting the question within the time for serving responsive questions or, if the question is a recross-question, within 7 days after being served with it.
(4)To completing and returning the deposition. An objection to how the officer transcribed the testimony - or prepared, signed, certified, sealed, endorsed, sent, or otherwise dealt with the deposition - is waived unless a motion to suppress is made promptly after the error or irregularity becomes known or, with reasonable diligence, could have been known.