29 CFR 1910.213 - Woodworking machinery requirements.
(a)Machine construction general.
(1) Each machine shall be so constructed as to be free from sensible vibration when the largest size tool is mounted and run idle at full speed.
(2) Arbors and mandrels shall be constructed so as to have firm and secure bearing and be free from play.
(4) Any automatic cutoff saw that strokes continuously without the operator being able to control each stroke shall not be used.
(5) Saw frames or tables shall be constructed with lugs cast on the frame or with an equivalent means to limit the size of the saw blade that can be mounted, so as to avoid overspeed caused by mounting a saw larger than intended.
(6) Circular saw fences shall be so constructed that they can be firmly secured to the table or table assembly without changing their alignment with the saw. For saws with tilting tables or tilting arbors the fence shall be so constructed that it will remain in a line parallel with the saw, regardless of the angle of the saw with the table.
(7) Circular saw gages shall be so constructed as to slide in grooves or tracks that are accurately machined, to insure exact alignment with the saw for all positions of the guide.
(8) Hinged saw tables shall be so constructed that the table can be firmly secured in any position and in true alignment with the saw.
(10) It is recommended that each power-driven woodworking machine be provided with a disconnect switch that can be locked in the off position.
(11) The frames and all exposed, noncurrent-carrying metal parts of portable electric woodworking machinery operated at more than 90 volts to ground shall be grounded and other portable motors driving electric tools which are held in the hand while being operated shall be grounded if they operate at more than 90 volts to ground. The ground shall be provided through use of a separate ground wire and polarized plug and receptacle.
(12) For all circular saws where conditions are such that there is a possibility of contact with the portion of the saw either beneath or behind the table, that portion of the saw shall be covered with an exhaust hood, or, if no exhaust system is required, with a guard that shall be so arranged as to prevent accidental contact with the saw.
(13) Revolving double arbor saws shall be fully guarded in accordance with all the requirements for circular crosscut saws or with all the requirements for circular ripsaws, according to the kind of saws mounted on the arbors.
(14) No saw, cutter head, or tool collar shall be placed or mounted on a machine arbor unless the tool has been accurately machined to size and shape to fit the arbor.
(b)Machine controls and equipment.
(1) A mechanical or electrical power control shall be provided on each machine to make it possible for the operator to cut off the power from each machine without leaving his position at the point of operation.
(3) On applications where injury to the operator might result if motors were to restart after power failures, provision shall be made to prevent machines from automatically restarting upon restoration of power.
(4) Power controls and operating controls should be located within easy reach of the operator while he is at his regular work location, making it unnecessary for him to reach over the cutter to make adjustments. This does not apply to constant pressure controls used only for setup purposes.
(5) On each machine operated by electric motors, positive means shall be provided for rendering such controls or devices inoperative while repairs or adjustments are being made to the machines they control.
(6) Each operating treadle shall be protected against unexpected or accidental tripping.
(7) Feeder attachments shall have the feed rolls or other moving parts so covered or guarded as to protect the operator from hazardous points.
(1) Each circular hand-fed ripsaw shall be guarded by a hood which shall completely enclose that portion of the saw above the table and that portion of the saw above the material being cut. The hood and mounting shall be arranged so that the hood will automatically adjust itself to the thickness of and remain in contact with the material being cut but it shall not offer any considerable resistance to insertion of material to saw or to passage of the material being sawed. The hood shall be made of adequate strength to resist blows and strains incidental to reasonable operation, adjusting, and handling, and shall be so designed as to protect the operator from flying splinters and broken saw teeth. It shall be made of material that is soft enough so that it will be unlikely to cause tooth breakage. The hood shall be so mounted as to insure that its operation will be positive, reliable, and in true alignment with the saw; and the mounting shall be adequate in strength to resist any reasonable side thrust or other force tending to throw it out of line.
(2) Each hand-fed circular ripsaw shall be furnished with a spreader to prevent material from squeezing the saw or being thrown back on the operator. The spreader shall be made of hard tempered steel, or its equivalent, and shall be thinner than the saw kerf. It shall be of sufficient width to provide adequate stiffness or rigidity to resist any reasonable side thrust or blow tending to bend or throw it out of position. The spreader shall be attached so that it will remain in true alignment with the saw even when either the saw or table is tilted. The provision of a spreader in connection with grooving, dadoing, or rabbeting is not required. On the completion of such operations, the spreader shall be immediately replaced.
(3) Each hand-fed circular ripsaw shall be provided with nonkickback fingers or dogs so located as to oppose the thrust or tendency of the saw to pick up the material or to throw it back toward the operator. They shall be designed to provide adequate holding power for all the thicknesses of materials being cut.
(d)Hand-fed crosscut table saws.
(2) Each circular resaw (other than self-feed saws with a roller or wheel at back of the saw) shall be provided with a spreader fastened securely behind the saw. The spreader shall be slightly thinner than the saw kerf and slightly thicker than the saw disk.
(f)Self-feed circular saws.
(1) Feed rolls and saws shall be protected by a hood or guard to prevent the hands of the operator from coming in contact with the in-running rolls at any point. The guard shall be constructed of heavy material, preferably metal, and the bottom of the guard shall come down to within three-eighths inch of the plane formed by the bottom or working surfaces of the feed rolls. This distance (three-eighths inch) may be increased to three-fourths inch, provided the lead edge of the hood is extended to be not less than 5 1/2 inches in front of the nip point between the front roll and the work.
(2) Each self-feed circular ripsaw shall be provided with sectional non-kickback fingers for the full width of the feed rolls. They shall be located in front of the saw and so arranged as to be in continual contact with the wood being fed.
(g)Swing cutoff saws. The requirements of this paragraph are also applicable to sliding cutoff saws mounted above the table.
(1) Each swing cutoff saw shall be provided with a hood that will completely enclose the upper half of the saw, the arbor end, and the point of operation at all positions of the saw. The hood shall be constructed in such a manner and of such material that it will protect the operator from flying splinters and broken saw teeth. Its hood shall be so designed that it will automatically cover the lower portion of the blade, so that when the saw is returned to the back of the table the hood will rise on top of the fence, and when the saw is moved forward the hood will drop on top of and remain in contact with the table or material being cut.
(2) Each swing cutoff saw shall be provided with an effective device to return the saw automatically to the back of the table when released at any point of its travel. Such a device shall not depend for its proper functioning upon any rope, cord, or spring. If there is a counterweight, the bolts supporting the bar and counterweight shall be provided with cotter pins; and the counterweight shall be prevented from dropping by either a bolt passing through both the bar and counterweight, or a bolt put through the extreme end of the bar, or, where the counterweight does not encircle the bar, a safety chain attached to it.
(3) Limit chains or other equally effective devices shall be provided to prevent the saw from swinging beyond the front or back edges of the table, or beyond a forward position where the gullets of the lowest saw teeth will rise above the table top.
(4) Inverted swing cutoff saws shall be provided with a hood that will cover the part of the saw that protrudes above the top of the table or above the material being cut. It shall automatically adjust itself to the thickness of and remain in contact with the material being cut.
(1) The upper hood shall completely enclose the upper portion of the blade down to a point that will include the end of the saw arbor. The upper hood shall be constructed in such a manner and of such material that it will protect the operator from flying splinters, broken saw teeth, etc., and will deflect sawdust away from the operator. The sides of the lower exposed portion of the blade shall be guarded to the full diameter of the blade by a device that will automatically adjust itself to the thickness of the stock and remain in contact with stock being cut to give maximum protection possible for the operation being performed.
(2) Each radial saw used for ripping shall be provided with nonkickback fingers or dogs located on both sides of the saw so as to oppose the thrust or tendency of the saw to pick up the material or to throw it back toward the operator. They shall be designed to provide adequate holding power for all the thicknesses of material being cut.
(3) An adjustable stop shall be provided to prevent the forward travel of the blade beyond the position necessary to complete the cut in repetitive operations.
(4) Installation shall be in such a manner that the front end of the unit will be slightly higher than the rear, so as to cause the cutting head to return gently to the starting position when released by the operator.
(5) Ripping and ploughing shall be against the direction in which the saw turns. The direction of the saw rotation shall be conspicuously marked on the hood. In addition, a permanent label not less than 1 1/2 inches by 3/4 inch shall be affixed to the rear of the guard at approximately the level of the arbor, reading as follows: “Danger: Do Not Rip or Plough From This End”.
(i)Bandsaws and band resaws.
(1) All portions of the saw blade shall be enclosed or guarded, except for the working portion of the blade between the bottom of the guide rolls and the table. Bandsaw wheels shall be fully encased. The outside periphery of the enclosure shall be solid. The front and back of the band wheels shall be either enclosed by solid material or by wire mesh or perforated metal. Such mesh or perforated metal shall be not less than 0.037 inch (U.S. Gage No. 20), and the openings shall be not greater than three-eighths inch. Solid material used for this purpose shall be of an equivalent strength and firmness. The guard for the portion of the blade between the sliding guide and the upper-saw-wheel guard shall protect the saw blade at the front and outer side. This portion of the guard shall be self-adjusting to raise and lower with the guide. The upper-wheel guard shall be made to conform to the travel of the saw on the wheel.
(2) Each bandsaw machine shall be provided with a tension control device to indicate a proper tension for the standard saws used on the machine, in order to assist in the elimination of saw breakage due to improper tension.
(3) Feed rolls of band resaws shall be protected with a suitable guard to prevent the hands of the operator from coming in contact with the in-running rolls at any point. The guard shall be constructed of heavy material, preferably metal, and the edge of the guard shall come to within three-eighths inch of the plane formed by the inside face of the feed roll in contact with the stock being cut.
(1) Each hand-fed planer and jointer with horizontal head shall be equipped with a cylindrical cutting head, the knife projection of which shall not exceed one-eighth inch beyond the cylindrical body of the head.
(2) The opening in the table shall be kept as small as possible. The clearance between the edge of the rear table and the cutter head shall be not more than one-eighth inch. The table throat opening shall be not more than 2 1/2 inches when tables are set or aligned with each other for zero cut.
(3) Each hand-fed jointer with a horizontal cutting head shall have an automatic guard which will cover all the section of the head on the working side of the fence or gage. The guard shall effectively keep the operator's hand from coming in contact with the revolving knives. The guard shall automatically adjust itself to cover the unused portion of the head and shall remain in contact with the material at all times.
(4) Each hand-fed jointer with horizontal cutting head shall have a guard which will cover the section of the head back of the gage or fence.
(5) Each wood jointer with vertical head shall have either an exhaust hood or other guard so arranged as to enclose completely the revolving head, except for a slot of such width as may be necessary and convenient for the application of the material to be jointed.
(1) Feed chains and sprockets of all double end tenoning machines shall be completely enclosed, except for that portion of chain used for conveying the stock.
(2) At the rear ends of frames over which feed conveyors run, sprockets and chains shall be guarded at the sides by plates projecting beyond the periphery of sprockets and the ends of lugs.
(3) Each tenoning machine shall have all cutting heads, and saws if used, covered by metal guards. These guards shall cover at least the un used part of the periphery of the cutting head. If such a guard is constructed of sheet metal, the material used shall be not less than one-sixteenth inch in thickness, and if cast iron is used, it shall be not less than three-sixteenths inch in thickness.
(4) Where an exhaust system is used, the guard shall form part or all of the exhaust hood and shall be constructed of metal of a thickness not less than that specified in subparagraph (3) of this paragraph.
(l)Boring and mortising machines.
(1) Safety-bit chucks with no projecting set screws shall be used.
(2) Boring bits should be provided with a guard that will enclose all portions of the bit and chuck above the material being worked.
(3) The top of the cutting chain and driving mechanism shall be enclosed.
(i) It shall be bolted to the bar by means of a bolt passing through both bar and counterweight;
(ii) A bolt shall be put through the extreme end of the bar;
(iii) Where the counterweight does not encircle the bar, a safety chain shall be attached to it;
(iv) Other types of counterweights shall be suspended by chain or wire rope and shall travel in a pipe or other suitable enclosure wherever they might fall and cause injury.
(5) Universal joints on spindles of boring machines shall be completely enclosed in such a way as to prevent accidental contact by the operator.
(6) Each operating treadle shall be covered by an inverted U-shaped metal guard, fastened to the floor, and of adequate size to prevent accidental tripping.
(m)Wood shapers and similar equipment.
(1) The cutting heads of each wood shaper, hand-fed panel raiser, or other similar machine not automatically fed, shall be enclosed with a cage or adjustable guard so designed as to keep the operator's hand away from the cutting edge. The diameter of circular shaper guards shall be not less than the greatest diameter of the cutter. In no case shall a warning device of leather or other material attached to the spindle be acceptable.
(3) All double-spindle shapers shall be provided with a spindle starting and stopping device for each spindle.
(n)Planing, molding, sticking, and matching machines.
(1) Each planing, molding, sticking, and matching machine shall have all cutting heads, and saws if used, covered by a metal guard. If such guard is constructed of sheet metal, the material used shall be not less than 1/16 inch in thickness, and if cast iron is used, it shall be not less than three-sixteenths inch in thickness.
(2) Where an exhaust system is used, the guards shall form part or all of the exhaust hood and shall be constructed of metal of a thickness not less than that specified in paragraph (h)(1) of this section.
(3) Feed rolls shall be guarded by a hood or suitable guard to prevent the hands of the operator from coming in contact with the in-running rolls at any point. The guard shall be fastened to the frame carrying the rolls so as to remain in adjustment for any thickness of stock.
(4) Surfacers or planers used in thicknessing multiple pieces of material simultaneously shall be provided with sectional infeed rolls having sufficient yield in the construction of the sections to provide feeding contact pressure on the stock, over the permissible range of variation in stock thickness specified or for which the machine is designed. In lieu of such yielding sectional rolls, suitable section kickback finger devices shall be provided at the infeed end.
(o)Profile and swing-head lathes and wood heel turning machine.
(1) Each profile and swing-head lathe shall have all cutting heads covered by a metal guard. If such a guard is constructed of sheet metal, the material used shall be not less than one-sixteenth inch in thickness; and if cast iron is used, it shall not be less than three-sixteenths inch in thickness.
(2) Cutting heads on wood-turning lathes, whether rotating or not, shall be covered as completely as possible by hoods or shields.
(3) Shoe last and spoke lathes, doweling machines, wood heel turning machines, and other automatic wood-turning lathes of the rotating knife type shall be equipped with hoods enclosing the cutter blades completely except at the contact points while the stock is being cut.
(4) Lathes used for turning long pieces of wood stock held only between the two centers shall be equipped with long curved guards extending over the tops of the lathes in order to prevent the work pieces from being thrown out of the machines if they should become loose.
(5) Where an exhaust system is used, the guard shall form part or all of the exhaust hood and shall be constructed of metal of a thickness not less than that specified in subparagraph (1) of this paragraph.
(1) Feed rolls of self-feed sanding machines shall be protected with a semicylindrical guard to prevent the hands of the operator from coming in contact with the in-running rolls at any point. The guard shall be constructed of heavy material, preferably metal, and firmly secured to the frame carrying the rolls so as to remain in adjustment for any thickness of stock. The bottom of the guard should come down to within three-eighths inch of a plane formed by the bottom or contact face of the feed roll where it touches the stock.
(2) Each drum sanding machine shall have an exhaust hood, or other guard if no exhaust system is required, so arranged as to enclose the revolving drum, except for that portion of the drum above the table, if a table is used, which may be necessary and convenient for the application of the material to be finished.
(3) Each disk sanding machine shall have the exhaust hood, or other guard if no exhaust system is required, so arranged as to enclose the revolving disk, except for that portion of the disk above the table, if a table is used, which may be necessary for the application of the material to be finished.
(4) Belt sanding machines shall be provided with guards at each nip point where the sanding belt runs on to a pulley. These guards shall effectively prevent the hands or fingers of the operator from coming in contact with the nip points. The unused run of the sanding belt shall be guarded against accidental contact.
(q)Veneer cutters and wringers.
(1) Veneer slicer knives shall be guarded to prevent accidental contact with knife edge, at both front and rear.
(2) Veneer clippers shall have automatic feed or shall be provided with a guard which will make it impossible to place a finger or fingers under the knife while feeding or removing the stock.
(3) Sprockets on chain or slat-belt conveyors shall be enclosed.
(4) Where practicable, hand and footpower guillotine veneer cutters shall be provided with rods or plates or other satisfactory means, so arranged on the feeding side that the hands cannot reach the cutting edge of the knife while feeding or holding the stock in place.
(5) Power-driven guillotine veneer cutters, except continuous feed trimmers, shall be equipped with:
(i) Starting devices which require the simultaneous action of both hands to start the cutting motion and of at least one hand on a control during the complete stroke of the knife; or
(ii) An automatic guard which will remove the hands of the operator from the danger zone at every descent of the blade, used in conjunction with one-hand starting devices which require two distinct movements of the device to start the cutting motion, and so designed as to return positively to the nonstarting position after each complete cycle of the knife.
(6) Where two or more workers are employed at the same time on the same power-driven guillotine veneer cutter equipped with two-hand control, the device shall be so arranged that each worker shall be required to use both hands simultaneously on the controls to start the cutting motion, and at least one hand on a control to complete the cut.
(7) Power-driven guillotine veneer cutters, other than continuous trimmers, shall be provided, in addition to the brake or other stopping mechanism, with an emergency device which will prevent the machine from operating in the event of failure of the brake when the starting mechanism is in the nonstarting position.
(r)Miscellaneous woodworking machines.
(1) The feed rolls of roll type glue spreaders shall be guarded by a semicylindrical guard. The bottom of the guard shall come to within three-eighths inch of a plane formed by bottom or contact face of the feed roll where it touches the stock.
(2) Drag saws shall be so located as to give at least a 4-foot clearance for passage when the saw is at the extreme end of the stroke; or if such clearance is not obtainable, the saw and its driving mechanism shall be provided with a standard enclosure.
(3) For combination or universal woodworking machines each point of operation of any tool shall be guarded as required for such a tool in a separate machine.
(4) The mention of specific machines in paragraphs (a) thru (q) and this paragraph (r) of this section, inclusive, is not intended to exclude other woodworking machines from the requirement that suitable guards and exhaust hoods be provided to reduce to a minimum the hazard due to the point of operation of such machines.
(s)Inspection and maintenance of woodworking machinery.
(1) Dull, badly set, improperly filed, or improperly tensioned saws shall be immediately removed from service, before they begin to cause the material to stick, jam, or kick back when it is fed to the saw at normal speed. Saws to which gum has adhered on the sides shall be immediately cleaned.
(2) All knives and cutting heads of woodworking machines shall be kept sharp, properly adjusted, and firmly secured. Where two or more knives are used in one head, they shall be properly balanced.
(3) Bearings shall be kept free from lost motion and shall be well lubricated.
(4) Arbors of all circular saws shall be free from play.
(5) Sharpening or tensioning of saw blades or cutters shall be done only by persons of demonstrated skill in this kind of work.
(6) Emphasis is placed upon the importance of maintaining cleanliness around woodworking machinery, particularly as regards the effective functioning of guards and the prevention of fire hazards in switch enclosures, bearings, and motors.
(7) All cracked saws shall be removed from service.
(8) The practice of inserting wedges between the saw disk and the collar to form what is commonly known as a “wobble saw” shall not be permitted.
(9) Push sticks or push blocks shall be provided at the work place in the several sizes and types suitable for the work to be done.
(12) The knife blade of jointers shall be so installed and adjusted that it does not protrude more than one-eighth inch beyond the cylindrical body of the head. Push sticks or push blocks shall be provided at the work place in the several sizes and types suitable for the work to be done.
(13) Whenever veneer slicers or rotary veneer-cutting machines have been shutdown for the purpose of inserting logs or to make adjustments, operators shall make sure that machine is clear and other workmen are not in a hazardous position before starting the machine.
(14) Operators shall not ride the carriage of a veneer slicer.