29 CFR § 1910.23 - Ladders.
(2) Designed into or is an integral part of machines or equipment.
(b) General requirements for all ladders. The employer must ensure:
(2) Ladder rungs, steps, and cleats are spaced not less than 10 inches (25 cm) and not more than 14 inches (36 cm) apart, as measured between the centerlines of the rungs, cleats, and steps, except that:
(4) Ladder rungs, steps, and cleats have a minimum clear width of 11.5 inches (29 cm) on portable ladders and 16 inches (41 cm) (measured before installation of ladder safety systems) for fixed ladders, except that:
(5) Wooden ladders are not coated with any material that may obscure structural defects;
(6) Metal ladders are made with corrosion-resistant material or protected against corrosion;
(7) Ladder surfaces are free of puncture and laceration hazards;
(10) Any ladder with structural or other defects is immediately tagged “Dangerous: Do Not Use” or with similar language in accordance with § 1910.145 and removed from service until repaired in accordance with § 1910.22(d), or replaced;
(c) Portable ladders. The employer must ensure:
(1) Rungs and steps of portable metal ladders are corrugated, knurled, dimpled, coated with skid-resistant material, or otherwise treated to minimize the possibility of slipping;
(2) Each stepladder or combination ladder used in a stepladder mode is equipped with a metal spreader or locking device that securely holds the front and back sections in an open position while the ladder is in use;
(5) No portable single rail ladders are used;
(7) Ladders placed in locations such as passageways, doorways, or driveways where they can be displaced by other activities or traffic:
(i) Are secured to prevent accidental displacement; or
(ii) Are guarded by a temporary barricade, such as a row of traffic cones or caution tape, to keep the activities or traffic away from the ladder;
(13) Ladders are not placed on boxes, barrels, or other unstable bases to obtain additional height.
(d) Fixed ladders. The employer must ensure:
(2) The minimum perpendicular distance from the centerline of the steps or rungs, or grab bars, or both, to the nearest permanent object in back of the ladder is 7 inches (18 cm), except for elevator pit ladders, which have a minimum perpendicular distance of 4.5 inches (11 cm);
(4) The side rails of through or side-step ladders extend at least 42 inches (1.1 m) above the top of the access level or landing platform served by the ladder. For parapet ladders, the access level is:
(i) The roof, if the parapet is cut to permit passage through the parapet; or
(ii) The top of the parapet, if the parapet is continuous;
(5) For through ladders, the steps or rungs are omitted from the extensions, and the side rails are flared to provide not less than 24 inches (61cm) and not more than 30 inches (76 cm) of clearance. When a ladder safety system is provided, the maximum clearance between side rails of the extension must not exceed 36 inches (91 cm);
(6) For side-step ladders, the side rails, rungs, and steps must be continuous in the extension (see Figure D-2 of this section);
(9) When a fixed ladder terminates at a hatch (see Figure D-3 of this section), the hatch cover:
(ii) Opens at least 70 degrees from horizontal if the hatch is counterbalanced;
(11) Fixed ladders having a pitch greater than 90 degrees from the horizontal are not used;
(12) The step-across distance from the centerline of the rungs or steps is:
(ii) A minimum perpendicular distance of 30 inches (76 cm) from the centerline of the steps or rungs to the nearest object on the climbing side. When unavoidable obstructions are encountered, the minimum clearance at the obstruction may be reduced to 24 inches (61 cm), provided deflector plates are installed (see Figure D-5 of this section).
(e) Mobile ladder stands and mobile ladder stand platforms -
(1) General requirements. The employer must ensure:
(ii) The steps and platforms of mobile ladder stands and platforms are slip resistant. Slip-resistant surfaces must be either an integral part of the design and construction of the mobile ladder stand and platform, or provided as a secondary process or operation, such as dimpling, knurling, shotblasting, coating, spraying, or applying durable slip-resistant tapes;
(v) Unless otherwise specified in this section, mobile ladder stands and platforms with a top step height of 4 feet (1.2 m) or above have handrails with a vertical height of 29.5 inches (75 cm) to 37 inches (94 cm), measured from the front edge of a step. Removable gates or non-rigid members, such as chains, may be used instead of handrails in special-use applications;
(vi) The maximum work-surface height of mobile ladder stands and platforms does not exceed four times the shortest base dimension, without additional support. For greater heights, outriggers, counterweights, or comparable means that stabilize the mobile ladder stands and platforms and prevent overturning must be used;
(2) Design requirements for mobile ladder stands. The employer must ensure:
(i) Steps are uniformly spaced and arranged, with a rise of not more than 10 inches (25 cm) and a depth of not less than 7 inches (18 cm). The slope of the step stringer to which the steps are attached must not be more than 60 degrees, measured from the horizontal;
(ii) Mobile ladder stands with a top step height above 10 feet (3 m) have the top step protected on three sides by a handrail with a vertical height of at least 36 inches (91 cm); and top steps that are 20 inches (51 cm) or more, front to back, have a midrail and toeboard. Removable gates or non-rigid members, such as chains, may be used instead of handrails in special-use applications; and
(iii) The standing area of mobile ladder stands is within the base frame.
(3) Design requirements for mobile ladder stand platforms. The employer must ensure:
(i) Steps of mobile ladder stand platforms meet the requirements of paragraph (e)(2)(i) of this section. When the employer demonstrates that the requirement is not feasible, steeper slopes or vertical rung ladders may be used, provided the units are stabilized to prevent overturning;