29 CFR 22.3 - Basis for civil penalties and assessments.
(i) Is false, fictitious, or fraudulent;
(ii) Includes or is supported by any written statement which asserts a material fact which is false, fictitious, or fraudulent;
(iii) Includes or is supported by any written statement that -
(A) Omits a material fact;
(B) Is false, fictitious, or fraudulent as a result of such omission; and
(iv) Is for payment for the provision of property or services which the person has not provided as claimed,
(3) A claim shall be considered made to the authority, recipient, or party when such claim is actually made to an agent, fiscal intermediary, or other entity, including any State or political subdivision thereof, acting for or on behalf of the authority, recipient, or party.
(4) Each claim for property, services, or money is subject to a civil penalty regardless of whether such property, services, or money is actually delivered or paid.
(5) If the Government has made any payment (including transferred property or provided services) on a claim, a person subject to a civil penalty under paragraph (a)(1) of this section shall also be subject to an assessment of not more than twice the amount of such claim or that portion thereof that is determined to be in violation of paragraph (a)(1) of this section. Such assessment shall be in lieu of damages sustained by the Government because of such claim.
(A) Asserts a material fact which is false, fictitious, or fraudulent; or
(ii) Contains or is accompanied by an express certification or affirmation of the truthfulness and accuracy of the contents of the statement, shall be subject, in addition to any other remedy that may be prescribed by law, to a civil penalty of not more than $5,000 for each such statement.
(2) Each written representation, certification, or affirmation constitutes a separate statement.
(3) A statement shall be considered made to the authority when such statement is actually made to an agent, fiscal intermediary, or other entity, including any State or political subdivision thereof, acting for or on behalf of the authority.
(c)Applications for certain benefits.
(1) In the case of any claim or statement made by any individual relating to any of the benefits listed in paragraph (c)(2) of this section received by such individual, such individual may be held liable for penalties and assessments under this section only if such claim or statement is made by such individual in making application for such benefits with respect to such individual's eligibility to receive such benefits.
(2) For purposes of paragraph (c) of this section, the term benefits means benefits under the Black Lung Benefits Act, which are intended for the personal use of the individual who receives the benefits or for a member of the individual's family.
(d) No proof of specific intent to defraud is required to establish liability under this section.
(e) In any case in which it is determined that more than one person is liable for making a claim or statement under this section, each person may be held liable for a civil penalty under this section.
(f) In any case in which it is determined that more than one person is liable for making a claim under this section on which the Government has made payment (including transferred property or provided services), an assessment may be imposed against any such person or jointly and severally against any combination of such persons.