29 CFR § 38.7 - Discrimination prohibited based on sex.

§ 38.7 Discrimination prohibited based on sex.

(a) In providing any aid, benefit, service, or training under a WIOA Title I-financially assisted program or activity, a recipient must not directly or through contractual, licensing, or other arrangements, discriminate on the basis of sex. An individual may not be excluded from participation in, denied the benefits of, or subjected to discrimination under any WIOA Title I-financially assisted program or activity based on sex. The term sex includes, but is not limited to, pregnancy, childbirth, and related medical conditions, transgender status, and gender identity.

(b) Recipients may not make any distinction based on sex in providing any aid, benefit, service, or training under a WIOA Title I-financially assisted program or activity. Such unlawful sex-based discriminatory practices include, but are not limited to, the following:

(1) Making a distinction between married and unmarried persons that is not applied equally to both sexes;

(2) Denying individuals of one sex who have children access to any aid, benefit, service, or training that is available to individuals of another sex who have children;

(3) Adversely treating unmarried individuals of one sex, but not unmarried individuals of another sex, who become parents;

(4) Distinguishing on the basis of sex in formal or informal job training and/or educational programs, other opportunities such as networking, mentoring, individual development plans, or on the job training opportunities;

(5) Posting job announcements for jobs that recruit or advertise for individuals for certain jobs on the basis of sex;

(6) Treating an individual adversely because the individual identifies with a gender different from that individual's sex assigned at birth, or the individual has undergone, is undergoing, or is planning to undergo, any processes or procedures designed to facilitate the individual's transition to a sex other than the individual's sex assigned at birth;

(7) Denying individuals who are pregnant, who become pregnant, or who plan to become pregnant opportunities for or access to any aid, benefit, service, or training on the basis of pregnancy (see also § 38.8);

(8) Making any facilities associated with WIOA Title I-financially assisted program or activities available only to members of one sex, except that if the recipient provides restrooms or changing facilities, the recipient may provide separate or single-user restrooms or changing facilities; and

(9) Denying individuals access to the restrooms, locker rooms, showers, or similar facilities consistent with the gender with which they identify.

(c) A recipient's policies or practices that have the effect of discriminating on the basis of sex and that lack a substantial legitimate justification constitute sex discrimination in violation of WIOA and this part. Such unlawful sex-based discriminatory practices include, but are not limited to, the following:

(1) Height or weight qualifications that lack a substantial legitimate justification and that negatively affect women substantially more than men.

(2) Strength, agility, or other physical requirements that lack a substantial legitimate justification and that negatively affect women substantially more than men.

(d) Discrimination on the basis of sex stereotypes, such as stereotypes about how persons of a particular sex are expected to look, speak, or act, is a form of unlawful sex discrimination. Examples of sex stereotyping include, but are not limited to:

(1) Denying an individual access to, or otherwise subjecting the individual to adverse treatment in accessing, any aid, benefit, service, or training under a WIOA Title I-financially assisted program or activity because of that individual's failure to comply with gender norms and expectations for dress, appearance and/or behavior, including wearing jewelry, make-up, high-heeled shoes, suits, or neckties.

(2) Harassment or other adverse treatment of a male applicant, participant, or beneficiary of a WIOA Title I-financially assisted program or activity because he is considered effeminate or insufficiently masculine.

(3) Adverse treatment of an applicant, participant, or beneficiary of a WIOA Title I-financially assisted program or activity because of the individual's actual or perceived gender identity.

(4) Adverse treatment of an applicant, participant, or beneficiary of a WIOA Title I-financially assisted program or activity based on sex stereotypes about caregiver responsibilities. For example, adverse treatment of a female participant because of a sex-based assumption that she has (or will have) family caretaking responsibilities, and that those responsibilities will interfere with her ability to access any aid, benefit, service, or training, is discrimination based on sex.

(5) Adverse treatment of a male applicant, participant, or beneficiary of a WIOA Title I-financially assisted program or activity because he has taken, or is planning to take, care of his newborn or recently adopted or fostered child, based on the sex-stereotyped belief that women, and not men, should care for children.

(6) Denying a woman access to, or otherwise subjecting her to adverse treatment in accessing, any aid, benefit, service, or training under a WIOA Title I-financially assisted program or activity, based on the sex-stereotyped belief that women with children should not work long hours, regardless of whether the recipient is acting out of hostility or belief that it is acting in her or her children's best interest.

(7) Denying an individual access to, or otherwise subjecting the individual to adverse treatment in accessing, any aid, benefit, service, or training under a WIOA Title I-financially assisted program or activity, based on sex stereotyping including the belief that a victim of domestic violence would disrupt the program or activity and/or may be unable to access any aid, benefit, service, or training.

(8) Adverse treatment of a woman applicant, participant, or beneficiary of a WIOA Title I-financially assisted program or activity because she does not dress or talk in a feminine manner.

(9) Denying an individual access to, failing to provide information about, or otherwise subjecting the individual to adverse treatment in accessing, any aid, benefit, service, or training under a WIOA Title I-financially assisted program or activity, because the individual does not conform to a sex stereotype about individuals of a particular sex working in a specific job, sector, or industry.

(10) Adverse treatment of an applicant, participant, or beneficiary of a WIOA Title I-financially assisted program or activity based on sexual orientation where the evidence establishes that the discrimination is based on gender stereotypes.