29 CFR § 578.3 - What types of violations may result in a penalty being assessed?
(a) In general.
(2) A penalty of up to $2,374 per violation may be assessed against any person who repeatedly or willfully violates section 6 (minimum wage) or section 7 (overtime) of the Act. The amount of the penalties stated in paragraphs (a)(1) and (2) of this section will be determined by applying the criteria in § 578.4.
(b) Repeated violations. An employer's violation of section 6 or section 7 of the Act shall be deemed to be “repeated” for purposes of this section:
(1) Where the employer has previously violated section 6 or section 7 of the Act, provided the employer has previously received notice, through a responsible official of the Wage and Hour Division or otherwise authoritatively, that the employer allegedly was in violation of the provisions of the Act; or
(2) Where a court or other tribunal has made a finding that an employer has previously violated section 6 or section 7 of the Act, unless an appeal therefrom which has been timely filed is pending before a court or other tribunal with jurisdiction to hear the appeal, or unless the finding has been set aside or reversed by such appellate tribunal.
(c) Willful violations.
(1) An employer's violation of section 6 or section 7 of the Act shall be deemed to be “willful” for purposes of this section where the employer knew that its conduct was prohibited by the Act or showed reckless disregard for the requirements of the Act. All of the facts and circumstances surrounding the violation shall be taken into account in determining whether a violation was willful.
(2) For purposes of this section, the employer's receipt of advice from a responsible official of the Wage and Hour Division to the effect that the conduct in question is not lawful, among other situations, can be sufficient to show that the employer's conduct is knowing, but is not automatically dispositive.
(3) For purposes of this section, reckless disregard of the requirements of the Act means, among other situations, that the employer should have inquired further into whether its conduct was in compliance with the Act and failed to make adequate further inquiry.