29 CFR § 779.206 - What are “related activities.”

§ 779.206 What are “related activities.”

(a) The Senate Report on the 1961 amendments states as follows, with respect to the meaning of related activities:

Within the meaning of this term, activities are “related” when they are the same or similar, such as those of the individual retail or service stores in a chain, or departments of an establishment operated through leasing arrangements. They are also “related” when they are auxiliary and service activities such as central office and warehousing activities and bookkeeping, auditing, purchasing, advertising and other services. Likewise, activities are “related” when they are part of a vertical structure such as the manufacturing, warehousing, and retailing of a particular product or products under unified operation or common control for a common business purpose. (Senate Report No. 145, 87th Cong., 1st Sess., Page 41.)

Thus, activities will be regarded as “related” when they are the same or similar or when they are auxiliary or service activities such as warehousing, bookkeeping, purchasing, advertising, including, generally, all activities which are necessary to the operation and maintenance of the particular business. So also, all activities which are performed as a part of the unified business operation will be “related,” including, in appropriate cases, the manufacturing, warehousing, and distribution of its goods, the repair and maintenance of its equipment, machinery and its premises, and all other activities which are performed for the common business purpose of the enterprise. The Senate Report on the 1966 amendments makes it plain that related, even if somewhat different, business activities can frequently be part of the same enterprise, and that activities having a reasonable connection with the major purpose of an enterprise would be considered related. (Senate Report No. 1487, 89th Cong., 2d Sess., Page 7.) A more comprehensive discussion of “related activities” will be found in part 776 of this chapter.

(b) Generally, the answer to the question whether particular activities are “related” or not, will depend in each case upon whether the activities serve a business purpose common to all the activities of the enterprise, or whether they serve a separate and unrelated business purpose. For example, where a company operates retail or service establishments, and also engages in a separate and unrelated construction business, the construction activities will not be “related” and will constitute a separate enterprise if they are conducted independently and apart from the retail operations. Where, however, the retail and construction activities are conducted for a common business purpose, they may be “related,” and if they are performed through unified operation or common control, they will be a part of a single enterprise. Thus, a retail store enterprise may engage in construction activities as an additional outlet for building materials which it sells, or otherwise to serve its retail operations. It may act as its own contractor in constructing or reconstructing its own stores and related facilities. In such a case, the construction activities will be “related” activities. Other examples may also be cited. The answer in each case will necessarily depend upon all the facts.