29 CFR § 779.356 - Application of exemptions to employees.
(a) Employees who may be exempt under sections 13(a)(2) and 13(a)(4). These exemptions apply on an establishment basis (see §§ 779.302-779.306). Accordingly, where an establishment of a dealer in lumber and building materials qualifies as an exempt retail or service establishment under section 13(a)(2) or as an exempt establishment under section 13(a)(4), as explained in § 779.354, the exemption from the minimum wage and overtime pay requirements of the Act provided by such section will apply, subject to the limitations hereafter noted in this section, to all employees who are employed “by” such establishment (see §§ 779.307-779.311) in activities within the scope of its business (§ 779.308) and who are not employed by the employer in performing central office or warehouse work of an organization operating several such establishments (§ 779.310; McComb v. W. E. Wright Co., 168 F. 2d 40, cert. denied 335 U.S. 854). Neither exemption extends to employees employed in performing the work of a nonexempt establishment (§ 779.311) or such activities as construction work. Employees employed in making and processing of lumber and building materials for sale do not come within the section 13(a)(2) exemption; they are exempt only if employed by an establishment which qualifies as an exempt establishment under section 13(a)(4) as explained in § 779.354 and if their work in the making or processing of such materials is done at such establishment. How duties relating to the processing or manufacturing of such materials affect the application of these exemptions is discussed in further detail in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section.
(b) Processing and manufacturing activities. The performance, in an establishment which sells lumber and building materials at retail, of activities such as cutting lumber to a smaller size or dressing lumber in accordance with a customer's request or assembling window and door frames received in “knocked-down” condition, constitutes processing incidental to the sales of such materials. Such activities are not considered manufacturing and will not affect the applicability of the section 13(a)(2) exemption to the establishment or to the employees who perform them. However, whenever lumber is cut or dressed for sale, or fabricated products are manufactured for sale (for example, windows, door frames, benches, pig troughs, pallets, molding, sashes, cabinets, boxes), there is no exemption under section 13(a)(2). Employees performing such manufacturing activities at the establishment are exempt only if all the tests set forth in section 13(a)(4) are met (see pars. (b), (c), and (d) of § 779.354). Employees engaged in such activities at a manufacturing plant, central yard, or other place not qualifying as an exempt establishment under section 13(a) (2) and (4) are not exempt.
(c) Employees serving exempt and nonexempt operations. In lumber and building materials establishments which qualify for exemption under section 13(a)(2) but engage in some activities in which their employees are not exempt, such as construction or the making or processing of materials for sale where no exemption under section 13(a)(4) is applicable, there may be auxiliary employees of the establishment whose duties relate to both the exempt sales portion of the business and the non-exempt operations. For example, office workers may keep records of both the retail sales and construction or manufacturing activities; custodial workers may clean the entire premises, including portions devoted to nonexempt manufacturing; and warehousemen, messengers, and stock clerks may handle material for all departments, including material used in the nonexempt operations. These employees do not qualify for the exemption except when they are primarily engaged in the sales portion of the business and only incidentally perform clerical, custodial, or messenger service for the other operations. As an enforcement policy, such an employee will not be considered to be engaged in nonexempt activities which render him ineligible for exemption under section 13(a)(2) if, in the particular workweek, an insubstantial amount of his time (20 percent or less) is allocable to the clerical, custodial, or messenger services performed by him which relate to such nonexempt operations of the employer.