30 CFR § 701.4 - Responsibility.
(a) A State regulatory authority shall assume primary responsibility for regulation of coal exploration and surface coal mining and reclamation operations during the permanent regulatory program upon submission to and approval by the Secretary of a State program meeting all applicable requirements of the Act and this chapter. After approval of the State program, the State regulatory authority has responsibility for review of and decisions on permits and bonding for surface coal mining and reclamation operations, approval of coal exploration which substantially disturbs the natural land surface and removes more than 250 tons of coal from the earth in any one location, inspection of coal exploration and surface coal mining and reclamation operations for compliance with the Act, this chapter, the State program, permits and exploration approvals, and for enforcement of the State program.
(1) Evaluating the administration of the State program through such means as periodic inspections of coal exploration and surface coal mining and reclamation operations in the State and review of exploration approvals, permits, inspection reports, and other documents required to be made available to the Office;
(2) Referring to the State regulatory authority information which creates reasonable belief that a person is in violation of the Act, this chapter, the State regulatory program, a permit condition, or coal exploration approval condition, and initiating an inspection when authorized by the Act or this chapter;
(4) Issuing cessation orders, including imposing affirmative obligations, when a condition, practice, or violation exists which creates an imminent danger to the health or safety of the public, or is causing or could reasonably be expected to cause significant, imminent environmental harm to land, air, or water resources.
(c) The Office shall implement a Federal program in a State, if that State does not have an approved State program by June 3, 1980. The Office shall not implement a Federal program in a State for a period of up to 1 year following that date if the State's failure to have an approved program by that date is due to an injunction imposed by a court of competent jurisdiction.
(d) Under a Federal program, the Office shall be the regulatory authority for all coal exploration and surface coal mining and reclamation operations in that State and shall perform the functions that a State regulatory authority would perform under an approved State program.
(e) During the period in which a State program is in effect, the Office shall assume responsibility for enforcing permit conditions, issuing new or revised permits, and issuing necessary notices and orders, when required by 30 CFR part 733.
(g) The Secretary shall have the responsibility for administration of the Federal lands program. The Director and other Federal authorities shall have the responsibilities under a Federal lands program as are provided for under subchapter D of this chapter. In addition, State regulatory authorities shall have responsibilities to administer the Federal lands program as provided for under cooperative agreements approved by the Secretary in accordance with 30 CFR part 745.
(h) The Secretary shall have the responsibility for the administration of the Federal program for Indian lands, as provided for under subchapter E of this chapter. The Director and other Federal authorities have the responsibilities under the Indian lands program as are provided for under subchapter E of this chapter.