31 CFR 16.3 - Basis for civil penalties and assessments.
(i) Is false, fictitious, or fraudulent;
(ii) Includes or is supported by any written statement which asserts a material fact which is false, fictitious, or fraudulent;
(iii) Includes or is supported by any written statement that -
(A) Omits a material fact;
(B) Is false, fictitious, or fraudulent as a result of such omission; and
(iv) Is for payment for the provision of property or services which the person has not provided as claimed, shall be subject, in addition to any other remedy that may be prescribed by law, to a civil penalty of not more than $5,000 for each such claim.
(3) A claim shall be considered made to an authority, recipient, or party when such claim is actually made to an agent, fiscal intermediary, or other entity, including any State or political subdivision thereof, acting for or on behalf of such authority, recipient, or party.
(4) Each claim for property, services, or money is subject to a civil penalty under these regulations regardless of whether such property, services, or money is actually delivered or paid.
(5) If the government has made any payment (including transferred property or provided services) on a claim, a person subject to a civil penalty under paragraph (a)(1) of this section shall also be subject to an assessment of not more than twice the amount of such claim or that portion thereof that is determined to be in violation of paragraph (a)(1) of this section. Such assessment shall be in lieu of damages sustained by the Government because of such claim.
(A) Asserts a material fact which is false, fictitious, or fraudulent; or
(ii) Includes or is accompanied by an express certification or affirmation of the truthfulness and accuracy of the content of the statement,
(2) Each written representation, certification, or affirmation constitutes a separate statement.
(3) A statement shall be considered made to an authority when such statement is actually made to an agent, fiscal intermediary, or other entity, including any State or political subdivision thereof, acting for or on behalf of such authority.
(1) In the case of any claim or statement made by any individual relating to any of the benefits listed in paragraph (c)(2) of this section, received by such individual, such individual may be held liable for penalties and assessments under this section only if such claim or statement is made by such individual in making application for such benefits with respect to such individual's eligibility to receive such benefits.
(2) For purposes of this paragraph, the term benefits means -
(i) Benefits under the food stamp program (as defined in section 3(h) of the Food Stamp Act of 1977);
(ii) Benefits under Chapters 11, 13, 15, 17, and 21 of Title 38;
(v) Benefits under the National School Lunch Act;
(vi) Benefits under any housing assistance program for lower income families or elderly or handicapped persons which is administered by the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development or the Secretary of Agriculture;
(vii) Benefits under the special supplemental food program for women, infants, and children established under section 17 of the Child Nutrition Act of 1966;
(viii) Benefits under part A of the Energy Conservation in Existing Buildings Act of 1976;
(ix) Benefits under the supplemental security income program under title XVI of the Social Security Act;
(x) Old age, survivors, and disability insurance benefits under title II of the Social Security Act;
(xi) Benefits under title XVIII of the Social Security Act;
(xii) Aid to families with dependent children under a State plan approved under section 402(a) of the Social Security Act;
(xiii) Medical assistance under a State plan approved under section 1902(a) of the Social Security Act;
(xiv) Benefits under title XX of the Social Security Act;
(xv) Benefits under section 336 of the Older Americans Act; or
(d) No proof of specific intent to defraud is required to establish liability under this section.
(e) In any case in which it is determined that more than one person is liable for making a claim or statement under this section, each such person may be held liable for a civil penalty under this section.
(f) In any case in which it is determined that more than one person is liable for making a claim under this section, and on which the Government has made payment (including transferred property or provided services), an assessment may be imposed against any such person or jointly and severally against any combination of such persons.