31 CFR 240.6 - Provisional credit; first examination; declination; final payment.
(a) Any credit issued by a Federal Reserve Bank to a financial institution shall be a provisional credit until Treasury completes first examination of the check, or as provided in paragraph (d) of this section.
(b) Treasury shall have the right as a drawee to complete first examination of checks presented for payment, to reconcile checks, and, when appropriate, to make a declination on any check.
(c) Treasury will decline payment on a check when first examination by Treasury establishes that:
(1) The check has a material defect or alteration;
(2) The check bears a forged or unauthorized drawer's signature;
(3) Treasury has already received presentment of, and made payment on, a substitute check, electronic check or original check relating to the check being presented, such that Treasury is being requested to make payment on a check it has already paid;
(4) In the case of an electronic check, Treasury cannot determine whether the check contains a material defect or alteration without examining the original check or a better quality image of the check and Treasury is on notice of a question of law or fact about whether the check is properly payable; or
(5) In the case of a substitute check, Treasury has a warranty or indemnity claim arising under 12 CFR 229.52 or 229.53.
(d) Treasury shall have a reasonable amount of time to complete first examination. However, except as provided in paragraph (e) of this section, if Treasury has not declined payment on a check within 60 days after the check is presented to a Federal Reserve Processing Center for payment, Treasury will be deemed to have made final payment on the check.
(e) Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph (d) of this section, in accordance with 31 U.S.C. 3328(a)(2), if, upon presentment for payment, Treasury is on notice of a question of law or fact about whether a check is properly payable, Treasury may defer final payment until the question is settled.
(f) If a Federal Reserve Bank debits a financial institution's reserve account as a result of an erroneous declination, Treasury will promptly refund the amount of the payment.