33 CFR 329.8 - Improved or natural conditions of the waterbody.

§ 329.8 Improved or natural conditions of the waterbody.

Determinations are not limited to the natural or original condition of the waterbody. Navigability may also be found where artificial aids have been or may be used to make the waterbody suitable for use in navigation.

(a)Existing improvements: artificial waterbodies.

(1) An artificial channel may often constitute a navigable water of the United States, even though it has been privately developed and maintained, or passes through private property. The test is generally as developed above, that is, whether the waterbody is capable of use to transport interstate commerce. Canals which connect two navigable waters of the United States and which are used for commerce clearly fall within the test, and themselves become navigable. A canal open to navigable waters of the United States on only one end is itself navigable where it in fact supports interstate commerce. A canal or other artificial waterbody that is subject to ebb and flow of the tide is also a navigable water of the United States.

(2) The artificial waterbody may be a major portion of a river or harbor area or merely a minor backwash, slip, or turning area (see § 329.12(b) of this part).

(3) Private ownership of the lands underlying the waterbody, or of the lands through which it runs, does not preclude a finding of navigability. Ownership does become a controlling factor if a privately constructed and operated canal is not used to transport interstate commerce nor used by the public; it is then not considered to be a navigable water of the United States. However, a private waterbody, even though not itself navigable, may so affect the navigable capacity of nearby waters as to nevertheless be subject to certain regulatory authorities.

(b)Non-existing improvements, past or potential. A waterbody may also be considered navigable depending on the feasibility of use to transport interstate commerce after the construction of whatever “reasonable” improvements may potentially be made. The improvement need not exist, be planned, nor even authorized; it is enough that potentially they could be made. What is a “reasonable” improvement is always a matter of degree; there must be a balance between cost and need at a time when the improvement would be (or would have been) useful. Thus, if an improvement were “reasonable” at a time of past use, the water was therefore navigable in law from that time forward. The changes in engineering practices or the coming of new industries with varying classes of freight may affect the type of the improvement; those which may be entirely reasonable in a thickly populated, highly developed industrial region may have been entirely too costly for the same region in the days of the pioneers. The determination of reasonable improvement is often similar to the cost analyses presently made in Corps of Engineers studies.

This is a list of United States Code sections, Statutes at Large, Public Laws, and Presidential Documents, which provide rulemaking authority for this CFR Part.

This list is taken from the Parallel Table of Authorities and Rules provided by GPO [Government Printing Office].

It is not guaranteed to be accurate or up-to-date, though we do refresh the database weekly. More limitations on accuracy are described at the GPO site.

United States Code

§ 401 - Construction of bridges, causeways, dams or dikes generally; exemptions

§ 402 - Construction of bridges, etc., over Illinois and Mississippi Canal

§ 403 - Obstruction of navigable waters generally; wharves; piers, etc.; excavations and filling in

§ 403a - Creation or continuance of obstruction of navigable waters

§ 403b - Lighting at docks and boat launching facilities

§ 404 - Establishment of harbor lines; conditions to grants for extension of piers, etc.

§ 405 - Establishment and modification of harbor lines on Potomac and Anacostia Rivers

§ 406 - Penalty for wrongful construction of bridges, piers, etc.; removal of structures

§ 407 - Deposit of refuse in navigable waters generally

§ 407a - Deposit of debris of mines and stamp works

§ 408 - Taking possession of, use of, or injury to harbor or river improvements

§ 409 - Obstruction of navigable waters by vessels; floating timber; marking and removal of sunken vessels

§ 410 - Exception as to floating loose timber, sack rafts, etc.; violation of regulations; penalty

§ 411 - Penalty for wrongful deposit of refuse; use of or injury to harbor improvements, and obstruction of navigable waters generally

§ 412 - Liability of masters, pilots, etc., and of vessels engaged in violations

§ 413 - Duty of United States attorneys and other Federal officers in enforcement of provisions; arrest of offenders

§ 414 - Removal by Secretary of the Army of sunken water craft generally; liability of owner, lessee, or operator

§ 415 - Summary removal of water craft obstructing navigation; liability of owner, lessee, or operator

§ 416 - Appropriations for removal of sunken water craft

§ 417 - Expenses of investigations by Department of the Army

§ 418 - Provisions for protection of New York Harbor unaffected

§ 419 - Regulation by Secretary governing transportation and dumping of dredgings, refuse, etc., into navigable waters; oyster lands; appropriations

§ 419a - Management practices to extend capacity and useful life of dredged material disposal areas

§ 420 - Piers and cribs on Mississippi and St. Croix Rivers

§ 421 - Deposit of refuse, etc., in Lake Michigan near Chicago

§ 422 - Modification and extension of harbor lines at Chicago

§ 423 - Establishment of pierhead and bulkhead lines in Wilmington Harbor, California

§ 424 - Establishment of pierhead or bulkhead lines in Newport Harbor, California

§ 424a - Modification of harbor lines in Newport Harbor, California

§ 425 - Omitted

§ 426 - Investigations concerning erosion of shores of coastal and lake waters

§ 426-1

§ 426-2

§ 426-3

§ 426a - Additional investigations concerning erosion of shores of coastal and lake waters; payment of costs; “shores” defined

§ 426b - Applicability of existing laws; projects referred to Board of Engineers for Rivers and Harbors

§ 426c - Report by Coastal Engineering Research Center

§ 426d - Payment of expenses

§ 426e - Federal aid in protection of shores

§ 426e-1

§ 426f - Reimbursements

§ 426g - Storm and hurricane restoration and impact minimization program

§ 426g-1

§ 426h - Repealed. Pub. L. 110–114, title II, § 2038(b), Nov. 8, 2007, 121 Stat. 1100

§ 426h-1

§ 426i - Shore damage prevention or mitigation

33 U.S. Code § 426i–1 - Repealed. Pub. L. 113–121, title I, § 1014(c)(2), June 10, 2014, 128 Stat. 1222

§ 426i-2

§ 426j - Repealed. Pub. L. 110–114, title II, § 2037(b)(1), Nov. 8, 2007, 121 Stat. 1096

§ 426k - Five year demonstration program to temporarily increase diversion of water from Lake Michigan at Chicago, Illinois

§ 426l - Protection of Lake Ontario

§ 426m - Collection and removal of drift and debris from publicly maintained commercial boat harbors and adjacent land and water areas

§ 426n - Technical assistance to States and local governments; cost sharing

§ 426o - Great Lakes material disposal

§ 426o-1

§ 426o-2

§ 426p - Corps of Engineers

§ 427 to 430 - Repealed. July 31, 1945, ch. 334, § 5, 59 Stat. 508

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