40 CFR § 1037.501 - General testing and modeling provisions.

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§ 1037.501 General testing and modeling provisions.

This subpart specifies how to perform emission testing and emission modeling required elsewhere in this part.

(a) Except as specified in subpart B of this part, you must demonstrate that you meet emission standards using emission modeling as described in §§ 1037.515 and 1037.520. This modeling depends on several measured values as described in this subpart F. You may use fuel-mapping information from the engine manufacturer as described in 40 CFR 1036.535 and 1036.540, or you may use powertrain testing as described in § 1037.550.

(b) Where exhaust emission testing is required, use equipment and procedures as described in 40 CFR part 1065 and part 1066. Measure emissions of all the exhaust constituents subject to emission standards as specified in 40 CFR part 1065 and part 1066. Use the applicable duty cycles specified in § 1037.510.

(c) See 40 CFR 86.101 and 86.1813 for measurement procedures that apply for evaporative and refueling emissions.

(d) Use the applicable fuels specified 40 CFR part 1065 to perform valid tests.

(1) For service accumulation, use the test fuel or any commercially available fuel that is representative of the fuel that in-use vehicles will use.

(2) For diesel-fueled vehicles, use the appropriate diesel fuel specified for emission testing. Unless we specify otherwise, the appropriate diesel test fuel is ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel.

(3) For gasoline-fueled vehicles, use the gasoline for “general testing” as specified in 40 CFR 86.1305.

(e) You may use special or alternate procedures as specified in 40 CFR 1065.10.

(f) This subpart is addressed to you as a manufacturer, but it applies equally to anyone who does testing for you, and to us when we perform testing to determine if your vehicles meet emission standards.

(g) Apply this paragraph (g) whenever we specify the use of standard trailers. Unless otherwise specified, a tolerance of ± 2 inches applies for all nominal trailer dimensions.

(1) The standard trailer for high-roof tractors must meet the following criteria:

(i) It is an unloaded two-axle dry van 53.0 feet long, 102 inches wide, and 162 inches high (measured from the ground with the trailer level).

(ii) It has a king pin located with its center 36 ± 0.5 inches from the front of the trailer and a minimized trailer gap (no greater than 45 inches).

(iii) It has a simple orthogonal shape with smooth surfaces and nominally flush rivets. Except as specified in paragraph (g)(1)(v) of this section, the standard trailer does not include any aerodynamic features such as side fairings, rear fairings, or gap reducers. It may have a scuff band no more than 0.13 inches thick.

(iv) It includes dual 22.5 inch wheels, standard tandem axle, standard mudflaps, and standard landing gear. The centerline of the tandem axle assembly must be 145 ± 5 inches from the rear of the trailer. The landing gear must be installed in a conventional configuration.

(v) For the Phase 2 standards, include side skirts meeting the specifications of this paragraph (g)(1)(v). The side skirts must be mounted flush with both sides of the trailer. The skirts must be an isosceles trapezoidal shape. Each skirt must have a height of 36 ± 2 inches. The top edge of the skirt must be straight with a length of 341 ± 2 inches. The bottom edge of the skirt must be straight with a length of 268 ± 2 inches and have a ground clearance of 8 ± 2 inches through that full length. The sides of the skirts must be straight. The rearmost point of the skirts must be mounted 32 ± 2 inches in front of the centerline of the trailer tandem axle assembly. We may approve your request to use a skirt with different dimensions if these specified values are impractical or inappropriate for your test trailer, and you propose alternative dimensions that provide an equivalent or comparable degree of aerodynamic drag for your test configuration.

(2) The standard trailer for mid-roof tractors is an empty two-axle tank trailer 42 ± 1 feet long by 140 inches high and 102 inches wide.

(i) It has a 40 ± 1 feet long cylindrical tank with a 7000 ± 7 gallon capacity, smooth surface, and rounded ends.

(ii) The standard tank trailer does not include any aerodynamic features such as side fairings, but does include a centered 20 inch manhole, side-centered ladder, and lengthwise walkway. It includes dual 24.5 inch wheels.

(3) The standard trailer for low-roof tractors is an unloaded two-axle flatbed trailer 53 ± 1 feet long and 102 inches wide.

(i) The deck height is 60.0 ± 0.5 inches in the front and 55.0 ± 0.5 inches in the rear. The standard trailer does not include any aerodynamic features such as side fairings.

(ii) It includes an air suspension and dual 22.5 inch wheels on tandem axles.

(h) Use a standard tractor for measuring aerodynamic drag of trailers. Standard tractors must be certified at Bin III (or more aerodynamic if a Bin III tractor is unavailable) for Phase 1 or Phase 2 under § 1037.520(b)(1) or (3). The standard tractor for long trailers is a Class 8 high-roof sleeper cab. The standard tractor for short trailers is a Class 7 or Class 8 high-roof day cab with a 4 × 2 drive-axle configuration.

(i) Note that declared GEM inputs for fuel maps and aerodynamic drag area typically includes compliance margins to account for testing variability; for other measured GEM inputs, the declared values are typically the measured values without adjustment.

[81 FR 74048, Oct. 25, 2016, as amended at 86 FR 34465, June 29, 2021]