40 CFR § 1037.551 - Engine-based simulation of powertrain testing.
Section 1037.550 describes how to measure fuel consumption over specific duty cycles with an engine coupled to a transmission; § 1037.550(q) describes how to create equivalent duty cycles for repeating those same measurements with just the engine. This § 1037.551 describes how to perform this engine testing to simulate the powertrain test. These engine-based measurements may be used for confirmatory testing as described in § 1037.235, or for selective enforcement audits as described in § 1037.301, as long as the test engine's operation represents the engine operation observed in the powertrain test. If we use this approach for confirmatory testing, when making compliance determinations, we will consider the uncertainty associated with this approach relative to full powertrain testing. Use of this approach for engine SEAs is optional for engine manufacturers.
(a) Use the procedures of 40 CFR part 1065 to set up the engine, measure emissions, and record data. Measure individual parameters and emission constituents as described in this section. Measure NOX emissions for each sampling period in grams. You may perform these measurements using a NOX emission-measurement system that meets the requirements of 40 CFR part 1065, subpart J. Include these measured NOX values any time you report to us your greenhouse gas emissions or fuel consumption values from testing under this section. If a system malfunction prevents you from measuring NOX emissions during a test under this section but the test otherwise gives valid results, you may consider this a valid test and omit the NOX emission measurements; however, we may require you to repeat the test if we determine that you inappropriately voided the test with respect to NOX emission measurement. For hybrid powertrains, correct for the net energy change of the energy storage device as described in 40 CFR 1066.501.
(b) Operate the engine over the applicable engine duty cycles corresponding to the vehicle cycles specified in § 1037.510(a)(2) for powertrain testing over the applicable vehicle simulations described in § 1037.550(i). Warm up the engine to prepare for the transient test or one of the highway cruise cycles by operating it one time over one of the simulations of the corresponding duty cycle. Warm up the engine to prepare for the idle test by operating it over a simulation of the 65-mi/hr highway cruise cycle for 600 seconds. Within 60 seconds after concluding the warm up cycle, start emission sampling while the engine operates over the duty cycle. You may perform any number of test runs directly in succession once the engine is warmed up. Perform cycle validation as described in 40 CFR 1065.514 for engine speed, torque, and power.
(c) Calculate the mass of fuel consumed as described in § 1037.550(m) and (n). Correct each measured value for the test fuel's mass-specific net energy content as described in 40 CFR 1036.530. Use these corrected values to determine whether the engine's emission levels conform to the declared fuel-consumption rates from the powertrain test.