40 CFR § 1065.201 - Overview and general provisions.
(a) Scope. This subpart specifies measurement instruments and associated system requirements related to emission testing in a laboratory or similar environment and in the field. This includes laboratory instruments and portable emission measurement systems (PEMS) for measuring engine parameters, ambient conditions, flow-related parameters, and emission concentrations.
(b) Instrument types. You may use any of the specified instruments as described in this subpart to perform emission tests. If you want to use one of these instruments in a way that is not specified in this subpart, or if you want to use a different instrument, you must first get us to approve your alternate procedure under § 1065.10. Where we specify more than one instrument for a particular measurement, we may identify which instrument serves as the reference for comparing with an alternate procedure. You may generally use instruments with compensation algorithms that are functions of other gaseous measurements and the known or assumed fuel properties for the test fuel. The target value for any compensation algorithm is 0% (that is, no bias high and no bias low), regardless of the uncompensated signal's bias.
(c) Measurement systems. Assemble a system of measurement instruments that allows you to show that your engines comply with the applicable emission standards, using good engineering judgment. When selecting instruments, consider how conditions such as vibration, temperature, pressure, humidity, viscosity, specific heat, and exhaust composition (including trace concentrations) may affect instrument compatibility and performance.
(d) Redundant systems. For all measurement instruments described in this subpart, you may use data from multiple instruments to calculate test results for a single test. If you use redundant systems, use good engineering judgment to use multiple measured values in calculations or to disregard individual measurements. Note that you must keep your results from all measurements. This requirement applies whether or not you actually use the measurements in your calculations.
(e) Range. You may use an instrument's response above 100% of its operating range if this does not affect your ability to show that your engines comply with the applicable emission standards. Note that we require additional testing and reporting if an analyzer responds above 100% of its range. Auto-ranging analyzers do not require additional testing or reporting.
(f) Related subparts for laboratory testing. Subpart D of this part describes how to evaluate the performance of the measurement instruments in this subpart. In general, if an instrument is specified in a specific section of this subpart, its calibration and verifications are typically specified in a similarly numbered section in subpart D of this part. For example, § 1065.290 gives instrument specifications for PM balances and § 1065.390 describes the corresponding calibrations and verifications. Note that some instruments also have other requirements in other sections of subpart D of this part. Subpart B of this part identifies specifications for other types of equipment, and subpart H of this part specifies engine fluids and analytical gases.
(h) Recommended practices. This subpart identifies a variety of recommended but not required practices for proper measurements. We believe in most cases it is necessary to follow these recommended practices for accurate and repeatable measurements. However, we do not specifically require you to follow these recommended practices to perform a valid test, as long as you meet the required calibrations and verifications of measurement systems specified in subpart D of this part. Similarly, we are not required to follow all recommended practices, as long as we meet the required calibrations and verifications. Our decision to follow or not follow a given recommendation when we perform a test does not depend on whether you followed it during your testing.