40 CFR § 1065.405 - Test engine preparation and maintenance.
This part 1065 describes how to test engines for a variety of purposes, including certification testing, production-line testing, and in-use testing. Depending on which type of testing is being conducted, different preparation and maintenance requirements apply for the test engine.
(a) If you are testing an emission-data engine for certification, make sure it is built to represent production engines, consistent with paragraph (f) of this section. This includes governors that you normally install on production engines. Production engines should also be tested with their installed governors. If your engine is equipped with multiple user-selectable governor types and if the governor does not manipulate the emission control system (i.e., the governor only modulates an “operator demand” signal such as commanded fuel rate, torque, or power), choose the governor type that allows the test cell to most accurately follow the duty cycle. If the governor manipulates the emission control system, treat it as an adjustable parameter. See paragraph (b) of this section for guidance on setting adjustable parameters. If you do not install governors on production engines, simulate a governor that is representative of a governor that others will install on your production engines. In certain circumstances, you may incorporate test cell components to simulate an in-use configuration, consistent with good engineering judgment. For example, §§ 1065.122 and 1065.125 allow the use of test cell components to represent engine cooling and intake air systems. The provisions in § 1065.110(e) also apply to emission-data engines for certification.
(b) We may set adjustable parameters to any value in the valid range, and you are responsible for controlling emissions over the full valid range. For each adjustable parameter, if the standard-setting part has no unique requirements and if we have not specified a value, use good engineering judgment to select the most common setting. If information on the most common setting is not available, select the setting representing the engine's original shipped configuration. If information on the most common and original settings is not available, set the adjustable parameter in the middle of the valid range.
(c) Testing generally occurs only after the test engine has undergone a stabilization step (or in-use operation). If the engine has not already been stabilized, run the test engine, with all emission control systems operating, long enough to stabilize emission levels. Note that you must generally use the same stabilization procedures for emission-data engines for which you apply the same deterioration factors so low-hour emission-data engines are consistent with the low-hour engine used to develop the deterioration factor.
(1) Unless otherwise specified in the standard-setting part, you may consider emission levels stable without measurement after 50 h of operation. If the engine needs less operation to stabilize emission levels, record your reasons and the methods for doing this, and give us these records if we ask for them. If the engine will be tested for certification as a low-hour engine, see the standard-setting part for limits on testing engines to establish low-hour emission levels.
(2) You may stabilize emissions from a catalytic exhaust aftertreatment device by operating it on a different engine, consistent with good engineering judgment. Note that good engineering judgment requires that you consider both the purpose of the test and how your stabilization method will affect the development and application of deterioration factors. For example, this method of stabilization is generally not appropriate for production engines. We may also allow you to stabilize emissions from a catalytic exhaust aftertreatment device by operating it on an engine-exhaust simulator.
(d) Record any maintenance, modifications, parts changes, diagnostic or emissions testing and document the need for each event. You must provide this information if we request it.
(f) If your engine will be used in a vehicle equipped with a canister for storing evaporative hydrocarbons for eventual combustion in the engine and the test sequence involves a cold-start or hot-start duty cycle, attach a canister to the engine before running an emission test. You may omit using an evaporative canister for any hot-stabilized duty cycles. You may request to omit using an evaporative canister during testing if you can show that it would not affect your ability to show compliance with the applicable emission standards. You may operate the engine without an installed canister for service accumulation. Prior to an emission test, use the following steps to precondition a canister and attach it to your engine:
(1) Use a canister and plumbing arrangement that represents the in-use configuration of the largest capacity canister in all expected applications.
(2) Precondition the canister as described in 40 CFR 86.132-96(j).
(3) Connect the canister's purge port to the engine.
(4) Plug the canister port that is normally connected to the fuel tank.
(g) This paragraph (g) defines the components that are considered to be part of the engine for laboratory testing. See § 1065.110 for provisions related to system boundaries with respect to work inputs and outputs.
(1) This paragraph (g)(1) describes certain criteria for considering a component to be part of the test engine. The criteria are intended to apply broadly, such that a component would generally be considered part of the engine in cases of uncertainty. Except as specified in paragraph (g)(2) of this section, an engine-related component meeting both the following criteria is considered to be part of the test engine for purposes of testing and for stabilizing emission levels, preconditioning, and measuring emission levels:
(i) The component directly affects the functioning of the engine, is related to controlling emissions, or transmits engine power. This would include engine cooling systems, engine controls, and transmissions.
(2) This paragraph (g)(2) applies for engine-related components that meet the criteria of paragraph (g)(1) of this section, but that are part of the laboratory setup or are used for other engines. Such components are considered to be part of the test engine for preconditioning, but not for engine stabilization. For example, if you test your engines using the same laboratory exhaust tubing for all tests, there would be no restrictions on the number of test hours that could be accumulated with the tubing, but it would need to be preconditioned separately for each engine.