40 CFR § 1066.415 - Vehicle operation.
This section describes how to test a conventionally configured vehicle (vehicles with transmission shifters, foot pedal accelerators, etc). You may ask us to modify these procedures for vehicles that do not have these control features.
(a) Start the vehicle as follows:
(1) At the beginning of the test cycle, start the vehicle according to the procedure described in the owners manual. In the case of HEVs, this would generally involve activating vehicle systems such that the engine will start when the vehicle's control algorithms determine that the engine should provide power instead of or in addition to power from the rechargeable energy storage system (RESS). Unless we specify otherwise, engine starting throughout this part generally refers to this step of activating the system on HEVs, whether or not that causes the engine to start running.
(2) Place the transmission in gear as described by the test cycle in the standard-setting part. During idle operation, apply the brakes if necessary to keep the drive wheels from turning.
(b) If the vehicle does not start after your recommended maximum cranking time, wait and restart cranking according to your recommended practice. If you do not recommend such a cranking procedure, stop cranking after 10 seconds, wait for 10 seconds, then start cranking again for up to 10 seconds. You may repeat this for up to three start attempts. If the vehicle does not start after three attempts, you must determine and record the reason for failure to start. Shut off sampling systems and either turn the CVS off or disconnect the laboratory exhaust tubing from the tailpipe during the diagnostic period to prevent flow through the exhaust system. Reschedule the vehicle for testing. This may require performing vehicle preparation and preconditioning if the testing needs to be rerun from a cold start. If failure to start occurs during a hot-start test, you may reschedule the hot-start test without repeating the cold-start test, as long as you bring the vehicle to a hot-start condition before starting the hot-start test.
(c) Repeat the recommended starting procedure if the engine has a false start (i.e., an incomplete start).
(d) Take the following steps if the engine stalls:
(1) If the engine stalls during an idle period, restart the engine immediately and continue the test. If you cannot restart the engine soon enough to allow the vehicle to follow the next acceleration, stop the driving schedule indicator and reactivate it when the vehicle restarts.
(2) Void the test if the vehicle stalls during vehicle operation. If this happens, remove the vehicle from the dynamometer, take corrective action, and reschedule the vehicle for testing. Record the reason for the malfunction (if determined) and any corrective action. See the standard-setting part for instructions about reporting these malfunctions.
(e) Operate vehicles during testing as follows:
(1) Where we do not give specific instructions, operate the vehicle according to the recommendations in the owners manual, unless those recommendations are unrepresentative of what may reasonably be expected for in-use operation.
(2) If vehicles have features that preclude dynamometer testing, you may modify these features as necessary to allow testing, consistent with good engineering judgment, as long as it does not affect your ability to demonstrate that your vehicles comply with the applicable standards. Send us written notification describing these changes along with supporting rationale.
(3) Operate vehicles during idle as follows:
(i) For vehicles with automatic transmission, operate at idle with the transmission in “Drive” with the wheels braked, except that you may shift to “Neutral” for the first idle period and for any idle period longer than one minute. If you put the vehicle in “Neutral” during an idle, you must shift the vehicle into “Drive” with the wheels braked at least 5 seconds before the end of the idle period. Note that this does not preclude vehicle designs involving engine shutdown during idle.
(ii) For vehicles with manual transmission, operate at idle with the transmission in gear with the clutch disengaged, except that you may shift to “Neutral” with the clutch engaged for the first idle period and for any idle period longer than one minute. If you put the vehicle in “Neutral” during idle, you must shift to first gear with the clutch disengaged at least 5 seconds before the end of the idle period. Note that this does not preclude vehicle designs involving engine operation with shutdown during idle.
(4) Operate the vehicle with the appropriate accelerator pedal movement necessary to follow the scheduled speeds in the driving schedule. Avoid smoothing speed variations and unnecessary movement of the accelerator pedal.
(5) Operate the vehicle smoothly, following representative shift speeds and procedures. For manual transmissions, the operator shall release the accelerator pedal during each shift and accomplish the shift without delay. If the vehicle cannot accelerate at the specified rate, operate it at maximum available power until the vehicle speed reaches the value prescribed in the driving schedule.
(6) Decelerate as follows:
(i) For vehicles with automatic transmission, use the brakes or accelerator pedal as necessary, without manually changing gears, to maintain the desired speed.
(ii) For vehicles with manual transmission, shift gears in a way that represents reasonable shift patterns for in-use operation, considering vehicle speed, engine speed, and any other relevant variables. Disengage the clutch when the speed drops below 15 mi/hr, when engine roughness is evident, or when good engineering judgment indicates the engine is likely to stall. Manufacturers may recommend shift guidance in the owners manual that differs from the shift schedule used during testing, as long as both shift schedules are described in the application for certification; in this case, we may shift during testing as described in the owners manual.